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Encyclopedia > Psalm 90
Psalms תהילים (Tehilim)

Psalm 23Psalm 51Psalm 67
Psalm 69Psalm 89Psalm 91
Psalm 95Psalm 96Psalm 98
Psalm 100Psalm 103Psalm 104
Psalm 109Psalm 113-118Psalm 119
Psalm 130Psalm 137Psalm 143
Psalm 151 • Psalm 152-155
The Lord is My Shepherd by Eastman Johnson Wikisource has original text related to this article: Psalm 23 Psalm 23 (Psalm 22 in the Septuagint numbering), sometimes known as the Shepherd Psalm because of its opening line, The Lord is my shepherd, is perhaps the best-known psalm, and perhaps... This article should be transwikied to Wikibooks or Wikisource Psalms 51 1 Have mercy upon me, O God, according to thy lovingkindness: according unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In the Old Testament, Ethan (אֵיתָן Firm, Standard Hebrew Etan, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÊṯān) the Ezrahite is the cymbal-player in King Davids court. ... Psalm 91, referred to by its Latin monicker Qui Habitat, is known as the Psalm of Protection, and is often sung during services of Compline. ... Psalm 103 is a Hebrew poem recorded as having been written by King David. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Psalm 104 Psalm 104 (Psalm 103 in Septuagint based translations) is a poem in the Bible. ... Psalm 109 is noted for containing some of the most frighteningly severe curses in the Bible, such as: Let there be none to extend mercy unto him: neither let there be any to favour his fatherless children. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Psalm 119 is the longest psalm as well as the longest chapter in the Bible. ... LATIN VERSION from the Latin Bible: Latin Vulgate canticum graduum 1. ... Psalm 137 is one of the best known of the Biblical psalms. ... LATIN VERSION from the Latin Bible: Latin Vulgate canticum David 1. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... These are additional Psalms found in the Septuagint and Peshitta and at Qumran: 11QPs(a)154,155. ...


Complete Pslams 1-150

King James version
American Standard version
World English version
Wycliffe version

Tanakh
Torah | Nevi'im | Ketuvim
Books of Ketuvim
Three Poetic Books
1. Psalms
2. Proverbs
3. Job
Five Scrolls
4. Song of Songs
5. Ruth
6. Lamentations
7. Ecclesiastes
8. Esther
Other Books
9. Daniel
10. Ezra-Nehemiah
11. Chronicles

Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi ("songs sung to a harp", originally from psallein "play on a stringed instrument"), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... In the third major section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), which is called Ketuvim (The Writings), there are five relatively short biblical books that are grouped together and known collectively in the Jewish tradition as The Five Scrolls (Hebrew: Hamesh Megillot or Chamesh Megillos). ... The Song of Solomon or Song of Songs (Hebrew title שיר השירים, Shir ha-Shirim) is a book of the Hebrew Bible—Tanakh or Old Testament—one of the five megillot. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Daniel, written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a book in both the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ...


The Islamic redaction of the book of Psalms is called the Zabur, and is believed to be one of the holy books revealed by Allah prior to the Qur'an, the others include Tawrah (Torah) and Injil (Gospels). Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Zabur (Arabic زبور), equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by Allah prior to the Quran (the others being the Tawrat and Injil). ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Tawrat (Tawrah) is considered by Muslims to be the original divine revelation given to Moses and one of the three Divine Books revealed before the Quran, the other two being the Injil and Zabur. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... The Injil (Arabic إنجيل , also transcribed Injeel) is one of the four Islamic Holy Books the Quran records as revealed by Allah - the others being the Zabur, Tawrat, and Quran. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


In the Hebrew Bible, the Psalms are counted among the "Writings" or Ketuvim (one of the three main sections into which the books are grouped). Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ...


The Book of Psalms, especially if printed separately and set for singing or chanting, is also called the Psalter.

