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Encyclopedia > Przewalski's Horse
Przewalski's Horse

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Genus: Equus
Subgenus: Equus
Species: E. ferus
Subspecies: E. f. przewalskii
Trinomial name
Equus ferus przewalskii
(Poliakov, 1881)

Range map

Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii or Equus caballus przewalskii, classification is debated), pronounced in English as /ʃe'væl.skiː/, also known as the Asian Wild Horse or Mongolian Wild Horse, or Takhi, is the closest living wild relative of the domestic Horse. Image File history File linksMetadata Przewalskis-horse-036437. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Binomial name Boddaert, 1785 Subspecies †Equus ferus ferus Equus ferus przewalskii Bred back Tarpan in Haselünne, Germany (2004) The Wild Horse (Equus ferus or Equus ferus caballus) is a member of the Horse genus which currently is native only in Asia. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Most "wild" horses today, such as the American Mustang or the Australian Brumbies, are actually feral animals, horses that were once domesticated but escaped and reverted to an apparently wild status. The Przewalski's Horse, on the other hand, has never been successfully domesticated and remains a truly wild animal today. There were once several types of equid that had never been successfully domesticated, including the Tarpan, Onager, and others. However, most have become extinct, with the Przewalski's Horse the only remaining truly wild horse in the world. This article is about the feral horse of the American west. ... A brumby is a wild (feral) horse in Australia. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, Pakistan, India, Israel, and Tibet (China). ...

Contents

Taxonomy

Poliakov, who concluded that the animal was a wild horse species, gave it the official name Equus przewalskii (Poliakov 1881). However, authorities differ about the correct classification. Some hold it is a separate species, the last remnant of the wild horse Equus ferus, others hold it is a subspecies of Equus caballus. The question will only be answered with finality if or when the common ancestor from which domestic and Przewalski's horses diverged is determined.[2] Although the Przewalski's horse has 66 chromosomes, compared to 64 in a domestic horse, the Przewalski's horse and the domestic horse are the only equids that cross-breed and produce fertile offspring, possessing 65 chromosomes.[3] Binomial name Boddaert, 1785 Subspecies †Equus ferus ferus Equus ferus przewalskii Bred back Tarpan in Haselünne, Germany (2004) The Wild Horse (Equus ferus or Equus ferus caballus) is a member of the Horse genus which currently is native only in Asia. ... Species - Donkey - Domestic Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Przewalskis Horse - Plains Zebra - Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ...


Population

As of a census taken in 2005, the world population of these horses was about 1,500, all descended from 31 horses that were in captivity in 1945, mostly descended from approximately 15 captured around 1900. A cooperative venture between the Zoological Society of London and Mongolian Scientists has resulted in successful reintroduction of these horses from zoos into their natural habitat in Mongolia, and as of 2005 there is a free-ranging population of 248 animals in the wild.[1] Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ...


History

In the 15th century, Hans Schiltberger recorded one of the first European sightings of the horses in the journal of his trip to Mongolia as a prisoner of the Mongol Khan.[4] The horse is named after Russian General Nikolai Przhevalsky (18391888). (The spelling of the horse breed as "Przewalski" derives from the Polish spelling of the name). He was an explorer and naturalist who described the horse in 1881, after having gone on an expedition to find it, based on rumours of its existence. Many of these horses were captured around 1900 by Carl Hagenbeck and placed in zoos. As noted above, about twelve to fifteen reproduced and formed today's population. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Johann (or Hans) Schiltberger (May 9?, 1381 - 1440?), German traveller and writer, was born of a noble family, probably at Hollern near Lohof, half way between Munich and Freising, on what was then a property of his family. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the title. ... Nikolai Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, also spelled Przewalski and Prjevalsky (Russian: ) (April 12, 1839—November 1, 1888 (Gregorian calendar)), was a Russian geographer and explorer in central and eastern Asia. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Carl Hagenbeck Carl Hagenbeck (1844-1913) was a merchant in wild animals and future entrepreneur of many European zoos. ...

Przewalski's Horse at the Parc du Thot, France
Przewalski's Horse at the Parc du Thot, France

The native population declined in the 20th century due to a combination of factors, with the wild population in Mongolia dying out in the 1960s. The last herd was sighted in 1967 and the last individual horse in 1969. Expeditions after this failed to locate any horses, and the species was designated "extinct in the wild" for over 30 years. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


After 1945 only two captive populations in zoos remained: in Munich and in Prague Zoo. The most valuable group in Askania Nova was shot down by German soldiers during occupation and the group in the USA had died. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The main entrance in a Saturday morning. ... Location of Askania-Nova in Ukraine Two days old foal of Przewalskis Horse Askania-Nova (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is a biosphere reserve in Kherson Oblast, Ukraine, located within the dry Tavriya steppe. ...

