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Encyclopedia > Prussia
East Prussia (red) shown as part of the Kingdom of Prussia (blue) at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire (1871-1918)
East Prussia (red) shown as part of the Kingdom of Prussia (blue) at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire (1871-1918)

Prussia (German: [1]; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Latvian: Prūsija; Lithuanian: Prūsija; Polish: Prusy; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area that for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. The last capital of Prussia was Berlin. The national name Prussia at different times has denoted a geographical region, a dukedom, a Polish province, a Polish fief, a kingdom under Brandenburgs rule which became the leading kingdom of the German Empire (comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the Germanys area) and as... Image File history File links Map-Prussia-EastPrussia. ... Image File history File links Map-Prussia-EastPrussia. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Image File history File links Preußen. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Prussia attained its greatest importance in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century, it became a great European power under the reign of Frederick II of Prussia (1740–86). During the 19th century, Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck pursued a policy of uniting the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany" that would exclude the Austrian Empire. This led to the unification of Germany in 1871, with Prussia forming the core of the German Empire. Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...


In the course of its history, Prussia has had various meanings:

Since then, the term's relevance has been limited to historical, geographical, or cultural usages. Even today, a certain kind of ethic is called "Prussian virtues", for instance: perfect organisation, sacrifice, rule of law, obedience to authority, and militarism, but also reliability, religious tolerance, sobriety, pragmatism, thriftiness, punctuality, modesty, and diligence. Many Prussians believed that these virtues promoted the rise of their country. Prussian tribes settlements. ... Old Prussia was the land extending from the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea to the Masurian Lakes district, known as Prussia, was called Brus in the 8th century map of the Bavarian Geographer. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Royal and Ducal Prussia in the second half of 16th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with its major subdivisions as of 1619, superimposed on present-day national borders Ducal Prussia, or the Duchy of Prussia (German: ; Polish: ), was a duchy established in 1525 in the eastern part of Prussia, as western... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Province of Prussia was a province of Poland from the 15th century until 1660, consisting of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Symbols

The black and white national colours of Prussia stem from the Teutonic Knights, who wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross. The combination of these colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. This article is about the coat of arms of the former German state of Prussia. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ... Gold Embroidery Cross-stitch embroidery, Hungary, mid-20th century Phulkari from Punjab region, India 15th century embroidered cope, Ghent, Belgium Embroidery, c. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Lübeck ( pronunc. ...


From the Protestant Reformation onward, the Prussian motto was Suum cuique ("to each, his own"; German: Jedem das Seine). Additionally, it was the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle, created by King Frederick I (see also Iron Cross). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... The Order of the Black Eagle The Order of the Black Eagle (German: Schwarzer-Adler-Orden) was the highest order of chivalry in Prussia. ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ...


The main coat of arms of Prussia depicted a black eagle on a white background. This article is about the coat of arms of the former German state of Prussia. ... Genera Several, see below. ...


Geography and population

Prussia began as a small territory in what was later called East Prussia, which is now divided into the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave of Russia, and the Klaipėda Region of Lithuania. The region, originally populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised and Germanised, became a preferred location for immigration by (later mainly Protestant) Germans as well as Poles and Lithuanians along border regions. Capital city Olsztyn Area 24,191. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia The KlaipÄ—da Region (Lithuanian: ) or Memel Territory (German: ; French: ) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 when it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors. ... A cropped image of Prussia from Spread of German settlements to the Eastward, 800-1400. (Full map. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ...


Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included "Prussia proper" (West and East Prussia), Brandenburg, the Province of Saxony (including most of the present-day state of Saxony-Anhalt and parts of the state of Thuringia in Germany), Pomerania, Rhineland, Westphalia, Silesia (without Austrian Silesia), Lusatia, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse-Nassau, and some small detached areas in the south such as Hohenzollern, the ancestral home of the Prussian ruling family. Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Province of Brandenburg (German: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946. ... The Province of Saxony (German Provinz Sachsen) was a Prussian province between the Napoleonic Wars of 1815 and 1947. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Westphalia and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Hohenzollern and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ...


In 1914, Prussia had an area of 354,490 km². In May 1939 Prussia had an area of 297,007 km² and a population of 41,915,040 inhabitants. The Principality of Neuenburg, now the Canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland, was a part of the Prussian kingdom from 1707 to 1848. Neuchâtel is a canton of Switzerland. ...


Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state. East Prussia's southern region of Masuria was largely made up of Germanised Protestant Masurs. This explains in part why the Catholic South German states, especially Austria and Bavaria, resisted Prussian hegemony for so long.[citation needed] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki. ... The Mazurs are members of a WestslPolish ethnic group in the Masovian and Warmian-Masurian [[voivodship]avic in Poland. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


There were substantial Roman Catholic populations in the Rhineland and parts of Westphalia. Also West Prussia, Warmia, Silesia, and the Province of Posen had predominantly Catholic populations. The Kingdom of Prussia acquired these areas from countries with a Catholic majority: the Kingdom of Poland and the Austrian Empire. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ...


