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Encyclopedia > Psilocybin
Psilocybin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-Phosphoryloxy-N,N-

dimethyl-tryptamine Chemical Structure of Psilocybin Author and Copyright: --Lupino License: GNU FDL Programs: bkchem and ImageMagick File links The following pages link to this file: Psilocybin Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ...

Identifiers
CAS number 520-52-5
ATC code  ?
PubChem  ?
Chemical data
Formula C12H17N2O4P 
Mol. mass 284.25 g/mol
SMILES search in eMolecules, PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Prohibited (S9)(AU) Schedule III(CA) Class A(UK) Schedule I(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ... Motto (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean  -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment  -  Act of Union February... The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

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Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. It is considered mostly to be an entheogen and a tool in use to supplement various types of practices for transcendence including in meditation, psychonautics, and illicit psychedelic psychotherapy whether self administered or not. It can also be used as a recreational drug. Though Psilocybin rarely attracts much attention from mainstream media, when it does, the focus tends to be on the recreational use to the exclusion of any other purpose. It is present in hundreds of species of fungi, including those of the genus Psilocybe, such as Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe semilanceata, but also reportedly isolated from a dozen or so other genera. Psilocybin mushrooms are commonly called "magic mushrooms" or more simply "shrooms". The intensity and duration of entheogenic and recreational use of psilocybin mushrooms vary depending on species of mushrooms, dosage, individual physiology, and set and setting. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Psychedelic mushrooms redirects here. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... Transcendence may refer to: Transcendence (mathematics) Transcendental number, a real number that is not the root of any polynomial with rational coefficients Transcendental element, an element of a field extension that is not the root of any polynomial with coefficients from the base field Transcendental function, a function which does... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... For the trance band Psychonaut, see Psychonaut (band). ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Type species Psilocybe montana Species List of Psilocybe species Psilocybe is a genus of small mushrooms growing worldwide. ... Binomial name (Earle) Singer Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principle active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin. ... Binomial name Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Psychedelic mushrooms redirects here. ... For the Bardo Pond album, see Set and Setting (Album). ...

Contents

Chemistry

Psilocybin is a prodrug that is converted into the pharmacologically active compound psilocin in the body by dephosphorylation.[1] This chemical reaction takes place under strongly acidic conditions or enzymatically by phosphatases in the body. Psilocybin is a zwitterionic alkaloid that is soluble in water, moderately soluble in methanol and ethanol, and insoluble in most organic solvents. A prodrug is a pharmacological substance (drug) which is administered in an inactive (or significantly less active) form. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Psilocin,(4-HO-DMT) sometimes called psilocine or psilotsin, is a psychedelic (hallucinogenic) mushroom alkaloid. ... The process of removing phosphate groups from an organic compound (as ATP) by hydrolysis ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A phosphatase is an enzyme that dephosphorylates its substrate; i. ... A zwitterion (from German Zwitter — hybrid, hermaphrodite) is a compound with acidic and basic groups in the same molecule. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ...


Albert Hofmann was the first to recognize the importance and chemical structure of the pure compounds psilocybin and psilocin. Hofmann was aided in this process by his willingness to ingest extracts isolated from Psilocybe. Hofmann's colleagues at the University of Delaware were also trying to isolate the active principle, but were unsuccessful.[2] Dr. Dr. Albert Hofmann (born January 11, 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zürich. ... Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their solution preferences for two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. ... The University of Delaware (UD) is the largest university in the U.S. state of Delaware. ...


Biology

Psilocybin is a naturally-occurring compound found in high concentrations in some species of Psilocybe and Panaeolus (collectively called "psilocybin mushrooms" or "psilocybian mushrooms"), and at low levels in a large number of species of the Agaricales. The spores of these mushrooms are completely free of both psilocybin and psilocin. The total potency varies greatly between species and even between specimens of one species in the same batch. Younger, smaller mushrooms are relatively higher in alkaloids and have a milder taste than larger, mature mushrooms. Mature mycelium contains some amount of psilocybin, which can be extracted with an acidic solution, usually of citric acid or ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Young mycelium (recently germinated from spores) does not contain appreciable amounts of alkaloids. Most species of hallucinogenic mushrooms also contain small amounts of the psilocybin analogs baeocystin and norbaeocystin. Many types of psilocybin mushrooms bruise blue when handled or damaged — this is due to the oxidization of active compounds though bruising is not a definitive method of determining a mushroom's potency. Type species Psilocybe montana Species List of Psilocybe species Psilocybe is a genus of small mushrooms growing worldwide. ... The Panaeolus genus of mushrooms contains several hallucinogenic varieties. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... Baeocystin is a mushroom alkaloid and analog of the psychedelic hallucinogenic drug psilocybin, a tryptamine derivative. ... Norbaeocystin is a mushroom alkaloid and analog of the psychedelic hallucinogenic drug psilocybin. ...