Contents

Composition of the Book of Psalms

Hebrew Bible or
Old Testament
for details see Biblical canon
Jewish, Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Orthodox
Roman Catholic and Orthodox include but Jews and Protestants exclude:
Orthodox (Synod of Jerusalem) include:
Russian and Ethiopian Orthodox includes:
Ethiopian Orthodox Bible includes:
Syriac Peshitta Bible includes:
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The Book of Psalms is divided into 150 Psalms, each of which constitutes a religious song or chant, though one or two are long and may constitute a set of related chants. When the Bible was divided into chapters, each Psalm was assigned its own chapter. Psalms are sometimes referred to as chapters, though their individuality antedates the chapter assignments by at least 1,500 years. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... The biblical canon is a list of books written during the formative periods of the Jewish or Christian faiths. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... 1. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... 1. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Song of Solomon or Song of Songs (Hebrew title שיר השירים, Shir ha-Shirim) is a book of the Hebrew Bible—Tanakh or Old Testament—one of the five megillot. ... The Book of Isaiah (Hebrew: Sefer Yshayah ספר ישעיה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, believed to be written by Isaiah[1]. // The 66 chapters of Isaiah consist primarily of prophecies of the judgments awaiting nations that are persecuting Judah. ... Bold text The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is a book that is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Ezekiel redirects here. ... The Book of Daniel, written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a book in both the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the... The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sira, (or The Wisdom of Yeshua Ben Sira or merely Sirach), called Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes) by Christians, is a book written circa 180–175 BCE. The author, Yeshua ben Sira, was a Jew who had been living in Jerusalem, who may in... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... Bold text The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is a book that is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... 1 Esdras is a deuterocanonical book accepted by most Orthodox Christians, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and Protestants. ... 1. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over the passions. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... 1. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... These are additional Psalms found in the Septuagint and Peshitta and at Qumran: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... The Bible is traditionally divided into 66 books for Protestants and 73 for Catholics and Orthodox Christians. ...


The Dead Sea Scrolls contain more than 150 Psalms, including the "canonical" 150 Psalms and several "non-canonical" Psalms. The current version of the article or section is written like an essay. ...


The organization and numbering of the Psalms differs slightly between the (Masoretic) Hebrew and the (Septuagint) Greek manuscripts: The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Launcelot Lee Brentons English translation. ...

Hebrew Psalms Greek Psalms
1-8
9-10 9
11-113 10-112
114-115 113
116 114-115
117-146 116-145
147 146-147
148-150
  • Psalms 9 and 10 in the Hebrew are together as Psalm 9 in the Greek
  • Psalms 114 and 115 in the Hebrew are Psalm 113 in the Greek
  • Psalms 114 and 115 in the Greek appear as Psalm 116 in the Hebrew
  • Psalms 146 and 147 in the Greek form Psalm 147 in the Hebrew

Christian traditions vary: Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

  • Protestant translations are based on the Hebrew numbering;
  • Eastern Orthodox translations are based on the Greek numbering;
  • Roman Catholic official liturgical texts follow the Greek numbering, but modern Catholic translations often use the Hebrew numbering, sometimes adding, in parenthesis, the Greek numbering as well.

Most manuscripts of the Septuagint also include a Psalm 151, present in Eastern Orthodox translations; a Hebrew version of this poem was found in the Psalms Scroll of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Psalms Scroll presents the Psalms in an order different from that found elsewhere, and also contains a number of non-canonical poems and hymns. Protestantism is one of three main groups within Christianity, whose beliefs are centered on Jesus. ... ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus of Nazareth, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The current version of the article or section is written like an essay. ...


For the remainder of this article, the Hebrew Psalm numbers will be used unless otherwise noted.


Authorship and ascriptions

Jewish tradition maintains that the Psalms are the work of David (seventy three Psalms are with David's name), basing himself on the writings of ten ancient psalmists (including Adam and Moses). Many modern scholars see them as the product of several authors or groups of authors, many unknown. Most Psalms are prefixed with introductory words (which are frequently different in the Masoretic and Septuagint traditions, or missing in one while present in the other) ascribing them to a particular author or saying something, often in fairly cryptic language, about the circumstances of their composition; only 73 of these introductions claim David as author. Since the Psalms were not written down in Hebrew before the 6th century BCE, nearly half a millennium after David's reign (about 1000 BCE), they doubtless depended on oral or hymnic tradition for transmission of any Davidic material. David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Launcelot Lee Brentons English translation. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were...


Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are linked with Jeduthun, to be sung after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73-83 are associated with Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in the worship of God. The ascriptions of Psalms 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and 88 assert that the "sons of Korah" were entrusted with arranging and singing them; 2 Chronicles 20:19 suggests that this group formed a leading part of the Korathite singers. Hebraist Joel M. Hoffman suggests that Psalm 49 may be an anti-corruption Psalm, not "for Korah" but "against Korah."[1] Jeduthun - lauder; praising - the name of two men in the Bible. ... Asaph (God has gathered), is the name of five men from the Old Testament. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... People named Korah or Kórach (קֹרַח Baldness; ice; hail; frost, Standard Hebrew Qóraḥ Tiberian Hebrew Qōraḥ) in the Bible: One of Esaus sons. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ...


Psalm 18 is found, with minor variations, also at 2 Samuel 22, for which reason, in accordance with the naming convention used elsewhere in the historic parts of the Bible, it is known as the Song of David.


Sections of the book

In Jewish usage, the Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction (For the Orthodox Christian division into twenty kathismata, see Eastern Orthodox usage, below): Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ...

  1. The first book comprises the first 41 Psalms. All of these are ascribed to David except Psalms 1, 2, 10, and 33, which, though untitled in the Hebrew, were also traditionally ascribed to David. While Davidic authorship cannot be confirmed, this probably is the oldest section of the Psalms.
  2. The second book consists of the next 31 Psalms (42-72). Eighteen of these are ascribed to David. Psalm 72 begins "For Solomon", but is traditionally understood as being written by David as a prayer for his son. The rest are anonymous.
  3. The third book contains seventeen Psalms (73-89), of which Psalm 86 is ascribed to David, Psalm 88 to Heman the Ezrahite, and Psalm 89 to Ethan the Ezrahite.
  4. The fourth book also contains seventeen Psalms (90-106), of which Psalm 90 is ascribed to Moses, and Psalms 101 and 103 to David.
  5. The fifth book contains the remaining Psalms, 44 in number. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, one (Psalm 127) as a charge to Solomon.

Psalm 136 is generally called "the great Hallel." But the Talmud includes also Psalms 120-135. Psalms 113-118, inclusive, constitute the "Hallel" recited at the three great feasts (Passover, Weeks, and Tabernacles), at the new moon, and on the eight days of Hanukkah. A version of Psalm 136 with slightly different wording appears in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Artists depiction of Solomons court (Ingobertus, c. ... Heman the Ezrahite is described as the author of Psalm 88 in the Bible. ... Ethan (or Eitan in Hebrew) may refer to: // In Television and Film Ethan fleming, a famous director and screemwriter, often works with his brother Joel Coen Logan Harrell, an American actor in Cant Hardly Wait; as a youth credited as Ethan Randall Mrs. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Passover (Hebrew: פסח; transliterated as Pesach or Pesah), also called חג המצות (Chag HaMatzot - Festival of Matzot) is a Jewish holiday which is celebrated in the northern spring. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (early- to late-October). ... Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the [[Hebrew calendar]]. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional [[Jewish prayer]]s, including the Psalms of Hallel (praise) in all Orthodox and... Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights or Festival of Rededication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev, which may be in December, late November, or, while very rare in occasion, early January (as was the case for the Hanukkah of 2005... The current version of the article or section is written like an essay. ...


Psalms 120-134 are referred to as Songs of Degrees, and are thought to have been used as hymns of approach by pilgrims. This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ...