A herd of Przewalski's Horses at Khustain Nuruu National Park, Mongolia

In 1977, the Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse was founded by Jan and Inge Bouman, which started a program of exchange between captive populations in zoos throughout the world to reduce inbreeding, and later starting a breeding program of its own. In 1992, sixteen horses were released into the wild in Mongolia, followed by additional animals later on. These reintroduced horses successfully reproduced, and the status of the animal was changed from "extinct in the wild" to "endangered" in 2005.[1] However, they are classified as "extinct in the wild" by the IUCN Red List, as they have not been reassessed since 1996. [5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... It has been suggested that inbreeding depression be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ...


The area to which they were reintroduced became Khustain Nuruu National Park in 1998. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Other Reserves for the Przewalski's Horse

The world's largest captive breeding program for Przewalski's horses is at the Askania Nova preserve in Ukraine. Several dozen Przewalski's horses were also released in the area evacuated after the Chernobyl accident, which now serves as a deserted de facto natural preserve.[6] An intensely researched population of free-ranging animals was introduced to the Hortobágy puszta in Hungary; data on social structure, behavior, diseases etc gathered from these animals is used to improve the Mongolian conservation effort. Location of Askania-Nova in Ukraine Two days old foal of Przewalskis Horse Askania-Nova (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is a biosphere reserve in Kherson Oblast, Ukraine, located within the dry Tavriya steppe. ... The nuclear power plant at Chernobyl prior to the completion of the sarcophagus. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Hortobágy is a part of Alföld (Great Plain) in eastern Hungary, near Debrecen. ... Puszta is a concept often associated with Hungarian traditional landscape. ...


A small population of Przewalski's horses exists in Monarto Zoological Park in Murray Bridge, South Australia. The Monarto Zoo is owned by the Adelaide Zoo, and is an open plains zoo about 70km from Adelaide. ... The Murray Bridge that crosses the Murray River Driving across the bridge Murray Bridge () is a city in South Australia about 80 kilometres (50 miles) southeast of Adelaide and 1 hour drive north of Meningie. ...

Przewalski's Horses at Toronto Zoo

Three of these horses now graze in a 12 acre (5 hectare) paddock in the Clocaenog Forest in North Wales, UK, on the site of a former Neolithic or Iron Age settlement. They were introduced there in 2004. The Forestry Commission hopes they will help recreate scenes from the Iron Age when these horses roamed Britain freely.[7] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Toronto Zoo is a zoo located in the north eastern part of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Clocaenog Forest is in West Denbighshire/Conwy, Wales. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Forestry Commission (established in 1919) is a non ministerial Government Department responsible for forestry in Great Britain. ...


Another small population exists at The Wilds Wildlife Preserve in Cumberland, Ohio, USA. The small herd of about 17 individuals can be seen in a large area shared with other Asian animals at reclaimed coal mining site.[3] Cumberland is a village located in Guernsey County, Ohio. ...


Appearance

Przewalski's Horses
Przewalski's Horses

Przewalski's Horse is stockily built in comparison to domesticated horses, with shorter legs. Typical height is about 13 hands (1.32 m), length is about 2.1 m with a 90 cm tail. They weigh around 350 kg. The coat is similar to Dun coloration in domestic horses. It varies from dark brown around the mane (which stands erect) to pale brown on the flanks and yellowish-white on the belly. The legs of the Przewalski's Horse are often faintly striped. [8] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2038 KB) eigen foto. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2038 KB) eigen foto. ... A hand (or handbreadth) is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm, i. ... Dun is a yellow-brown color, sometimes seen in the hair coats of horses, characterized by a body color ranging from sandy yellow to reddish-brown. ...


Behaviour

Main article: Horse behavior

In the wild, Przewalski's Horses live in social groups consisting of a dominant stallion, a dominant lead mare, other mares, and their offspring. The patterns of their daily lives exhibit horse behavior similar to that of feral horse herds: Each group has a well-defined home range; within the range, the herd travels between three and six miles a day, spending time grazing, drinking, using salt licks and dozing. At night, the herd clusters and sleeps for about four hours. Ranges of different herds may overlap without conflict, as the stallions are more protective of their mares than their territory. Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... Feral horse in the Pentland Hills, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ...


