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Encyclopedia > Pseudoephedrine
Pseudoephedrine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(1S,2S)-2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol
Identifiers
CAS number 90-82-4
ATC code R01BA02
PubChem 7028
DrugBank APRD00634
Chemical data
Formula C10H15NO 
Mol. mass 165.23
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability unknown
Metabolism hepatic (10–30%)
Half life 9–16 hours
Excretion 70-90% renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B2(AU) Image File history File links Pseudoephedrine_structure. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixels Full resolution (922 × 641 pixel, file size: 126 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pseudoephedrine User:Sbrools/Gallery ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ...

Legal status

Pharmacist Only (S3)(AU) P(UK) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ...

Routes oral

Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. The salts pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine sulfate are found in many over-the-counter preparations either as single-ingredient preparations, or more commonly in combination with antihistamines, paracetamol and/or ibuprofen. Consumers in North America, the United Kingdom, and Australia often refer to it as Sudafed, the trademark for a common brand of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, although Pfizer now sells products without pseudoephedrine under the brand name (as Sudafed PE). In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and the hormome/neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenaline). ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... Sudafed is a brand name and registered trademark for a family of over-the-counter (OTC) decongestants based on pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and manufactured by Pfizer Inc. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... Pfizer Incorporated (NYSE: PFE) is the worlds largest research-based pharmaceutical company[1].[1] The company is based in New York City. ... Phenylephrine or neosynephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and, rarely, to increase blood pressure. ...


Unlike antihistamines, which modify the systemic histamine-mediated allergic response, pseudoephedrine only relieves nasal congestion commonly associated with colds or allergies. However, some users report rapid and effective relief from other allergic symptoms, including itchy and/or watery eyes, which may not have been provided effectively by antihistamines. An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An allergy is an abnormal, acquired sensitivity to a given substance, including pollen, drugs, or numerous environmental triggers. ... Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... An allergy is an abnormal, acquired sensitivity to a given substance, including pollen, drugs, or numerous environmental triggers. ...


The advantage of oral pseudoephedrine over topical nasal preparations, such as oxymetazoline, is that it does not cause rebound congestion (rhinitis medicamentosa); however, it is more likely to cause adverse effects including hypertension. Oxymetazoline is a topical decongestant used, in the form of Oxymetazoline hydrochloride, in products such as Nasivion, Vicks Sinex and Afrin. ... Rhinitis medicamentosa (or RM) is a condition of rebound nasal congestion brought on by extended use of topical decongestants (e. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Chemistry

Pseudoephedrine is a phenethylamine, and a diastereomer of ephedrine. Pseudoephedrine is a chiral molecule, meaning it occurs in both "left-handed" and "right-handed" configurations which are not superimposable. Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Diastereomers (or diastereoisomers) are stereoisomers that are not enantiomers (mirror images of each other). ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ...


Pseudoephedrine is the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) of the (1S,2S)- diastereomer of ephedrine (which has 1R,2S- configuration). Other names are (+)-pseudoephedrine and D-pseudoephedrine (Reynolds, 1989). An International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as designated by the World Health Organization. ... Diastereomers (or diastereoisomers) are stereoisomers that are not enantiomers (mirror images of each other). ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ...


L-Pseudoephedrine, also known as (-)-(1R,2R)-pseudoephedrine or (-)-pseudoephedrine, is the optical isomer of D-pseudoephedrine. It has fewer side-effects, fewer central nervous system (CNS) stimulatory effects, does not reduce to D-methamphetamine (which is the enatiomer used as a recreational drug), and yet it retains its efficacy as a decongestant.[citation needed] However, the patent holder for L-pseudoephedrine (Pfizer/Warner-Lambert) has not yet sought or received government approval for its sale to the public. (U.S. Patent 6,495,529 ) Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism (specifically stereoisomerism) whereby the different 2 isomers are the same in every way except being non-superimposable mirror images* of each other. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


Mode of action

Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine — that is, its principal mechanism of action relies on its indirect action on the adrenergic receptor system. While it may have weak agonist activity at α- and β-adrenergic receptors, the principal mechanism is to displace noradrenaline from storage vesicles in presynaptic neurons. The displaced noradrenaline is released into the neuronal synapse where it is free to activate the aforementioned postsynaptic adrenergic receptors. Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Norepinephrine, known as noradrenaline outside the USA, is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... In a synapse between two neurons, the cell that releases the neurotransmitter is referred to as the presynaptic cell. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... A synapse is a connection between two neurons: presynaptic and postsynaptic. ...