The area of Greater Poland where the Polish nation had originated became the Province of Posen after the Partitions of Poland. Poles in this Polish-majority province (62% Polish, 38% German) resisted German rule. Also, the southeast portion of Silesia (Upper Silesia) had a large Polish population. Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny Śląsk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ...


As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia. After World War II, East Prussia, Silesia, most of Pomerania, and part of Brandenburg were taken over by either the Soviet Union or Poland.[2] This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


History of Brandenburg and Prussia
Northern March
pre-12th century
Old Prussians
pre-13th century
Margraviate of Brandenburg
11571618 (1806)
Ordenstaat
12241525
Duchy of Prussia
15251618
Royal (Polish) Prussia
14661772
Brandenburg-Prussia
16181701
Kingdom in Prussia
17011772
Kingdom of Prussia
17721918
Free State of Prussia
19181947
Brandenburg
19471952 / 1990

Image File history File links Brandenburg_Wappen. ... The Prussian flag (small) 1701-1918 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... The Northern March within the Empire, 10th century. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

Early history

After the 2nd Peace of Toruń in 1466
After the 2nd Peace of Toruń in 1466

In 1226 Duke Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights, a German military order of crusading knights, headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre, to conquer the Baltic Prussian tribes on his borders. During 60 years of struggles against the Old Prussians, the order created an independent state which came to control Prussia. After the Livonian Brothers of the Sword joined the Teutonic Order in 1237 they also controlled Livonia (now Latvia and Estonia) and western Lithuania. Prussias Ancient Roots The land extending from the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea to the Masurian Lakes district was called Prussia in the 8th century by a Bavarian geographer, whereas previous historians had documented the Prussian tribes as Easterners or Aesti, Aisti. ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (823x668, 57 KB) Other versions (WP:EN) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Teutonic Knights Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (823x668, 57 KB) Other versions (WP:EN) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Teutonic Knights Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... The Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights (German: ) was formed during the Teutonic Knights conquest of Old Prussia and the still pagan Baltic Old Prussians in the 13th century. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (823x666, 53 KB) Other versions (WP:EN) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prussia Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights User:Der Eberswalder/Konfederacio Orienta Prusio ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (823x666, 53 KB) Other versions (WP:EN) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prussia Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights User:Der Eberswalder/Konfederacio Orienta Prusio ... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic... Image File history File links The Prussian Tribute by Jan Matejko, 1882 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links The Prussian Tribute by Jan Matejko, 1882 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Prussian Homage by Jan Matejko The Prussian Homage or Prussian Tribute (Polish: hoÅ‚d pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke... Royal and Ducal Prussia in the second half of 16th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with its major subdivisions as of 1619, superimposed on present-day national borders Ducal Prussia, or the Duchy of Prussia (German: ; Polish: ), was a duchy established in 1525 in the eastern part of Prussia, as western... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... Reign From December 8, 1506 until April 1, 1548 Coronation On January 24, 1507 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts Katarzyna Telniczanka Barbara Zapolya Bona Sforza Children with Katarzyna Telniczanka Jan Regina Katarzyna with Barbara... Konrad I of Masovia. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... A cropped image of Prussia from Spread of German settlements to the Eastward, 800-1400. (Full map. ... Livonian Brothers The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order organized in 1202 by Albert of Buxhoeveden, bishop of Riga (or... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ...


The Knights were subordinate only to the pope and the emperor. Their initially close relationship with the Polish Crown deteriorated completely after they conquered Polish-claimed Pomerelia and Danzig (Gdańsk), a town mainly populated by German settlers. The Knights were eventually defeated in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 by Poland and Lithuania, allied through the Union of Krewo. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Pomerelia (German: ) is a historical region in northern Poland. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald... The Union of Krewo (or Union of Krevo) was a a political and dynastic agreement between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Grand Prince Jagiello of Lithuania and the begining of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. ...


The Thirteen Years' War (1454-1466) began when the Prussian Confederation, a coalition of Hanseatic cities of western Prussia, rebelled against the Order and requested help from the Polish king. The Teutonic Knights were forced to acknowledge the sovereignty of King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland in the Peace of Thorn, losing western Prussia (Royal Prussia) to Poland in the process. The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... On February 21, 1440, a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation (German Preussischer Bund, Polish: ZwiÄ…zek Pruski), under the leadership of the big cities Gdansk, Elblag, and Torun. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Casimir IV Jagiellon (Polish: , Lithuanian: ; Belarusian: ; 30 November 1427 - 7 June 1492), of the House of Jagiellons, was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440, and King of Poland from 1447, until his death. ... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ...


In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern, became a Lutheran Protestant and secularised the Order's remaining Prussian territories into the Duchy of Prussia. This was the area east of the mouth of the Vistula River, later sometimes called "Prussia proper". For the first time, these lands were in the hands of a branch of the Hohenzollern family, rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg to the west, a German state centered on Berlin and ruled since the 15th century by the Hohenzollern dynasty. Furthermore, with his renunciation of the Order, Albert could now marry and produce offspring. Albert of Prussia Albert I Hohenzollern of Brandenburg-Ansbach (German: ; Latin: Albertus; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of Ducal Prussia, which he made the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Brandenburg and Prussia were unified two generations later. Anna, granddaughter of Albert I and daughter of Duke Albert Frederick (reigned 1568-1618), married her cousin Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg. Albert Frederick (7 May 1553- 28 August 1618) was duke of Ducal Prussia from 1568 until his death. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the...

Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector"
Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector"

Upon the death of Albert Frederick in 1618, who died without male heirs, John Sigismund was granted the right of succession to the Duchy of Prussia, which was still a Polish fief. From this time the Duchy of Prussia was in personal union with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. The resulting state, known as Brandenburg-Prussia, consisted of geographically disconnected territories in Prussia, Brandenburg, and Rhenish lands of Cleves and Mark. From [1], in the public domain This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... From [1], in the public domain This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... County of Mark in 1477. ...


During the Thirty Years' War, the disconnected Hohenzollern lands were repeatedly marched across by various armies, especially the occupying Swedes. The ineffective and militarily weak Margrave George William (1619-1640) fled from Berlin to Königsberg, the historic capital of the Duchy of Prussia, in 1637. His successor, Frederick William (1640-1688), reformed the army to defend the lands. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... George William (German: Georg Wilhelm) (13 November 1595 - December 1, 1640) of the Hohenzollern dynasty was margrave and elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia (1619-1640). ... Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... A standard of the Prussian Army. ...


Frederick William went to Warsaw in 1641 to render homage to King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland for the Duchy of Prussia, which was still held in fief from the Polish crown. Later, he managed to obtain a discharge from his obligations as a vassal to the Polish king by taking advantage of the difficult position of Poland vis-á-vis Sweden in the Northern Wars and his friendly relations with Russia during a series of Russo-Polish wars. He was finally given full sovereignty over Prussia in the Treaty of Wehlau in 1657. Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ... Reign in Poland November 8, 1632 – May 20, 1648. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... King Charles X of Sweden The Northern Wars (1655-1661) is a name sometimes used for the series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (The Deluge, 1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658... The Treaty of Welawa was a political act signed in the Prussian town of Welawa (German Wehlau) between Poland and Brandenburg-Prussia during the Swedish Deluge on September 9, 1657. ...


Kingdom of Prussia

Main article: Kingdom of Prussia

On 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, upgraded Prussia from a duchy to a kingdom, and crowned himself King Frederick I. To avoid offending Leopold I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire where most of his lands lay, Frederick was only allowed to title himself "King in Prussia", not "King of Prussia". However, Brandenburg was treated in practice as part of the Prussian kingdom rather than a separate state. Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ...

Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600-1795
King Frederick William I, "the Soldier-King"
King Frederick William I, "the Soldier-King"

The state of Brandenberg-Prussia became commonly known as "Prussia", although most of its territory, in Brandenburg, Pomerania, and western Germany, lay outside of Prussia proper. The Prussian state grew in splendour during the reign of Frederick I, who sponsored the arts at the expense of the treasury. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Frederick_William_I_the_Soldier-King. ... Image File history File links Frederick_William_I_the_Soldier-King. ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ...


He was succeeded by his son, Frederick William I (1713-1740) the austere "Soldier King", who did not care for the arts but was thrifty and practical. He is considered the creator of the vaunted Prussian bureaucracy and the standing army, which he developed into one of the most powerful in Europe, although his troops only briefly saw action during the Great Northern War. In view of the size of the army in relation to the total population, Voltaire said later: "Where some states have an army, the Prussian Army has a state!" Also, Frederick William settled more than 20,000 Protestant refugees from Salzburg in thinly populated eastern Prussia, which was eventually extended to the west bank of the Memel river, and other regions. From Sweden he acquired Western Pomerania as far as the Peene in 1720. Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A standard of the Prussian Army. ...   (Austro-Bavarian: SÃ¥izburg) is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Vorpommern (Polish: Pomorze Przednie) - in English sometimes also called West, Upper, or Hither Pomerania - is a region of Pomerania west of the River Oder in north-eastern Germany, including the island of Rügen but excluding the city of Szczecin (former Stettin). ... Peene (Polish: Piana) is a river in Germany and also a western strait or a branch of Oder River out of three straits conecting the Lagoon of Szczecin with the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea, between the islands of Usedom and the German mainland. ...


In 1740, Frederick William was succeeded by his son, Frederick II, later nicknamed "Frederick the Great". As crown prince he focused on philosophy and the arts; yet, in the first year of his reign he ordered the Prussian army to march into Silesia, a possession of Habsburg Austria to which the Hohenzollerns laid claim based on an old and disputed treaty of succession. In the three Silesian Wars (1740-1763) Frederick succeeded in conquering Silesia from Austria and holding his new possession. In the last, the Seven Years' War, he held it against a coalition of Austria, France, and Russia. Voltaire, a close friend of the king, once described Frederick the Great's Prussia by saying "...it was Sparta in the morning, Athens in the afternoon." From these wars onwards the German dualism dominated German politics until 1866. Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia... The term German dualism describes the long conflict between the two largest German states Austria and Prussia from 1740 to 1866 when Austria finally left the German confederation. ...