Psalm 119 is the longest Psalm. It is composed of 176 verses, in sets of eight verses, each set beginning with one of the 22 Hebrew letters. Several other Psalms too have alphabetical arrangements. These psalms are believed to be written (rather than oral) compositions from the first, and thus of a relatively late date. Psalm 119 is the longest psalm as well as the longest chapter in the Bible. ... Verse is a writing that uses meter as its primary organisational mode, as opposed to prose, which uses grammatical and discoursal units like sentences and paragraphs. ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... An acrostic (from the late Greek akróstichon, from ákros, extreme, and stíchos, verse) is a poem or other text written in an alphabetic script, in which the first letter, syllable or word of each verse, paragraph or other recurring feature in the text spells out another message. ...


Psalm 117 is the shortest Psalm, containing but two verses.


Psalm forms

Scholars have determined that there are groups of psalms that can be classified together because of similarities. The main forms are:

  1. Hymns
  2. Individual Laments
  3. Community Laments
  4. Songs of Trust
  5. Individual Thanksgiving Psalms
  6. Royal Psalms
  7. Wisdom Psalms
  8. Pilgrimage Psalms
  9. Liturgy Psalms

Psalm forms or types also include: Songs of Zion - Psalms 48, 76, 84, 87, 122, 134; Historical Litanies - Psalms 78, 105, 106, 135, 136; Pilgrim Liturgies - Psalms 81, 21; Entrance Liturgies - Psalms 15, 24; Judgment Liturgies - Psalms 50, 82; Mixed Types - 36, 40, 41, 68 A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Personification of wisdom (Greek Σοφια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Detail from the Allegory of Wisdom and Strength by Paulo Veronese (c. ... Pilgrim at Mecca In religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance. ... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ...


Walter Brueggemann suggests another way of categorizing the Psalms: Orientation, Disorientation, Reorientation


Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual

In the Pentateuch (or Torah), Moses leads the Jews in two songs of praise: upon the splitting of the Red Sea (Exodus 15) and before his death (Deuteronomy 32). Also, the Jews sing upon miracles done for them with the well (Numbers 21). Other Jewish figures would sing songs to celebrate miracles, including Joshua and Deborah. It is David, though, who is known as the "sweet singer of Israel". Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Joshua stops the sun by Gustave Doré Joshua or Yehoshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Tiberian: , Israeli: Yəhoshúa) was an Israelite leader who succeeded Moses. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (דְּבוֹרָה Bee, Standard Hebrew Dəvora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ...


Some of the titles given to the Psalms in their ascriptions suggest their use in worship:

  • Some bear the Hebrew designation shir (Greek ode, a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song.
  • Fifty-eight Psalms bear the designation (Hebrew) mizmor (Greek psalmos, a Psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument.
  • Psalm 145, and many others, have the designation (Hebrew) tehillah (Greek hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
  • Six Psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Hebrew) michtam.
  • Psalm 7 and Habakkuk 3 bear the title (Hebrew) shiggaion.

Psalms are used throughout traditional Jewish worship. Several Psalms appear as part of the morning services; Psalm 145 (commonly referred to as "Ashrei," which is really the first word of each of the last 2 verses of Psalm 144), is read during or before services, three times every day. Psalms 95-99, 29, 92, and 93, along with some later readings, comprise the introduction ("Kabbalat Shabbat") to the Friday night service. Hebrew redirects here. ... Ode (Classical Greek: ) is a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ...


Traditionally, a different "Psalm for the Day" is read after the morning service each day of the week (starting Sunday, Psalms: 24, 48, 82, 94, 81, 93, 92). This is described in the Mishnah (the initial codification of the Jewish oral tradition) in the section "Tamid." Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ...


From Rosh Chodesh Elul until Hoshanah Rabbah, Psalm 27 is recited twice daily by traditional Jews. Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the [[Hebrew calendar]]. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional [[Jewish prayer]]s, including the Psalms of Hallel (praise) in all Orthodox and... Elul (אֱלוּל, Standard Hebrew Elul, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlûl: from Akkadian elūlu) is the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year and the sixth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... In Judaism, Hoshanah Rabbah (הושענא רבא in Aramaic, Great Hoshanah) is the seventh day of Sukkot. ...