These adrenergic receptors are located on the muscles lining the walls of blood vessels. When activiated by pseudoephedrine, the muscles contract, causing the blood vessels to constrict (vasoconstriction). These constricted blood vessels now allow less fluid to leave the blood vessels and enter the nose, throat and sinus linings, which results in decreased inflammation of nasal membranes as well as decreased mucous production. Thus, by constriction of blood vessels, mainly those located in the nasal passages, pseudoephedrine causes a decrease in the symptoms of nasal congestion.


The vasoconstriction that pseudoephedrine produces is believed to be principally an α-adrenergic receptor response. While all sympathomimetic amines, to some extent, have decongestant action, pseudoephedrine shows greater selectivity for the nasal mucosa and a lower affinity for central nervous system (CNS) adrenergic-receptors than other sympathomimetic amines. The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Vasoconstriction in the nasal mucosa shrinks swollen nasal mucous membranes, reduces tissue hyperaemia, oedema, and nasal congestion. Other beneficial effects may include increasing the drainage of sinus secretions, and opening of obstructed Eustachian tubes. The same vasoconstriction action can also result in hypertension, which is a noted side effect of pseudoephedrine. The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... hyperaemia Hy`per*[ae]mi*a, n. ... Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ... Sinus may refer to: In anatomy, where a sinus is a sac or cavity in any organ or tissue: Paranasal sinus, an air cavity in the cranial bones, especially those near the nose Sinus (anatomy), description of the general term Anal sinuses, the furrows which separate the columns in the... The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. ...


Clinical use

Indications

Pseudoephedrine is indicated for the treatment of:

  • nasal congestion
  • sinus congestion
  • Eustachian tube congestion. (Bicopoulos, 2002)

Pseudoephedrine is also indicated for vasomotor rhinitis, and as an adjunct to other agents in the optimum treatment of allergic rhinitis, croup, sinusitis, otitis media, and tracheobronchitis. (Bicopoulos, 2002) The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. ... Vasomotor rhinitis is a form of rhinitis that is not related to allergic reactions, but which is characterized by many of the same symptoms, such as a chronic running nose with intermittent sneezing, rhinorrhea and blood-vessel congestion of the nasal mucus membranes. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Kennel cough or tracheobronchitis is a highly contagious canine illness characterized by inflammation of the upper respiratory system. ...


Pseudoephedrine is also used as first-line therapy of priapism. Erection is largely a parasympathetic response, so the sympathetic action of pseudoephedrine may serve to relieve this condition. Fresco of Priapus, House of the Vettii, Pompeii. ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Treatment for urinary incontinence is an unlabeled use for these medications. Unlabeled use means doctors can use the medication to treat a condition other than that for which it was first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These medications are approved by the FDA for the treatment of nasal congestion caused by colds or allergies. However it has also been successful in treating stress incontinence by increasing the pressure (tension) exerted by the muscles of the bladder neck and the urethra, which helps retain the urine within the bladder.


Adverse effects

Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with pseudoephedrine therapy include: CNS stimulation, sleeplessness, nervousness, excitability, dizziness and anxiety. Infrequent ADRs include: tachycardia and/or palpitations. Rarely, pseudoephedrine therapy may be associated with hallucinations, arrhythmias, hypertension, seizures and ischemic colitis (Rossi, 2006); as well as severe skin reactions known as recurrent pseudo-scarlatina, systemic contact dermatitis, and nonpigmenting fixed drug eruption (Vidal, Prieto, Peréz-Carral, Armisén 1998). A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Ischemic colitis is inflammation of the intestine (colitis) caused by inadequate blood supply (ischemia) to meet the metabolic demands. ... Prescription or over the counter medications can cause many skin reactions. ...


It has also been reported that pseudoephedrine, amongst other sympathomimetic agents, may be associated with the occurrence of stroke (Cantu et al., 2003). Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Precautions and contraindications

Pseudoephedrine should be used with caution in patients with: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, prostatic hypertrophy, hyperthyroidism, closed angle glaucoma and/or pregnancy (Rossi, 2006). For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... BPH redirects here, It can also refer to the Break Permitted Here character in the C1 control code set. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ...