King Frederick II, "the Great"
King Frederick II,
"the Great"

Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia. Success on the battleground against Austria and other powers proved Prussia's status as one of the great powers of Europe. The Silesian Wars began more than a century of rivalry and conflict between Prussia and Austria as the two most powerful states operating within the Holy Roman Empire (although, ironically, both had extensive territory outside the empire). In 1744 the County of East Frisia fell to Prussia following the extinction of its ruling Cirksena dynasty. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (796x1110, 1480 KB) Summary Description: Friderich II. (the Great) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (796x1110, 1480 KB) Summary Description: Friderich II. (the Great) Source: http://www. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ...


In the last 23 years of his reign until 1786, Frederick II, who understood himself as the "first servant of the state", promoted the development of Prussian areas such as the Oderbruch. At the same time he built up Prussia's military power and participated in the First Partition of Poland with Austria and Russia (1772), an act that geographically connected the Brandenburg territories with those of Prussia proper. During this period, he also opened Prussia's borders to immigrants fleeing from religious persecution in other parts of Europe, such as the Huguenots. Prussia became a safe haven in much the same way that the United States welcomed immigrants seeking freedom in the 19th century. The Oderbruch is a region along the river Oder between the towns Oderberg and Bad Freienwalde in the north and Lebus in the south. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ...


Frederick the Great, the first "King of Prussia", practised enlightened absolutism. He introduced a general civil code, abolished torture, and established the principle that the crown would not interfere in matters of justice. He also promoted an advanced secondary education, the forerunner of today's German gymnasium (grammar school) system, which prepares the brightest students for university studies. The Prussian education system became emulated in various countries. enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... The Prussian education system was a system of mandatory education dating to the early 19th century. ...


Napoleonic Wars

Main article: Napoleonic Wars

During the reign of King Frederick William II (1786-1797), Prussia annexed additional Polish territory through further Partitions of Poland. His successor, Frederick William III (1797-1840), announced the union of the Prussian Lutheran and Reformed churches into one church. Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744–November 16, 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... -1... The Prussian Union (Evangelical Christian Church) was the merger of the Lutheran Church and the Reformed Church in Prussia, by a series of decrees by King Frederick William III. These decrees were the culmination of the efforts of his predecessors to unify these two churches after John Sigismund declared his...


Prussia took a leading part in the French Revolutionary Wars, but remained quiet for more than a decade due to the Peace of Basel of 1795, only to go once more to war with France in 1806 as negotiations with that country over the allocation of the spheres of influence in Germany failed. Prussia suffered a devastating defeat against Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, leading Frederick William III and his family to flee temporarily to Memel. Under the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807, the state lost about half of its area, including the areas gained from the second and third Partitions of Poland, which now fell to the Duchy of Warsaw. Beyond that, the king was obliged to make an alliance with France and join the Continental System. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... The Peace of Basel of 1795 consists of three peace treaties of France (represented by François de Barthélemy). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County Klaipėda County Municipality Klaipėda city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of Klaipėda County Klaipėda city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Chełmno... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ...


In response to this defeat, reformers such as Stein and Hardenberg set about modernising the Prussian state. Among their reforms were the liberation of peasants from serfdom, the emancipation of Jews and making full citizens of them, and the institution of self-administration in municipalities. The school system was rearranged, and in 1818 free trade was introduced. The process of army reform ended in 1813 with the introduction of compulsory military service. Heinrich Friedrich Karl, Baron vom und zum Stein Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein (Baron vom und zum Stein), October 26, 1757 - June 29, 1831), was a German statesman, of an old Franconian family. ... Karl August von Hardenberg Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg (en: Prince Charles Augustus von Hardenberg) (May 31, 1750 - November 26, 1822), was a Prussian statesman. ... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


After the defeat of Napoleon in Russia, Prussia quit its alliance with France and took part in the Sixth Coalition during the "Wars of Liberation" (Befreiungskriege) against the French occupation. Prussian troops under Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher contributed crucially in the Battle of Waterloo of 1815 to the final victory over Napoleon. Prussia's reward in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna was the recovery of her lost territories, as well as the whole of the Rhineland, Westphalia, and some other territories. These western lands were to be of vital importance because they included the Ruhr Area, the centre of Germany's fledgling industrialisation, especially in the arms industry. These territorial gains also meant the doubling of Prussia's population. In exchange, Prussia withdrew from areas of central Poland to allow the creation of Congress Poland under Russian sovereignty. Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. ... Combatants First French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of the United Netherlands Kingdom of Hanover Duchy of Nassau Duchy of Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Prince William of Orange Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelled Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... Map of Congress Poland. ...


Prussia emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the dominant power in Germany, overshadowing her long-time rival Austria, which had given up the imperial crown in 1806. In 1815 Prussia became part of the German Confederation. Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ...

