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Encyclopedia > Pseudonym

A pseudonym is a fictitious name, also known as an alias, used as an alternative to a person's legal name. In most legal systems, a person can assume a different name for non-fraudulent purposes and use it as their legal name. In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because it is part of a cultural or organizational tradition, as in the case of devotional names used by members of some religious orders and "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Stalin. Look up Alias in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term alias may refer to— an assumed name, or pseudonym. ... In the broadest sense, a fraud is a deception made for personal gain. ... In some religious orders, a new member will often take a religious name after joining the order. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Pseudonyms are also used to hide an individual's identity, as with writers' pen names, resistance fighters or terrorists' noms de guerre; and computer hackers' nicknames. Actors, musicians, and other performers sometimes use a stage name to mask their original ethnic background, particularly in the early to mid-1900s. Stage names are also used to create a name which better matches their stage persona, as in the case of hip hop artists such as Ol' Dirty Bastard (who was known under at least six aliases); Black metal performers such as Nocturno Culto; and hardcore punk singers such as "Rat" of Discharge. A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... A computer hacker is someone who enjoys getting around the technical limitations of computer systems. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... For the Okkervil River album, see The Stage Names. ... ODB redirects here. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... Nocturno Culto (born Ted Skjellum in 1972) is a Norwegian musician, best known as the vocalist, Lead guitarist and partial bassist (shared with Fenriz) for influential black metal band, Darkthrone. ... Discharge is an influential punk and metal band formed in the UK in 1977, whose music is characterized by a heavy, distorted, and grinding guitar-driven sound and anti-melodic shouted or screamed vocals, with lyrics on anarchist and pacifist themes. ...


The term is derived from Greek: ψευδώνυμον, pseudónymon – literally "given a name by error, lie name" from Greek: τὸ ψεύδος, pseúdos – the lie and Greek: ὄνομα, ónoma – the name); pseudo + -onym: false name. A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, which is the name of another actual person, assumed by someone in authorship of a work of art; such as when ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s. Words in English with the suffix -onym refer to classes of words with a particular property. ... This article is about a ghostwriter, the type of writer. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Screenwriters, scenarists, or script writers, are authors who write the screenplays from which movies and television programs are made. ... Blacklisted redirects here. ... ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ...

Contents

Cultural or organizational traditions

Monarchies

In many monarchies, the prince starting his reign chooses his official name (regnal name) to be used hence, which may differ from his (birth) name till then; sometimes he selects one of his existing names, sometimes a completely different one. The choice of an existing name may simply be a matter of tradition or intend to honour a specific predecessor, and/or emphasize the hereditary legitimacy of succession, or may actually convey a programme or intention. A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ...


Religion

In the tradition of various Roman Catholic religious orders and congregations, members abandon their birthname to assume a new, often unrelated, devotional name, often referring to an admired saint. For women, e.g., in the Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls, this reflects the mystical marriage as bride of Christ. Catholic religious orders (Religious Institutes, cf. ... In some religious orders, a new member will often take a religious name after joining the order. ... The Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls is a Catholic religious order of women founded in Paris, France in 1856, with the objective of assisting the souls in Purgatory. ... Mystical marriage is a term equating the intimacy of a mystical relationship, as between a Christian mystic and God, with the natural intimacy between marital partners. ...


In Buddhism a Dharma name is given during the traditional refuge ceremony. Practitioners of Wicca and other forms of Neopagan witchcraft often adopt a craft name or magical name. A Dharma name is a new name acquired during a Buddhist refuge ceremony. ... In lay and monastic ordination ceremonies, Buddhists take the Three Refuges in the Three Jewels and are said to take refuge. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Witch redirects here. ... A Craft name, also known as a magical (or magickal) name is a secondary religious name often adopted by practitioners of Wicca and other forms of neopagan witchcraft. ...


Cadre names

Within Communist parties and Trotskyist organisations, noms de guerre are usually known as "party names" or "cadre names". While the practice originated during the revolutionary years after WW I, to conceal the identity of leaders, by the 1950s and 1960s, the practice was more of a tradition than an identity-concealment strategy. Some famous Communist Party names include Lenin (Vladimir Il'ich Ulyanov); Stalin (Yosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili); and Pol Pot (Saloth Sar). In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule...