Since nasal congestion is considered to be a relatively minor ailment, alternatives are preferred in patients with these conditions. Appropriate alternatives may include topical decongestants or saline sprays/instillations, depending on the patient's condition. Saline may refer to: Salinity Saline (medicine) Saline, Michigan Saline, Scotland - a village in the burgh of Fife, Scotland. ...


Contraindications for the use of pseudoephedrine include: concomitant or recent (previous fourteen days) monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) therapy, severe or uncontrolled hypertension, and/or severe coronary artery disease (Rossi, 2006). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


People with bipolar disorder should use care when taking pseudoephedrine, as it can cause insomnia and thus trigger a manic episode. For other uses, see Bipolar. ...


Chiral auxiliary

Both (R,R)- and (S,S)-pseudoephedrine are used as a chiral auxiliary.[1] Pseudoephedrine is reacted with a carboxylic acid, acid anhydride, or acyl chloride to give a pseudoephedrine amide. A chiral auxiliary is a chemical compound or unit that is temporarily incorporated into a organic synthesis so that it can be carried out asymmetrically with the selective formation of one of twoenantiomers. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Acid anhydrides are chemical compounds that look like, and sometimes are, the product resulting from dehydration of an acid. ... General Chemical Structure of an Acyl Chloride In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound which is a reactive derivative of a carboxylic acid. ...


The α-proton of the carbonyl compound is easily deprotonated by a non-nucleophilic base to give the enolate, which can further react. The configuration of the addition compound, such as with an alkyl halide, is directed by the methyl group. Thus, any addition product will be anti to the methyl and syn with the hydroxyl group. Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit As... In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ...


The pseudoephedrine chiral auxiliary is subsequently removed by cleaving the amide bond with an appropriate nucleophile. In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ...


Manufacture

Although pseudoephedrine occurs naturally as an alkaloid in certain plant species (for example, as a constituent of extracts from the ephedra species, also known as Ma Huang, in which it occurs together with other isomers of ephedrine), the majority of pseudoephedrine produced for commercial use is derived from yeast fermentation of dextrose in the presence of benzaldehyde. In this process, specialized strains of yeast (typically a variety of Candida utilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are added to large vats containing water, dextrose and the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (such as found in beets and other plants). After the yeast has begun fermenting the dextrose, the benzaldehyde is added to the vats, and in this environment the yeast convert the precursor ingredients to l-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC). L-PAC is then chemically converted to pseudoephedrine via reductive amination (Oliver, 1999). Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Ephedra in medicine. ... Species See text Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in the family Ephedraceae and order Ephedrales. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is a chemical compound consisting of a benzene ring with an aldehyde substituent. ... Binomial name Candida utilis (Henneberg) Lodder & Kreger-van Rij Torula (Latin name: Candida utilis; formerly Torulopsis utilis, Torula utilis) is a species of yeast. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Pyruvate decarboxylase is a homotetrameric enzyme(EC 4. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... Chemical structure of (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol Phenylacetylcarbinol (abbreviated PAC) is an organic compound used as a chemical precursor in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals such as pseudoephedrine. ... Amination is the process by which an amine group is introduced into an organic molecule. ...


The bulk of pseudoephedrine is produced by commercial pharmaceutical manufacturers in India and China, where economic and industrial conditions favor the mass production of pseudoephedrine for export (Suo, 2004).


Misuse and illicit use

There have also been reports of off-label uses of pseudoephedrine for its stimulant properties. Some patients, long-distance truck drivers and sports athletes for example, have reportedly used pseudoephedrine as a stimulant to increase their state of alertness/awakedness. It is doubtful that pseudoephedrine would be of significant benefit, except in sensitive individuals, because of its minimal effect in the central nervous system (see Mode of Action above).[citation needed] Nevertheless, such misuse of pseudoephedrine has been associated with stimulant dependence.[citation needed] The similarity in chemical structure to the amphetamines has made pseudoephedrine a sought-after chemical precursor in the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine and methcathinone. As a result of the increasing regulatory restrictions on the sale and distribution of pseudoephedrine, many pharmaceutical firms have reformulated, or are in the process of reformulating medications to use alternative decongestants, such as phenylephrine. Many retailers such as Target, Wal-Mart, CVS, and Winn-Dixie have created corporate policies restricting the sale of pseudoephedrine-containing products. Their policies restrict sales by limiting purchase quantities and requiring a minimum age with proper identification. These requirements are similar to and sometimes more stringent than existing law. Internationally, pseudoephedrine is listed as a Table I precursor under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.[1] A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Clandestine chemistry generally refers to chemistry carried out in illegal drug laboratories, but can include any kind of laboratory operation carried on in secret. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Phenylephrine or Neo-Synephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and to increase blood pressure. ... This article is about the United States retail company. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... CVS can refer to: Antisubmarine aircraft carriers (CVS), United States Navys hull classification symbol. ... Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc. ... United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature December 20, 1988[1] at Vienna Entered into force November 11, 1990[2] Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 170[3] The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and...