The first half of the 19th century saw a prolonged struggle in Germany between liberals, who wanted a united, federal Germany under a democratic constitution, and conservatives, who wanted to maintain Germany as a patchwork of independent, monarchical states, with Prussia and Austria competing for influence. Because of Prussia's size and economic importance, smaller states began to join its free trade area in the 1820s. Prussia benefited greatly from the creation in 1834 of the German Customs Union (Zollverein), which included most German states but excluded Austria. Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (19th century photograph) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (19th century photograph) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Zollverein (German for customs union) or German Customs Union was formed between the 39 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal custom barriers, although upholding a protectionist tariff system with foreign trade partners. ...


In 1848 the liberals saw an opportunity when revolutions broke out across Europe. Alarmed, King Frederick William IV agreed to convene a National Assembly and grant a constitution. When the Frankfurt Parliament offered Frederick William the crown of a united Germany, he refused on the grounds that he would not accept a crown from a revolutionary assembly without the sanction of Germany's other monarchs. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ...


The Frankfurt Parliament was forced to dissolve in 1849, and Frederick William issued Prussia's first constitution by his own authority in 1850. This conservative document provided for a two-house parliament. The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes whose votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid. Women and those who paid no taxes had no vote. This allowed just over one-third of the voters to choose 85% of the legislature, all but assuring dominance by the more well-to-do men of the population. The upper house, which was later renamed the Herrenhaus ("House of Lords"), was appointed by the king. He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him. As a result, the grip of the landowning classes, the Junkers, remained unbroken, especially in the eastern provinces. The Prussian constitution adopted in 1850, amended in the following years was far less liberal than the federal constitution of the German Empire. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly or parliament in German speaking countries with some legislative authority. ... After the 1848 revolutions in the German states, the Prussian three-class franchise system (Dreiklassenwahlrecht) was introduced in 1849 by the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV for the election of the Lower House of the Prussian state parliament. ... The German term Herrenhaus is equivalent to the English House of Lords and describes roughly similar institutions as the English House of Lords in German-speaking countries. ... Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed nobility of Prussia and Eastern Germany - lands which are often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ...


Wars of unification

In 1862 King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister of Prussia. Bismarck was determined to defeat both the liberals and the conservatives by creating a strong united Germany but under the domination of the Prussian ruling class and bureaucracy, not a liberal democracy. Bismarck realized that the Prussian crown could win the support of the people only if he himself took the lead in the fight for the German unification. So he guided Prussia through three wars which together brought William the position of German Emperor. Bismarck with Pickelhaube Source: Uni Duesseldorf, copyright expired. ... Bismarck with Pickelhaube Source: Uni Duesseldorf, copyright expired. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Czar. ...


The Schleswig Wars

The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation. When the Danish government tried to integrate Schleswig, but not Holstein, into the Danish state, Prussia led the German Confederation against Denmark in the First War of Schleswig (1848-1851). Although the Danes were defeated militarily, the European great powers pressured Prussia into returning Schleswig and Holstein to Denmark, in return for assurances that the Danes would not try to integrate Schleswig again. Because Russia supported Austria, Prussia was also conceded predominance in the German Confederation to Austria in the Punctation of Olmütz in 1850. The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The First war of Schleswig (1848 – 1850), known in Denmark as the Three Years War (TreÃ¥rskrigen), was a military conflict in southern Denmark, contesting the issue of who should control the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. ... The Punctation of Olmütz is a treaty between Prussia and Austria, dated November 29, 1850. ...


In 1863, Denmark introduced a shared constitution for Denmark and Schleswig. This led to conflict with the German Confederation, which authorized the occupation of Holstein by the Confederation, from which Danish forces withdrew. In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig. The Austro-Prussian forces defeated the Danes, who surrendered both territories. In the resulting Gastein Convention of 1865 Prussia took over the administration of Schleswig while Austria assumed that of Holstein. Combatants Prussia Austria German Confederation Denmark Commanders Friedrich Graf von Wrangel Christian Julius De Meza replaced by George Daniel Gerlach on February 29 Strength At the outbreak of war: 61,000 158 guns Later reinforcements: 20,000 64 guns[1] 38,000 100+ guns[2] Casualties 1,700+ killed, wounded... Named after the town of Bad Gastein, the Gastein Convention was a treaty signed on August 14, 1865 between the two principal powers of the German Confederation, Prussia and Austria, over the governing of the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein obtained by the Confederation from Denmark in the Second war...


Austro-Prussian War

Main article: Austro-Prussian War
Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871
Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871

Bismarck realized that the dual administration of Schleswig and Holstein was only a temporary solution, and tensions escalated between Prussia and Austria. The struggle for supremacy in Germany then led to the Austro-Prussian War (1866), triggered by the dispute over Schleswig and Holstein. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Expansion of Prussia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Expansion of Prussia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead...


On the side of Austria stood the southern German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg), some central German states (including Saxony), and Hanover in the north; on the side of Prussia were Italy, most northern German states, and some smaller central German states. Eventually, the better-armed Prussian troops won the crucial victory at the battle of Königgrätz under Helmuth von Moltke the Elder. Thus Austria lost the decades-long struggle with Prussia for dominance of Germany. The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Ludwig von Benedek Strength 140,000troops in 3 Prussian Armies 90,000 Austrians and 25,000 Saxons Casualties 10,000 45,000 including 20,000 prisoners {{{notes}}} In the Battle of Königgrätz or Battle of Sadowa of July 3... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s...