Pharmacology

Psilocybin is rapidly dephosphorylated in the body to psilocin which then acts as a partial agonist at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor in the brain where it mimics the effects of serotonin (5-HT). Psilocin is an 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C agonist. Psilocin,(4-HO-DMT) sometimes called psilocine or psilotsin, is a psychedelic (hallucinogenic) mushroom alkaloid. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response by the cell. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ...


Medicine

Psilocybin has been studied as a treatment for several disorders. In 1961, Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert ran the Harvard Psilocybin Project, carrying out a number of experiments concerning the use of psilocybin in the treatment of personality disorders and other uses in psychological counseling. Timothy Francis Leary, (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American writer, psychologist, modern pioneer and advocate of psychedelic drug research and use, and one of the first people whose remains have been sent into space. ... Ram Dass at the Hanuman Temple in Taos, New Mexico, September 2004 Dr. Richard Alpert (born 1933), later known as Baba Ram Dass, was a professor of psychology at Harvard University who became well known for his controversial research program which studied the effects of LSD. Alpert worked closely with... Begun by Dr. Timothy Leary and Dr. Richard Alpert, the Harvard Psilocybin Project was a series of loose experiments in psychology conducted by Leary and Alpert. ...


In the United States, an FDA-approved study supported by Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) began in 2001 to study the effects of psilocybin on patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.[3] MAPS has also proposed studying psilocybin's potential application for the treatment of cluster headaches based on anecdotal evidence presented to them by a group of cluster headache sufferers.[4] In 2006, the MAPS study found psilocybin effective in relieving obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms, in some cases for more than a few days.[5] “FDA” redirects here. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ... Cluster headaches are rare, extremely painful and debilitating headaches that occur in groups or clusters. ...


In a current study of psilocybin, led by Charles Grob, 12 subjects are being administered with either the hallucinogen or a placebo in two separate sessions. Grob hopes to reduce the psychological distress that is associated with death by treating patients with psilocybin.[6][7][8]


Toxicity

The toxicity of psilocybin is relatively low; in rats, the oral LD50 is 280mg/kg — almost one and a half times that of the LD50 of caffeine. When administered intravenously in rabbits, Psilocybin's LD50 is approximately 12.5mg/kg. [9] Death from psilocybin intake alone is unknown at recreational or medicinal levels. // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ...


The psilocybin content of psychoactive mushrooms is quite varied and depends on species, growth and drying conditions, and mushroom size.


Effects

Psilocybin is absorbed through the lining of the mouth and stomach. Effects begin 10-40 minutes after ingestion of psilocybin-containing mushrooms if held in mouth for 20-60 minutes or if swallowed on an empty stomach, and last from 2-6 hours depending on dose, species, and individual metabolism.[10] Typical recreational dosage is from 10-50mg psilocybin, approximately 1-5g dried mushroom or 10-50g wet mushrooms.


The effects of psilocybin are often pleasant, even ecstatic, including a deep sense of connection to others, confusion, hilarity, and a general feeling of connection to nature and the universe. Bad trips may occur when psychedelic compounds are taken in a non-supportive or inadequate environment, by an inexperienced person, in an unexpectedly high dose (see: set and setting), or when the substance triggers difficult areas of one's psyche. A bad trip is a frightening experience associated with use of a hallucinogenic drug such as LSD, salvinorin A, mescaline, or psilocybin. ... For the Bardo Pond album, see Set and Setting (Album). ...


At low doses, hallucinatory effects occur, including walls that seem to breathe, a vivid enhancement of colors and the animation of organic shapes. At higher doses, experiences tend to be less social and more entheogenic, often catalyzing intense spiritual experiences. For example, in the Marsh Chapel Experiment, which was run by a graduate student at Harvard Divinity School under the supervision of Timothy Leary, almost all of the graduate degree divinity student volunteers who received psilocybin reported profound religious experiences. (A brief video about the Marsh Chapel experiment can be viewed here.) This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... The Marsh Chapel Experiment was run by a graduate student at Harvard Divinity School, under the supervision of Timothy Leary. ... Harvard Divinity School is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the United States. ...