United States federal law

The United States Congress has recognized the use of pseudoephedrine in the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine. In late 2005, the Committee on Education and the Workforce heard testimony concerning education programs and state legislation designed to curb the use and manufacture of methamphetamine with pseudoephedrine-containing products. State laws in Oregon and Kansas were particularly influential in the proposed legislation.[citation needed] The House passed the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 ("CMEA") as an amendment to the renewal of the Patriot Act. Signed into law by president George W. Bush on March 6, 2006, the act amended the US Code (21 USC 830) concerning the sale of pseudoephedrine containing products. The Federal statute included the following requirements for merchants ("regulated seller") who sell these products (pseudoephedrine is defined as a "scheduled listed chemical product under 21 USC 802(45(A)): Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Committee on Education and the Workforce is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... For other uses, see House (disambiguation). ... The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA) was signed into United States law on March 9, 2006 to regulate, among other things, retail over-the-counter sales of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine products. ... This article needs cleanup. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The United States Code (U.S.C.) is the general and permanent federal Law of the United States. ...

  • A retrievable record of all purchases identifying the name and address of each party to be kept for two years.
  • Required verification of proof of identity of all purchasers
  • Required protection and disclosure methods in the collection of personal information
  • Reports to the Attorney General of any suspicious payments or disappearances of the regulated products
  • Required training of employees with regard to the requirements of the CMEA; Retailer must self-certify as to training and compliance
  • Non-liquid dose form of regulated product may only be sold in unit dose blister packs
  • Regulated products are to be sold behind the counter or in a locked cabinet in such a way as to restrict public access
  • Daily sales of regulated products not to exceed 3.6 grams without regard to the number of transactions
  • 30 day (not monthly) sales limit not to exceed 7.5 grams if sold by mail-order or "mobile retail vendor"
  • 30 day PURCHASE limit not to exceed 9 grams of pseudoephedrine base in regulated products (misdemeanor possession offense under 21 USC 844a for the individual who buys it)

In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ...

United States state law

Individual states also have varying laws on the matter, e.g. Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington laws require pharmacies to sell pseudoephedrine behind-the-counter and to collect personal information from the purchaser. As of July 1, 2006, Oregon recognizes pseudoephedrine and all pseudoephedrine containing products as a Schedule III controlled substance, and requires a prescription to purchase them. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... “NJ” redirects here. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ...


Australia

Illicit diversion of pseudoephedrine in Australia has caused significant changes to the way pseudoephedrine products are regulated. As of 2006, all products containing pseudoephedrine have been rescheduled as "Pharmacist Only Medicines" (Schedule 3). As a result, a pharmacist must be directly involved in every transaction involving the sale of pseudoephedrine to members of the public, and such medicines will be kept behind the counter, away from public access. Such measures are designed to ensure that the medicines are needed for a legitimate purpose. Pharmacists are also required to lodge the purchase with an online database called PROJECTSTOP. This database records each purchase of pseudoephedrine products, tracking the customers drivers license or 18+ card. This system was put in place to stop drug mules driving from Sydney to Cairns (a trip of 3000km or 1875mi) purchasing a small box of pseudoephedrine at every pharmacy along the way. When the database is used 3 modes of sale can be used. One allows the sale (as "no match" was found), one denies the sale and the third, called a safety sale, is when the product was sold under duress. Certain preparations containing significantly high amounts of pseudoephedrine are further restricted as "Prescription Only Medicines" (Schedule 4). Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As of April 2007, the Australian government is considering the prohibition of all medications containing pseudoephedrine. [2] April 2007 is the fourth month of the year. ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand, from 15 October 2004, as a result of large intercepts of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine, any product containing these substances e.g. cold and flu medicines were classified as Class C controlled drugs in the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975. New Zealand Customs and police officers are continuing to make large interceptions of precursor substances believed to be destined for methamphetamine production. is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Brand names