Bismarck desired Austria as an ally in the future, and so he declined to annex any territory from the Austrian Empire. But in the Peace of Prague in 1866, Prussia annexed Austria's allies, the Kingdom of Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, the Duchy of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfurt, as well as all of Schleswig-Holstein. Prussia now stretched virtually uninterrupted across the northern two-thirds of Germany and contained two-thirds of Germany's population. The German Confederation was dissolved, and Prussia cajoled the 21 states north of the Main River into forming the North German Confederation. Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... The Peace of Prague is the name of a peace treaty ending the 1866 Austro-Prussian War. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Map showing the position of the Main in Germany The Main (pronounced in German like the English word mine) is a river in Germany, 524 km long (including White Main 574 km), and one of the more significant tributaries of the Rhine river. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following...


Prussia was the dominant state in the new confederation, as the kingdom comprised almost four-fifths of the new state's territory and population. Prussia's near-total control over the confederation was cemented in the constitution drafted for it by Bismarck in 1867. Executive power was held by a president, assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him. The presidency was a hereditary office of the Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia. There was also a two-house parliament. The lower house, or Reichstag (Diet), was elected by universal male suffrage. The upper house, or Bundesrat (Federal Council) was appointed by the state governments. The Bundesrat was, in practice, the stronger chamber. Prussia had 17 of 43 votes, and could easily control proceedings through alliances with the other states. Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which... The Bundesrat, German for Federal Council, is a political institution in several countries: Bundesrat of Austria (legislative) Bundesrat of Germany (legislative) Bundesrat of Switzerland: the Swiss Federal Council (executive) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


As a result of the peace negotiations, the states south of the Main remained theoretically independent, but received the (compulsory) protection of Prussia. Additionally, mutual defense treaties were concluded. (See also "Das Lied der Deutschen".) However, the existence of these treaties was kept secret until Bismarck made them public in 1867, when France tried to acquire Luxembourg. Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian...


Franco-Prussian War

Main article: Franco-Prussian War
German Emperor William I
German Emperor William I

The controversy with the Second French Empire over the candidacy of a Hohenzollern to the Spanish throne was escalated both by France and Bismarck. With his Ems Dispatch, Bismarck took advantage of an incident in which the French ambassador had approached William. The government of Napoleon III, expecting another civil war among the German states, declared war against Prussia, continuing Franco-German enmity. Honouring their treaties, the German states joined forces and quickly defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Following victory under Bismarck's and Prussia's leadership, Baden, Württemberg, and Bavaria—which had remained outside the North German Confederation—accepted incorporation into a united German Empire. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Image File history File links Wilhelm1. ... Image File history File links Wilhelm1. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... The Ems Dispatch (sometimes called the Ems Telegram) is the document that instigated the Franco-Prussian War. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... The term French-German (hereditary) enmity (German: ) describes the often hostile relations between France and the German states that eventually became the German Empire. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...


The empire was a Kleindeutsche Lösung—or a "Lesser German Solution" to the problem of German unity, because it excluded Austria, which remained connected to Hungary. On 18 January 1871 (the 170th anniversary of the coronation of King Frederick I), William was proclaimed "German Emperor" (not "Emperor of Germany") in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles outside Paris, while the French capital was still under siege. For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47...


German Empire

Main article: German Empire
Prussia in the German Empire 1871–1918

The two decades after the unification of Germany were the peak of Prussia's fortunes, but the seeds for potential strife were built into the Prusso-German political system. Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Adams Prussia map with proper spelling of Königsberg and Württemberg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adams Prussia map with proper spelling of Königsberg and Württemberg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The constitution of the German Empire was a slightly amended version of the North German Confederation's constitution. Prussia's dominance over the empire was almost absolute. Prussia included three-fifths of its territory and two-thirds of its population. The Imperial German Army was, in practice, an enlarged Prussian army, although the other kingdoms (Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg) retained their own armies. The imperial crown was a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern, the royal house of Prussia. The prime minister of Prussia was, except for two brief periods (January-November 1873 and 1892-94), also imperial chancellor. While all men above age 25 were eligible to vote in imperial elections, Prussia retained its restrictive three-class voting system. This effectively required the king/emperor and prime minister/chancellor to seek majorities from legislatures elected by two completely different franchises. In both the kingdom and the empire, the original constituencies were never redrawn to reflect changes in population, meaning that rural areas were grossly over-represented by the turn of the century. The German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given the combined armed forces of the German Empire, also known as the Imperial Army (Reichsheer) or Imperial German Army. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ...


As a result, Prussia and the German Empire were something of a paradox. Bismarck knew that his new Reich overshadowed the other powers of continental Europe, and he declared Germany a satisfied power, using his talents to preserve peace, for example at the Congress of Berlin.   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ...