When a Jew dies, a watch is kept over the body and Tehillim (Psalms) are recited constantly by sun or candlight, until the burial service. Historically, this watch would be carried out by the immediate family – usually in shifts – but what usually happens today is that the funeral home or Chevra kadisha will offer someone to keep this vigil. A chevra kaddisha (Hebrew: holy society, better translated as burial society) is a loosely structured but generally closed organization of Jewish men and women who see to it that the bodies of Jews are prepared for burial according to halacha (Jewish law) and are protected from desecration, willful or not...


Many Jews complete the Book of Psalms on a weekly or monthly basis, and say, each week, a Psalm connected to that week's events or the Torah portion read during that week. In addition, many Jews (notably Lubavitch, and other Chasidim) read the entire Book of Psalms prior to the morning (Shachrit) service, on the Sabbath preceding the calculated appearance of the new moon.


The 116 direct quotations from the Psalms in the New Testament show that they were familiar to the Judean community in the first century of the Christian era. John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Anno Domini (Latin: In the year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi (in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. ...


The Psalms in Christian worship

 Children singing and playing music, illustration of Psalm 150 (Laudate Dominum).
Children singing and playing music, illustration of Psalm 150 (Laudate Dominum).

New Testament references show that the earliest Christians used the Psalms in worship, and the Psalms have remained an important part of worship in virtually all Christian Churches. The Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches have always made systematic use of the Psalms, with a cycle for the recitation of all or most of them over the course of one or more weeks. In the early centuries of the Church, it was expected that any candidate for bishop would be able to recite the entire Psalter from memory, something they often learned automatically during their time as monks. Today, new translations and settings of the Psalms continue to be produced. Several conservative denominations sing only the Psalms (and the small number of hymns found elsewhere in the Bible) in worship, and do not accept the use of any non-Biblical hymns; an example is the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ... The Blue Banner logo of the RPCNA The Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (RPCNA), a Christian church, is a small Presbyterian denomination with churches throughout the United States and some parts of Canada. ...


Some Psalms are among the best-known and best-loved passages of Scripture, with a popularity extending well beyond regular church-goers. In particular, the 23rd Psalm ("The Lord is My Shepherd", 22nd in the Greek numbering) offers an immediately appealing message of comfort and is widely chosen for church funeral services, either as a reading or in one of several popular hymn settings; and Psalm 50/51 ("Have mercy on me O God", called the Miserere from the first word in its Latin version) is by far the most sung Psalm of Orthodoxy, in both Divine Liturgy and Hours, in the sacrament of repentance or confession, and in other settings. Psalm 102/103 ("Bless the Lord, O my soul; and all that is within me, bless his holy name!") is one of the best-known prayers of praise. Psalm 137/136 ("By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept") is a moody, yet eventually triumphant, meditation upon living in slavery, and has been used in at least one spiritual, as well as one well-known reggae song; the Orthodox church often uses this hymn during Lent. In popular music, the U2 song "40" is based on Psalm 40 ("I waited patiently for the Lord; and he inclined unto me, and heard my cry.") This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... This article is becoming very long. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... 40, the closing track from U2s War album, was the (Germany-only) fourth single release from that album. ...


Eastern Orthodox usage

Eastern Orthodox Christians have long made the Psalms an integral part of their corporate and private prayers. To facilitate its reading, the 150 Psalms are divided into 20 kathismata ("Sittings"), and each kathisma is further subdivided into three stasi ("Standings," sing. stasis) as follows (using the Greek chapter numbering): Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...

  • Kathisma 1: Psalms 1-3, 4-6, 7-8
  • Kathisma 2: 9-10, 11-13, 14-16
  • Kathisma 3: 17, 18-20, 21-23
  • Kathisma 4: 24-26, 27-29, 30-31
  • Kathisma 5: 32-33, 34-35, 36
  • Kathisma 6: 37-39, 40-42, 43-45
  • Kathisma 7: 40-48, 49-50, 51-54
  • Kathisma 8: 55-57, 58-60, 61-63
  • Kathisma 9: 64-66, 67, 68-69
  • Kathisma 10: 70-71, 72-73, 74-76
  • Kathisma 11: 77, 78-80, 81-84
  • Kathisma 12: 85-87, 88, 89-90
  • Kathisma 13: 91-93, 94-96, 97-100
  • Kathisma 14: 101-102, 103, 104
  • Kathisma 15: 105, 106, 107-108
  • Kathisma 16: 109-111, 112-114, 115-117
  • Kathisma 17: 118:1-72, 73-131, 132-176
  • Kathisma 18: 119-123, 124-128, 129-133
  • Kathisma 19: 134-136, 137-139, 140-142
  • Kathisma 20: 143-144, 145-147, 148-150