  • Contac (pseudoephedrine) - Has been discontinued as of 2007
  • Codral (pseudoephedrine HCI)
  • Sudafed (pseudoephedrine) - has an alternate phenylephrine HCl version, Sudafed PE
  • Actifed (triprolidine/pseudoephedrine) - no longer contains pseudoephedrine as of 2007
  • Claritin-D (loratadine/pseudoephedrine)
  • Clarinex-D (desloratadine/pseudoephedrine)
  • Sinutab (Paracetamol/pseudoephedrine)
  • Sinufed (pseudoephedrine HCI)
  • Benylin (pseudoephedrine)
  • Zyrtec-D (certirizine/pseudoephedrine) - Prescription only
  • Allegra-D (fexofenadine/pseudoephedrine) - Prescription only
  • Drixoral (dexbrompheniramine/pseudoephedrine)
  • Mucinex-D (guaifenesin/pseudoephedrine)
  • PediaCare (pseudoephedrine/chlorpheniramine/dextromethorphan)
  • Pannaz (pseudoephedrine/chlorpheniramine/methscopolamine)
  • Fludrex (pseudoephedrine/dextromethorphan/triprolidine)
  • Solpa-Sinus (pseudoephedrine/acetaminophen)
  • Advil Cold and Sinus (pseudoephedrine/ibuprofen)
  • Tylenol Sinus (pseudoephedrine/acetaminophen)

Phenylephrine or Neo-Synephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and to increase blood pressure. ... Triprolidine hydrochloride is an over-the-counter antihistamine. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... Dexbrompheniramine maleate is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. ... Guaifenesin (gwi fen ə sin) (INN) or guaiphenesin (former BAN) is an expectorant drug usually taken orally to assist the expectoration (bringing up) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ...

References

  1. ^ Myers, A. G., et al, Pseudoephedrine as a Practical Chiral Auxiliary for the Synthesis of Highly Enantiomerically Enriched Carboxylic Acids, Alcohols, Aldehydes, and Ketones, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1997, 119, 6460-6651.
  • Bicopoulos D, editor. AusDI: Drug information for the healthcare professional, 2nd edition. Castle Hill: Pharmaceutical Care Information Services; 2002.
  • Cantu C, Arauz A, Murillo-Bonilla LM, Lopez M, Barinagarrementeria F. Stroke associated with sympathomimetics contained in over-the-counter cough and cold drugs. Stroke 2003;34(7):1667-72. PMID: 12791938
  • (1989) in Edited by Reynolds JEF: Martindale: The complete drug reference, 29th edition, London: Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 0-85369-210-6. 
  • Rossi S, editor. Australian Medicines Handbook 2006. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook; 2006. ISBN 0-9757919-2-3
  • Oliver AL, Anderson BN, Roddick FA. Factors affecting the production of L-phenylacetylcarbinol by yeast: a case study. Advances in Microbial Physiology. 1999;41:1-45. PMID: 10500843
  • Suo, Steve. Clamp down on shipments of raw ingredients. The Oregonian; 6 October 2004. From a version reprinted on a U.S. congressional caucus website.
  • U.S. Patent 6,495,529, (-)-Pseudoephedrine as a Sympathomimetic Drug, Warner-Lambert (2002).
  • Oregon House Bill 2485
  • WebMD [3]
  • Vidal C, MD; Prieto A, MD; Peréz-Carral C, MD; and Armisén M, MD. Nonpigmenting fixed drug eruption due to pseudoephedrine. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 1998.

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... The Australian Medicines Handbook or AMH is a medical reference text commonly used in practice by health professionals (particularly general practitioners and pharmacists) in Australia. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Phenylephrine or Neo-Synephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and to increase blood pressure. ... Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a drug of the phenethylamine family used as a decongestant and also as an appetite suppressant. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ...

External links

  • Pseudoephedrine (Systemic) monograph – from USP DI Advice for the Patient
  • Pseudoephedrine MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Pseudoephedrine (2130 words)
Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant.
Pseudoephedrine is a phenethylamine, and a diastereomer of ephedrine.
Pseudoephedrine is also indicated for vasomotor rhinitis, and as an adjunct to other agents in the optimum treatment of allergic rhinitis, croup, sinusitis, otitis media, and tracheobronchitis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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