Political articles

From the late eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries, it was established practice for political articles to be signed with pseudonyms. A well-known American was the pen name Publius, used by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, in writing The Federalist Papers. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Title page of an early Federalist compilation. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Jay, see John Jay (disambiguation). ... Title page of an early Federalist compilation. ...


Concealment of identity

Literary pen names

A pen name (or "nom de plume") is a pseudonym adopted by authors or their publishers to conceal their identity. One famous example of this is Samuel Clements writing under the pen name Mark Twain. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is likely to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write in fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use pen names to avoid confusing their readers, as in the case mathematician Charles Dodgson, who wrote fantasy novels under the pen name Lewis Carroll. Some female authors use male pen names, particularly in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. A pseudonym may also be used to hide the identity of the author, as in the case of exposé books about espionage or crime, or explicit erotic fiction. Some prolific authors adopt a pseudonym to disguise the extent of their published output, e.g., Stephen King writing as Richard Bachman. Co-authors may choose to publish under a single pseudonym, e.g., Ellery Queen, P. J. Tracy, and Perri O'Shaughnessy. A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... The Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... An exposé is an article or book intended to reveal shocking or surprising information. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... Richard Bachmans author photo. ... Frederic Dannay (left), with James Yaffe (1943) Ellery Queen is both a fictional character and a pseudonym used by two American cousins from Brooklyn, New York: Daniel (David) Nathan, alias Frederic Dannay (October 20, 1905–September 3, 1982) and Manford (Emanuel) Lepofsky, alias Manfred Bennington Lee (January 11, 1905–April... P. J. Tracy is a pseudonym for mother and daughter writers P. J. and Traci Lambrecht. ...


Nom de guerre

"Noms de guerre" were frequently adopted by recruits in the French Foreign Legion as part of the break with their past lives and by members of the French resistance during World War II. These pseudonyms are often adopted by resistance fighters, terrorists and guerrillas to hide their identities and protect their families from reprisal. Some well-known noms de guerre include Carlos the Jackal for Ilich Ramírez Sánchez and Subcommandante Marcos for the leader of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN). A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... The Croix de Lorraine, chosen by General de Gaulle as the symbol of the resistance. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Ilich Ramírez Sánchez (born October 12, 1949) is a Venezuelan-born self-proclaimed leftist revolutionary. ... Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos is the self-described spokesperson for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN), but considered by many one of its main leaders, since he is so prominent a figure. ... The flag of the EZLN. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ...


Brazilan martial arts

In capoeira, a Brazilian martial art, an apelido (pseudonym) is traditionally given to a capoeirista (Capoeira practitioner) at their first batizado, or promotion ceremony. Capoeiristas refer to each other almost exclusively by their Capoeira names, a tradition that dates prior to practicing Capoeira being legalized in Brazil. Since punishments for practicing Capoeira were often harsh, it was used as a means of remaining anonymous and protecting fellow practitioners from being caught, as well as any retribution their families might otherwise endure. Capoeira (IPA: ,Tupi-Guarani word for - clear area) is a Brazilian blend of martial art, game, and dance originated in Brazil, from the regions known as Bahia, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. ... Capoeira (IPA: ,Tupi-Guarani word for - clear area) is a Brazilian blend of martial art, game, and dance originated in Brazil, from the regions known as Bahia, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. ...


Computer users

For a person using a computer, a pseudonym can take the form of a handle, a user name, login name, avatar or, sometimes, screen name, nick or nickname. On the internet, pseudonymous remailers utilising cryptography can be used to achieve persistent pseudonymity, so that two-way communication can be achieved, and reputations can be established without linking a physical identity to a pseudonym. Example of an avatar as used on internet forums. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A pseudonymous remailer or nym server, as opposed to an anonymous remailer, is an Internet software program designed to allow people to write anonymous messages on Usenet newsgroups and send anonymous email under a pseudonym. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Pseudonymity is a word derived from pseudonym, meaning false name, and describes a state of disguised identity resulting from the use of a pseudonym (also called nym). ... Identity theft is a term used to refer to fraud that involves stealing money or getting other benefits by pretending to be someone else. ...