Frederick III may have been a leader in Bismarck's mold, but he was already terminally ill when he became emperor for 99 days in 1888 upon the death of his father. He was married to Victoria, the first daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, but their first son William suffered physical and possibly mental damage during birth. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (466 × 650 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (466 × 650 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Victoria of the United Kingdom (born Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise) 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was the eldest child and daughter of Queen Victoria and her consort Albert. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ...


At age 29, William became Emperor William II after a difficult youth and conflicts with his British mother. He turned out to be a man of limited experience, narrow and reactionary views, poor judgement, and occasional bad temper, which alienated former friends and allies. William, who was a close relative of the British and Russian royal families, became their rival and ultimately their enemy. William II or Wilhelm II (born Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German...

German Emperor William II
German Emperor William II

After forcing Bismarck out in 1890, William embarked on a program of militarisation and adventurism in foreign policy that eventually led Germany into isolation. A misjudgment of the conflict with Serbia by the emperor, who left for holidays, and the hasty mobilisation plans of several nations led to the disaster of World War I (1914–1918). As the price of their withdrawal from the war, the Bolsheviks conceded large regions of the western Russian Empire, some of which bordered Prussia, to German control in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918). German control of these territories lasted only for a few months, however, because of the defeat of German military forces by the western Allies and the German Revolution. The post-war Treaty of Versailles, which held Germany solely responsible for the war, was signed in Versailles' Hall of Mirrors, where the German Empire had been created. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten Statue of a revolutionary soldier, memorial to the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in East Berlin. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


Free State of Prussia in the Weimar Republic

Main article: Free State of Prussia
Federal States of the Weimar Republic. Prussia is light blue.After WWI the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia came largely to the 2nd Polish Republic; Posen-West Prussia and the West Prussia district were formed from the remaining parts.
Federal States of the Weimar Republic. Prussia is light blue.After WWI the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia came largely to the 2nd Polish Republic; Posen-West Prussia and the West Prussia district were formed from the remaining parts.

Because of the German Revolution of 1918, William II abdicated as German Emperor and King of Prussia. Prussia was proclaimed a "Free State" (i.e. a republic, German: Freistaat) within the new Weimar Republic and in 1920 received a democratic constitution. The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x762, 99 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x762, 99 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... The Grenzmark Posen-Westpreussen were the lands of the former Germany/Prussian provinces of Posen and West Prussia, that remained in Germany after 1920 (end of World War I). ... The district of West Prussia was a district of East Prussia from 1920 to 1938 and was also known as the county of Marienwerder (today Kwidzyn). ... Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten Statue of a revolutionary soldier, memorial to the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in East Berlin. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


All of Germany's territorial losses, specified in the Treaty of Versailles, were areas that had been part of Prussia: Alsace-Lorraine to France; Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium; North Schleswig to Denmark; the Memel Territory to Lithuania; the Hultschin area to Czechoslovakia. Many of the areas which Prussia had annexed in the partitions of Poland, such as the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia, as well as eastern Upper Silesia, went to the Second Polish Republic. Danzig became the Free City of Danzig under the administration of the League of Nations. Also, the Saargebiet was created mainly from formerly Prussian territories. This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... St Nikolaus church in Eupen Eupen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, 15 km from the German border (Aachen), from the Dutch border (Maastricht) and from the nature reservation Hohes Venn (Ardennes). ... Malmedy Cathedral, built in 1777 Malmedy is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county (Danish, amt) on the Jutland peninsula in southern Denmark. ... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia The KlaipÄ—da Region (Lithuanian: ) or Memel Territory (German: ; French: ) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 when it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors. ... Hlučínsko (Hultschiner Ländchen in German) is an area in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ...


As before the partitions of Poland, because of this lost territory, there was no longer a land connection between East Prussia and the rest of the country; and East Prussia could now only be reached by ship ("shipping service East Prussia") or by a railway through the Polish corridor. East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... A Polish map showing the territory known as the Polish Corridor The Polish Corridor was the name given to a strip of territory which was transferred from Germany to Poland by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. ...


The German government seriously considered breaking up Prussia into smaller states, but eventually traditionalist sentiment prevailed and Prussia became by far the largest state of the Weimar Republic, comprising 60% of its territory. With the abolition of the old Prussian franchise, it became a stronghold of the left. Its incorporation of "Red Berlin" and the industrialised Ruhr Area—both with working-class majorities—ensured left-wing dominance. Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


From 1919 to 1932, Prussia was governed by a coalition of the Social Democrats, Catholic Centre, and German Democrats; from 1921 to 1925, coalition governments included the German People's Party. Unlike in other states of the German Reich, majority rule by democratic parties in Prussia was never endangered. Nevertheless, in East Prussia and some industrial areas, the National Socialist German Workers Party (or Nazi Party) of Adolf Hitler gained more and more influence and popular support, especially from the lower middle class. Except for Roman Catholic Prussian Upper Silesia, the Nazi Party in 1932 became the largest party in most parts of the Free State of Prussia. However, the democratic parties in coalition remained a majority, while Communists and Nazis were in the opposition. SPD redirects here. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ... This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ...