In 2006, a group of researchers from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine led by Roland R Griffiths conducted an experiment assessing the degree of mystical experience and attitudinal effects of the psilocybin experience; this report was published in the journal Psychopharmacology. Thirty-six volunteers without prior experience with hallucinogens were given psilocybin and methylphenidate (Ritalin) in separate sessions, the methylphenidate sessions serving as a control and active placebo; the tests were double-blind, with neither the subject nor the administrator knowing which drug was being administered. The degree of mystical experience was measured using a questionnaire on mystical experience developed by Ralph W Hood; 61% of subjects reported a "complete mystical experience" after their psilocybin session, while only 13% reported such an outcome after their experience with methylphenidate. Two months after taking psilocybin, 79% of the participants reported moderately to greatly increased life satisfaction and sense of well-being. About 36% of participants also had a strong to extreme “experience of fear” or dysphoria (I.E. a “bad trip”) at some point during the psilocybin session (which was not reported by any subject during the methylphenidate session), with about one-third of these (13% of the total) reporting that this dysphoria dominated the entire session. These negative effects were reported to be easily managed by the researchers and did not have a lasting negative effect on the subject’s sense of well-being. [1] This research was widely covered in the major media outlets.[2]. The Johns Hopkins University is an internationally prestigious private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research... Look up dysphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A very small number of people are unusually sensitive to psilocybin's effects, where doses as little as 0.25 grams of dried Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms (normally a threshold dose of around 2 mg psilocybin) can result in effects usually associated with medium and high doses. Likewise, there are some people who require relatively high doses of psilocybin to gain low-dose effects. Individual brain chemistry and metabolism plays a large role in determining a person's response to psilocybin.


Psilocybin is metabolized mostly in the liver where it becomes psilocin. It is broken down by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. MAO inhibitors have been known to sustain the effects of psilocybin for longer periods of time; people who are taking an MAOI for a medical condition (or are seeking to potentiate the mushroom experience) should be careful. For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Monoamine oxidase Monoamine oxidases (singular abbreviation MAO) (EC 1. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ...


Mental and physical tolerance to psilocybin builds and dissipates quickly. Taking psilocybin more than three or four times in a week (especially two days in a row) can result in diminished effects. Tolerance dissipates after a few days, so frequent users often keep doses spaced five to seven days apart to avoid the effect.


Adverse effects

Individuals that have relatives with schizophrenia should be very careful about consuming psilocybin or any hallucinogenic drug at all due to the risk of triggering a psychosis. [11]


In extremely rare cases the use of hallucinogens may trigger a malady called Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder. (HPPD).[12] Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a long-term condition caused by taking hallucinogens. ...


Social and legal aspects

Psilocybin and psilocin are listed as Schedule I drugs under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[3] Schedule I drugs are illicit drugs that are claimed to have no known therapeutic benefit. Parties to the treaty are required to restrict use of the drug to medical and scientific research under strictly controlled conditions. Most national drug laws have been amended to reflect this convention (for example, the US Psychotropic Substances Act, the UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, and the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act), with possession and use of psilocybin and psilocin being prohibited under almost all circumstances, and often carrying severe legal penalties. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ... Psychotropic Substances Act is the name of several national laws designed to fulfill treaty obligations under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, including: Psychotropic Substances Act (United States); Psychotropic Substances Act (Thailand). ... The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ...


Possession and use of psilocybin mushrooms, including the bluing species of Psilocybe, is therefore prohibited by extension. However, in many national, state, and provincial drug laws, there is a great deal of ambiguity about the legal status of psilocybin mushrooms and the spores of these mushrooms, as well as a strong element of selective enforcement in some places. For more details on the legal status of psilocybin mushrooms and Psilocybe spores, see: Psilocybe: Social and legal aspects. Enforcement discretion is the ability that executors of the law (such as police officers or administrative agencies, in some cases) have to select who they want to enforce laws against. ... Type species Psilocybe montana Species List of Psilocybe species Psilocybe is a genus of small mushrooms growing worldwide. ...


Because of the ease of cultivating psilocybin mushrooms or gathering wild species, purified psilocybin is practically nonexistent on the illegal drug market.