At vespers, different kathismata are read at different times of the liturgical year and on different days of the week within the same part of the year, according to the Church's calendar. In the 20th century, some lay Christians have adopted a continuous reading of the Psalms on weekdays, praying the whole book in four weeks, three times a day, one kathisma a day. Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ...


Aside from kathisma readings, Psalms occupy a prominent place in every other Orthodox service including the services of the Hours and the Divine Liturgy. In particular, the penitential Psalm 50 is very widely used. Fragments of Psalms and individual verses are used as Prokimena, or introductions to other Scripture readings. The bulk of Vespers is composed of Psalms even if the kathismata are disregarded; Psalm 118, "The Psalm of the Law," is the centerpiece of Matins. The entire book of Psalms is traditionally read out loud or chanted at the side of the deceased during the time leading up to the funeral, mirroring Jewish tradition. Canonical hours are ancient divisions of time, developed by the Christian Church, serving as increments between the prescribed prayers of the daily round. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... In the liturgical practice of the Orthodox Church, a Prokeimenon (Greek Προκειμενον, plural prokeimena; sometimes prokimenon/prokimena) is a psalm or canticle refrain sung responsorially at certain specified points of the Divine Liturgy or Vespers, usually to introduce a scripture reading. ... Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Psalm 119 is the longest psalm as well as the longest chapter in the Bible. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... For the Anglican service of Mattins see Morning Prayer Matins is the early morning prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ...


Roman Catholic usage

The Psalms have always been an important part of Roman Catholic liturgy. The Liturgy of the Hours is centred on chanting or recitation of the Psalms, using fixed melodic formulas known as psalm tones. Early Catholics employed the Psalms widely in their individual prayers also; however, as knowledge of Latin (the language of the Latin rite) became uncommon, this practice ceased among the unlearned. Over the centuries, the use of the Psalms in the liturgy declined as well. The Tridentine Mass preserved only isolated verses that, in some cases, were originally refrains sung during recitation of the whole Psalm from which they were taken. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus of Nazareth, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... In chant, a reciting tone (also called a recitation tone) is a repeated musical pitch around which the other pitches of the chant gravitate, or by extension, the entire melodic formula that centers on one or two such pitches. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (the Latin Rite), designates the particular Church, within the Catholic Church, which developed in western Europe and northern Africa, when Latin was the language of education and culture, and so also of the liturgy. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... A Tridentine Mass being celebrated in Bohermeen, Ireland in the 1950s. ...


When the Second Vatican Council permitted the use of vernacular languages in the liturgy, certain Psalms again became well known even to the laity. Until the Council the Psalms were either recited on a one week or less frequently (as in the case of Ambrosian rite) a two-week cycle. The Breviary introduced in 1974 distributed the psalms over a four-week cycle. Monastic usage varies widely. Some use the four week cycle of the secular clergy, many retain a one week cycle, either following St Benedict's scheme or another of their own devising, while others opt for some other arrangement. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


Official approval was also given to other arrangements (see "Short" Breviaries in the 20th and early 21st Century America for an in-progress study) by which the complete Psalter is recited in a one or two-week cycle. These arrangements are used principally by Catholic contemplative religious orders, such as that of the Trappists (see for example the Divine Office schedule at New Melleray Abbey). New Melleray Abbey, near Peosta, Iowa. ...