In online gaming clans, especially first person shooter games, in the demoscene, or in a distributed computing project using Internet-connected computers, users or players often create a "clan name" when joining. Often they add the "clan tag" to their existing nick, but some create a new name altogether. In Hacker culture, individuals will often use a handle or nym (short for pseudonym) as their public identity in RL or Real Life while keeping their actual identity secret. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The demoscene is a computer art subculture that specializes itself on producing demos, non-interactive audio-visual presentations, which are run real-time on a computer. ... Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ... A computer hacker is someone who enjoys getting around the technical limitations of computer systems. ... For other meanings of this phrase (book and album titles etc. ...


Stage names

Film, theatre, and related activities

When used by an actor, performer or model, a pseudonym is a stage name or screen name. Actors who are members of a marginalized ethnic or religious group have often adopted stage names, typically changing their surname or entire name to mask their original background — as has been done in other fields as well. This phenomenon was common in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century. Screen names are also used to create a more marketable name, as in the case of Creighton Tull Chaney, who adopted the pseudonym Lon Chaney, Jr., a reference to his famous father Lon Chaney, Sr.. Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... A model is a person who poses or displays for purposes of art, fashion, or other products and advertising. ... For the Okkervil River album, see The Stage Names. ... Lon Chaney, Jr. ... Lon Chaney (April 1, 1883 – August 26, 1930), nicknamed The Man of a Thousand Faces, was an American actor during the age of silent films. ...


Pseudonyms are also used to comply with the rules of performing arts guilds (SAG, WGA, AFTRA, etc.), which do not allow performers to use an existing name, in order to avoid confusion. For example, these rules required film and television actor Michael Fox to add a middle initial and become Michael J. Fox, to avoid being confused with another actor named Michael Fox. The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) is an American labor union representing over 120,000 film and television principal performers and background performers worldwide. ... The Writers Guild of America (WGA) is the collective bargaining representative, or labor union, for writers in the motion picture and television industries in the United States. ... The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) is an actors union that aims to represent actors in radio and television, much like the Screen Actors Guild does for movies. ... For other persons named Michael Fox, see Michael Fox (disambiguation). ...


While most stage names are not used to conceal a person's identity, the exception is the pseudonym Alan Smithee, which is used by directors in the DGA to remove their name from a film they feel was edited or modified beyond their artistic satisfaction. In theatre, the pseudonym George or Georgina Spelvin, David Agnew and Walter Plinge are used to hide the identity of a performer. Professional names are also common for DJs in radio broadcasting. Alan Smithee, Allen Smithee, Alan Smythee, and Adam Smithee are pseudonyms used between 1968 and 1999 by Hollywood film directors who wanted to be dissociated from a film for which they no longer wanted credit. ... Director Guild of America building on Sunset Boulevard. ... George Spelvin and Georgina Spelvin are the traditional pseudonyms used in programs in American theatre by actors who dont want to be credited or whose names would otherwise appear twice because they are playing more than one role in a production. ... David Agnew is a pseudonym that was traditionally used on BBC television drama programmes in the 1970s where a writers name could not be used for contractual reasons, for example where a script editor had written an episode of his or her own programme, or when a writer had... Walter Plinge is a pseudonym, traditionally used in London theatres. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ...


Music

Musicians and singers use pseudonyms to allow artists to collaborate with artists on other labels while avoiding the need to gain permission from their own labels. Rock singer-guitarist George Harrison, for example, played guitar on Cream's song "Badge" using a pseudonym. In classical music, some record companies issued recordings under pseudonyms in the 1950s and 1960s to avoid paying royalties. A number of popular budget LPs of piano music were released under the pseudonym Paul Procopolis. Pseudonyms are also used as stage names in Metal bands, like Pig Benis in Mushroomhead, and "133" in Slipknot. Some of these names have meanings to them as well, like that of Brian Hugh Warner, more commonly known as Marilyn Manson. Marilyn coming from Marilyn Monroe, and Manson from convicted serial killer Charles Manson. For other persons named George Harrison, see George Harrison (disambiguation). ... Cream were a 1960s British rock band comprising guitarist Eric Clapton, bassist Jack Bruce and drummer Ginger Baker. ... The 1969 song Badge, by Cream, was penned by Eric Clapton and George Harrison during a collaborative effort between Clapton, Harrison and Ringo Starr. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...