Stallions practice a form of scent marking and will establish piles of dung at intervals along routes they normally travel to warn other males of their presence. In addition, when a female in the herd urinates, the stallion will frequently urinate in the same place, to signal her membership in the herd to other males. The stallions can frequently be seen sniffing dung piles to confirm scent markings.[citation needed] Scent marking can take two forms, the first the scent used to indicate territory, the second a scent that is released when the ferret is either happy or scared. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c "An extraordinary return from the brink of extinction for worlds last wild horse" ZSL Living Conservation, December 19, 2005.
  2. ^ "Przewalski's Horse," Smithsonian National Zoological Park, accessed June 25, 2006
  3. ^ The American Museum of Natural History When Is a Wild Horse Actually a Feral Horse?
  4. ^ Breeds of Livestock - Przewalski Horse
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Mulvey, Stephen. "Wildlife defies Chernobyl radiation", BBC News, BBC, 2006-04-20. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
  7. ^ Forestry Commission. 2004. FC Wales turns clock back thousands of years with 'wild' solution to looking after ancient forest site. News release, No: 7001, 16 September 2004. [2]
  8. ^ National Zoo information on Przewalski's Horse
  • Equid Specialist Group 1996. Equus ferus. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 December 2005. [4]
  • Equid Specialist Group 1996. Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 February 2006. [5]
  • Forestry Commission. 2004. FC Wales turns clock back thousands of years with 'wild' solution to looking after ancient forest site. News release, No: 7001, 16 September 2004. [6]
  • International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84. [7].
  • Ishida, N., Oyunsuren, T., Mashima, S., Mukoyama, H., and Saitou, N. J Mol Evol. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of various species of the genus Equus with special reference to the phylogenetic relationship between Przewalskii's wild horse and domestic horse. Journal of molecular evolution; 41(2): 180–188. [8]
  • Jansen, T., Forster, P., Levine, M.A., Oelke, H., Hurles, M., Renfrew, C., Weber, J., and Olek, K. 2002. Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; 99(16): 10905–10910. [9]
  • Wakefield, S., Knowles, J., Zimmermann, W. and Van Dierendonck, M. 2002. Status and action plan for the Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalski). In: P.D. Moehlman (ed.) Equids: Zebras, Asses and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 82-92. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. [10]
  • NYT/AP story: [11] (population figures)
  • King, S. R. B. & Gurnell, J. (2006) Scent-marking behaviour by stallions: an assessment of function in a reintroduced population of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). Journal of Zoology 0 (0), ???-???. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00243.x

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Mongolian horse (with trimmed mane) The mongolian horse (mongolian Мор, mor) is the favourite animal of the mongols, and not only since Genghis Khan conquered half the world with its help. ... Binomial name Boddaert, 1785 Subspecies †Equus ferus ferus Equus ferus przewalskii Bred back Tarpan in Haselünne, Germany (2004) The Wild Horse (Equus ferus or Equus ferus caballus) is a member of the Horse genus which currently is native only in Asia. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, Pakistan, India, Israel, and Tibet (China). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Reintroduction is the deliberate release of animals from captivity into the wild. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Przewalskis Horse (1353 words)
Przewalski’s horse is also known as the Asiatic wild horse, the Mongolian wild horse, the Mongolian tarpan, and the taki.
Ironically, when the Przewalski’s horses became extinct in their native habitats from competition, hunting, and displacement, it was the zoo descendants of the captured foals that provided hope for the future.
The release of these horses into their native habitat was made possible by the efforts of concerned scientists and by the legalized protection of the Przewalski’s horses and their habitats.
HORSE - LoveToKnow Article on HORSE (15708 words)
The carpal joint, corresponding to the wrist of man, is commonly called the knee of the horse, the joint between the metacarpal and the first phalanx the fetlock, that between the first and second phalanges the pastern, and that between the second and third phalanges the coffin joint.
The statute was not to extend to the counties of Westmorland, Cuinberland, Northumberland or the bishopric of Durham.
Horses doing slow or other than upper ten work may have oats crushed, not ground, and a variety of additions made to the oats which are usually the basis of the feedfor example, a few old crushed beans, a little linseed meal, ground linseed cake or about a wine-glassful of unboiled linseed oil.
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