The revision of the Roman Missal after the Second Vatican Council reintroduced the singing or recitation of a more substantial section of a Psalm, in some cases an entire Psalm, after the first Reading from Scripture. This Psalm, called the Responsorial Psalm, is usually sung or recited responsorially, although the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 61 permits direct recitation. This article is about the post-Vatican-II changes to the Mass; for an explanation of the current structure of the Mass, see Mass (Catholic Church). ... The Roman Missal (Missale Romanum) is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Latin rite of Mass. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


The General Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours, 122 sanctions three modes of singing/recitation for the Psalms:

  • directly (all sing or recite the entire psalm);
  • antiphonally (two choirs or sections of the congregation sing or recite alternate verses or strophes); and
  • responsorially (the cantor or choir sings or recites the verses while the congregation sings or recites a given response after each verse).

This article is about the musical term. ... A responsory is a type of chant in Christian liturgies that involves one section singing a respond, answered by another section singing a verse, then the respond is sung again by the first section, followed by a different verse from the second, et al. ...

Protestant usage

The psalms were extremely popular among those who followed the Reformed tradition.


Following the Protestant Reformation, verse paraphrases of many of the Psalms were set as hymns. These were particularly popular in the Calvinist tradition, where in the past they were typically sung to the exclusion of hymns. Calvin himself made some French translations of the Psalms for church usage. Martin Luther's A Mighty Fortress is Our God is based on Psalm 46. Among famous hymn settings of the Psalter were the Scottish Psalter and the settings by Isaac Watts. The first book printed in North America was a collection of Psalm settings, the Bay Psalm Book (1640). The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... A metrical psalter is a kind of Bible translation: a paraphrase of all or part of the Book of Psalms in vernacular poetry, meant to be sung as hymns in a church. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Exclusive psalmody is the particular worship practice of some churches in using the Book of Psalms from the Bible as the only manual of songs that may be sung in their services. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Rare early printing of A Mighty Fortress. ... A metrical psalter is a kind of Bible translation: a paraphrase of all or part of the Book of Psalms in vernacular poetry, meant to be sung as hymns in a church. ... Isaac Watts. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Bay Psalm Book was the first book printed in British North America. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ...


But by the 20th century they were mostly replaced by hymns in church services.


Anglican usage

Anglican chant is a way of singing the Psalms that remains part of the Anglican choral tradition. The version of the Psalter in the Book of Common Prayer is an older translation (from the Great Bible) than that included in the King James Version of the Bible. Anglican chant is a method of singing prose translations of the Psalms used in the Anglican church. ... For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... The Great Bible was the first authorised edition of the Holy Bible in English, authorised by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England. ... H:For other uses of King James Version, see King James Version (disambiguation). ...


Psalms set to music

The tune ‘Old 100th’, is a melody from Pseaumes Octante Trois de David (1551), and is one of the best known melodies in all Christian musical traditions. ... Miserere by Gregorio Allegri is a piece of a cappella religious music (a setting of Psalm 50/51) composed during the reign of Pope Urban VIII, probably during the 1630s, for use in the Sistine Chapel during matins on Wednesday and Friday of Holy Week. ... Gregorio Allegri (1582 – February 7, 1652) was an Italian composer and priest of the Roman School of composers. ... Henryk MikoÅ‚aj Górecki (born December 6, 1933) is a Polish composer of classical music. ... Vespro della Beata Vergine 1610 (Vespers for the Blessed Virgin, 1610), or simply the Vespers of 1610, as it is commonly called, is a musical composition by Claudio Monteverdi. ... For the composer see Claudio Monteverdi For the Swiss automobile brand created by Peter Monteverdi, see Monteverdi (car) Monteverde Monte Verde Category: ... Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer who first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Serge Diaghilev and performed by Diaghilevs Ballets Russes (Russian Ballet): LOiseau de feu (The Firebird) (1910), Petrushka (1911... The Chichester Psalms is a choral work by Leonard Bernstein for countertenor, choir and orchestra (3 trumpets in Bb, 3 trombones, timpani, percussion (5 players), 2 harps, and strings). ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (pronounced Bern-styne)[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, pianist and conductor. ... Tehillim is a piece of music by American composer Steve Reich, written in 1981. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ...