See also

Dr. Dr. Albert Hofmann (born January 11, 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zürich. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... This is a partial list of Entheogenic substances: Entheogen Ethnobotany Categories: | ... Not to be confused with the rune Mannaz. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Psilocin,(4-HO-DMT) sometimes called psilocine or psilotsin, is a psychedelic (hallucinogenic) mushroom alkaloid. ... Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... Tom Robbins at a reading of Wild Ducks Flying Backward in San Francisco on September 24, 2005 Thomas Eugene Robbins (born July 22, 1936 in Blowing Rock, North Carolina) is an American author. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ...

References

  1. ^ Horita, A. and L.J. Weber. "Dephosphorylation of psilocybin to psilocin by alkaline phosphatase." Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology 106(1): 32-34 (1961)
  2. ^ http://www.stainblue.com/ah.html
  3. ^ http://www.maps.org/research/psilo/azproto.html Effects of Psilocybin in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  4. ^ http://www.maps.org/research/cluster/psilo-lsd/#cluster Research into psilocybin and LSD as potential treatments for people with cluster headaches
  5. ^ "Psychedelic mushrooms ease OCD symptoms", MSNBC, 2006-12-20. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
  6. ^ http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00481325?order=31
  7. ^ hhtp://http://psychedelics.com/psilocybe/psilocybin.html The Hallucinogenic Way of Dying
  8. ^ Lewis, Judith. "The Hallucinogenic Way to Die." LA Weekly. Mar. 2004:AlterNet
  9. ^ NLM (click on "toxicity" on the left side)
  10. ^ http://www.erowid.org/plants/mushrooms/mushrooms_dose.htlm
  11. ^ http://www.erowid.org/mushrooms/mushrooms_basics.html
  12. ^ Espiard ML. et al. (2005): "HPPD after psilocybin consumption: a case study.", Eur. Psychiatry 20(5-6):458-60. Abstract

Ball and stick model of alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (EC 3. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

2006 Johns Hopkins experiment

  • Griffiths RR, Richards WA, McCann U, Jesse R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology (online edition): July 11, 2006. (PDF) – Original paper.
  • Schuster C; Kleber H; Snyder S; Nichols D; de Wit H. (2006). Commentaries and Editorial on Article by Griffiths et al. Psychopharmacology (online edition): July 11, 2006. (PDF)
  • "Hopkins Scientists Show Hallucinogen in Mushrooms Creates Universal 'Mystical' Experience", Johns Hopkins Medicine news release, July 11, 2006.
  • "Q&A is with Roland Griffiths, the study’s lead researcher", Johns Hopkins Medicine news release, July 11, 2006.
  • "Psilocybin Viewed as Therapy or Research Tool" by Michael Smith, Medpagetoday.com, July 12, 2006.
  • "Magic mushrooms really cause 'spiritual' experiences" by Roxanne Khamsi, NewScientist.com news service, July 11, 2006.
  • "Drug's Mystical Properties Confirmed" by David Brown, Washington Post, July 11, 2006.
  • "Mushroom Drug Produces Mystical Experience", Associated Press, July 11, 2006.
  • "Counterculture Drug Provides Spiritual Boost" by Denise Gellene, Los Angeles Times, July 11, 2006.
  • "Tripping Out: Scientists Study Mystical Effects of Mushrooms" by Joy Victory, Bharathi Radhakrishnan, and Andrea Carter, ABC News (online), July 11, 2006.

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Psilocybin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1802 words)
Psilocybin is a prodrug that is converted into the pharmacologically active compound psilocin in the body by dephosphorylation.
Psilocybin is a zwitterionic alkaloid that is soluble in water, moderately soluble in methanol and ethanol, and insoluble in most organic solvents.
Psilocybin is rapidly dephosphorylated in the body to psilocin which then acts as a partial agonist at the 5-HT serotonin receptor in the brain where it mimics the effects of serotonin (5-HT).
PSILOCYBIN (1136 words)
The psilocybin mushroom grows in the temperature range between 65 and 85 degrees, and only on the manure of farm animals such as cows, pigs, and goats.
Psilocybin can be extracted by drying and grinding the mushroom to a powder, soaking it in methyl -alcohol for several days, and, permitting the resulting clear liquid is evaporate in a flat dish until a residue remains.
Psilocybin dosage is from 1 to 5 grams dry weight, 10 to 50 grams fresh, or five to fifteen of the rancid-tasting whole mushrooms, depending on size and species.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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