Most hip hop artists prefer to use a pseudonym that represents some variation of their name, personality, or interests. Prime examples include Ol' Dirty Bastard (who was known under at least six aliases), Diddy (formerly known as P. Diddy, and Puff Daddy), Ludacris, LL Cool J, Sam "Original Gangster" Biglari, and Chingy. Black metal artists also adopt pseudonyms, usually symbolizing satanic values, such as Nocturno Culto, Gaahl, Abbath, and Silenoz. In punk and hardcore punk, singers and band members often replace their real names with more "tough"-sounding stage names, such as Sid Vicious of the late 1970s band Sex Pistols and "Rat" of the early 1980s band The Varukers and the 2000s re-formation of Discharge. ODB redirects here. ... Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969[1]) is an American record producer, CEO, clothing designer, actor, and rapper. ... Luda redirects here. ... James Todd Smith III (born January 14, 1968), better known as LL Cool J, is an American hip hop artist and actor. ... Howard Bailey, Jr. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... Nocturno Culto (born Ted Skjellum in 1972) is a Norwegian musician, best known as the vocalist, Lead guitarist and partial bassist (shared with Fenriz) for influential black metal band, Darkthrone. ... For the professional wrestler, see Sid Eudy. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... The Varukers are a hardcore punk band formed in 1979, . The band has gone through many line-up changes over the years with the only constant member being Rat on vocals. ... Discharge is an influential punk and metal band formed in the UK in 1977, whose music is characterized by a heavy, distorted, and grinding guitar-driven sound and anti-melodic shouted or screamed vocals, with lyrics on anarchist and pacifist themes. ...


Other types

Pseudonyms are also adopted for other reasons. In some cases, people choose a new name for political reasons. Some Jewish politicians adopted Hebrew family names upon making aliyah to Israel, dropping westernized surnames that may have been in the family for generations. David Ben Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. In the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm X, (né Malcom Little), adopted the 'X' to represent his unknown African ancestral name which was lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ...


Famous pseudonyms of people who were neither authors nor actors include the architect Le Corbusier (né Charles Édouard Jeanneret); and the statistician Student (ne William Sealey Gosset), discoverer of Student's t-distribution in statistics. For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... William Sealy Gosset (June 13, 1876 – October 16, 1937) was a chemist and statistician, better known by his pen name Student. ... In probability and statistics, the t-distribution or Students t-distribution is a probability distribution that arises in the problem of estimating the mean of a normally distributed population when the sample size is small. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ...


When used by a radio operator, a pseudonym is a "handle," especially in Citizens' band radio. A typical CB base station. ...


External links

  • An extensive list of pseudonyms
  • Another list of pseudonyms
  • The U.S. copyright status of pseudonyms

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pseudonym - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1965 words)
A pseudonym (Greek: false name) is a fictitious name used by an individual as an alternative to his or her legal name.
This use of pseudonyms is especially common if the new genre is of a somewhat risqué nature; such was the case of Pauline Réage, the pseudonym under which an editorial secretary with a reputation of near-prudery published Histoire d'O (Story of O), an erotic novel of sadomasochism and sexual slavery.
Pseudonyms are adopted by resistance fighters, terrorists and guerrillas often to make enquiries more difficult, to create and maintain an aura of mystery, and to protect their families from reprisal, although other reasons often may exist.
Pseudonym - definition of Pseudonym in Encyclopedia (857 words)
A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name.
Authors use pseudonyms for a variety of reasons; for example, to experiment with a new genre, with reduced risk of upsetting regular readers; the same author may have several pseudonyms depending on the genre.
This use of pseudonyms is especially common if the new genre is of a somewhat risqué nature; such was for instance the case of Pauline Réage, name under which an editorial secretary with a reputation of near-prudery published Histoire d'O, a sadomasochistic erotic novel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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