Trivia

  • Some have claimed that the playwright William Shakespeare was involved in the translation of Psalm in the King James Version, pointing to Psalms 46 as proof, where, counting 46 words from the beginning, one comes upon the word "shake", and counting 46 words backwards from the end, one comes upon the word "spear". Additionally, Shakespeare was 46 years of age at the time of the translating. Most scholars dismiss claims of Shakespeare's involvement in translating the King James Version, and do not accept this example as evidence of his involvement. Notably, the Geneva Bible and several other earlier translations contained the same coincidence, despite several of them being published before or just shortly after Shakespeare's birth.
  • In the King James Version, Psalms 83:18 is the only verse in Psalms in which God's name is rendered as "Jehovah." In other instances in which God's name is mentioned, the King James Version renders it "LORD."
  • The U2 song "40" is based off of the verses in Psalms 40:1-3.

The Tetragrammaton (Greek: ; word with four letters) is the usual reference to the Hebrew name for God, which is spelled (in the Hebrew alphabet): ‎ (yodh) ‎ (heh) ‎ (vav) ‎ (heh) or ‎ (reading right to left = YHWH). ... Jehovah is an English transcription of יְהֹוָה, a specific vocalized spelling of יהוה which is found in the Masoretic Text. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... 40, the closing track from U2s War album, was the (Germany-only) fourth single release from that album. ...

See also

In English law, the benefit of clergy was originally a provision by which clergymen could claim that they were outside the jurisdiction of the secular courts and be tried instead under canon law. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The technical term placebo is precisely applied in the specialized medical domains of pharmacology, nosology, and aetiology to denote the pharmacologically inert, dummy simulator of an active drug that serves as a scientific control in clinical trials designed to determine the clinical efficacy of that particular drug. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bible, King James, Psalms The Penitential Psalms or Psalms of Confession is a name given from very early times to Psalms 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, and 130 (6, 31, 37, 50, 101, and 129 in the Septuagint numbering), which are specially... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ My People's Prayer Book Volume 9. (Rabbi Lawrence A. Hoffman, ed.) 2004. ISBN 1-58023-262-0.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Psalms
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Psalms
  • Jewish translations:
    • Tehillim - Psalms (Judaica Press) translation with Rashi's commentary at Chabad.org
    • Voweled Hebrew and 1917 JPS translation- includes MP3 files of chapters read in Hebrew at mechon-mamre.org
  • Christian translations:
    • Jesus in the Book of Psalms - Video Link
    • Psalms at The Great Books (New Revised Standard Version)
    • The Psalter (Translation by the Monks of New Skete)
    • The Psalter of the Prophet and King David A translation according to the Septuagint (in PDF).
    • The Psalter (Scottish Metrical Version of the Psalms with links to MIDI audio files for suggested tunes)
    • Musicalization of Psalms 1-8, downloadable mp3 from http://www.reverdecer.com ("Save target as")
  • Commentary and other:
    • Free audio recording of "Psalm 23" from Librivox
    • Penetrating beneath the surface level of the Tehillim - Psalms
    • The Treasury of David, by C.H. Spurgeon, with commentaries on each of the Psalms and hints for preachings

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. Partially updated and some additional material added, but still not making full use of modern scholarship Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... For the astrological concept, see Jyotish#Rashi - the signs. ... Chabad. ... MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a popular digital audio encoding and lossy compression format and algorithm, designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent audio, yet still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... New Skete is the collective term for three Orthodox Christian monastic communities in Cambridge, New York: The Monks of New Skete, a mens monastery founded in 1966, the Nuns of New Skete, a womens monastery founded in 1969, and the Companions of New Skete, a community of married... The Lord is My Shepherd by Eastman Johnson Wikisource has original text related to this article: Psalm 23 Psalm 23 (Psalm 22 in the Septuagint numbering), sometimes known as the Shepherd Psalm because of its opening line, The Lord is my shepherd, is perhaps the best-known psalm, and perhaps... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...


 
 

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