The East Prussian Otto Braun, who was Prussian minister-president almost continuously from 1920 to 1932, is considered one of the most capable Social Democrats in history. He implemented several trend-setting reforms together with his minister of the interior, Carl Severing, which were also models for the later Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). For instance, a Prussian minister-president could be forced out of office only if there was a "positive majority" for a potential successor. This concept, known as the constructive vote of no confidence, was carried over into the Basic Law of the FRG. Most historians regard the Prussian government during this time as far more successful than that of Germany as a whole. Image File history File linksMetadata 210px-Otto_Braun4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 210px-Otto_Braun4. ... Otto Braun to the left, 1932 Otto Braun (28 January 1872 - 14 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was Prime Minister of Prussia. ... Otto Braun to the left, 1932 Otto Braun (28 January 1872 - 14 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was Prime Minister of Prussia. ... The Constructive Vote of No Confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum) is a specialty of the 1949 German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ...


In marked contrast to its prewar authoritarianism, Prussia was a pillar of democracy in the Weimar Republic. This system was destroyed by the Preußenschlag ("Prussian coup") of Reich Chancellor Franz von Papen. In this coup d'etat, the government of the Reich unseated the Prussian government on 20 July 1932, under the pretext that the latter had lost control of public order in Prussia (during the Bloody Sunday of Altona, Hamburg). Papen appointed himself Reich commissioner for Prussia and took control of the government. The Preußenschlag made it easier, only half a year later, for Adolf Hitler to take power decisively in Germany, since he had the whole apparatus of the Prussian government, including the police, at his disposal. The Preußenschlag (Prussian coup) was one of the major steps towards the destruction of the German Weimar Republic (1919-1933) and the rise of Adolf Hitler to power. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The German head of government has been known as the Chancellor (German: Kanzler) ever since the creation of the post. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Altona is the westernmost district of the city of Hamburg in Germany, on the right bank of the Elbe. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


The end of Prussia

After the appointment of Hitler as the new chancellor, the Nazis used the opportunity of the absence of Franz von Papen to appoint Hermann Göring federal commissioner for the Prussian ministry of the interior. The Reichstag election of March 5, 1933 strengthened the position of the National Socialist Party, although they did not achieve an absolute majority. National Socialism redirects here. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... The 9th and last German federal election of the Weimar Republic was held on March 5, 1933, and was significant in that it was the last election to be held in Germany before World War II. Due to the success of the Nazi Party in the poll, its leader, and... This article is about the day. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ...

Because the Reichstag building had been set on fire a few weeks earlier, the new Reichstag was opened in the Garrison Church of Potsdam on March 21, 1933 in the presence of President Paul von Hindenburg. In a propaganda-filled meeting between Hitler and the Nazi Party, the "marriage of old Prussia with young Germany" was celebrated, to win over the Prussian monarchists, conservatives, and nationalists and induce them to vote for the Enabling Act of 1933. Download high resolution version (356x608, 33 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (356x608, 33 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... The Reichstag building. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ...


In the centralised state created by the Nazis in the "Law on the Reconstruction of the Reich" ("Gesetz über den Neuaufbau des Reiches", 30 January 1934) and the "Law on Reich Governors" ("Reichsstatthaltergesetz", 30 January 1935) the states were dissolved, in fact if not in law. The federal state governments were now controlled by governors for the Reich who were appointed by the chancellor. Parallel to that, the organisation of the party into districts (Gaue) gained increasing importance, as the official in charge of a Gau (the head of which was called a Gauleiter) was again appointed by the chancellor who was at the same time chief of the Nazi Party. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ...


In Prussia, this anti-federalistic policy went even further. From 1934 almost all ministries were merged and only a few departments were able to maintain their independence. Hitler himself became formally the governor of Prussia. His functions were exercised, however, by Hermann Göring, as Prussian prime minister. Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ...


As provided for in the "Greater Hamburg Law" ("Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz"), certain exchanges of territory took place. Prussia was extended on 1 April 1937, for instance, by the incorporation of the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lübeck ( pronunc. ...


The Prussian lands transferred to Poland after the Treaty of Versailles were re-annexed during World War II. However, most of this territory was not reintegrated back into Prussia but assigned to separate Gaue of Nazi Germany. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


With the end of National Socialist rule in 1945 came the division of Germany into Zones of Occupation, and the transfer of control of everything east of the Oder-Neisse line, (including Silesia, Farther Pomerania, Eastern Brandenburg, and southern East Prussia), to Poland, with the northern third of East Prussia, including Königsberg, now Kaliningrad, going to the Soviet Union. Today the Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave between Lithuania and Poland. An estimated ten million Germans fled or were expelled from these territories as part of the German exodus from Eastern Europe. The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) in yellow. ... Lubus Land or Lubusz Land ( pol: Ziemia Lubuska or Lubusz). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The German exodus from Eastern Europe refers to the exodus of ethnic German populations from lands to the east of present-day Germany and Austria. ...


In Law #46 of 25 February 1947 the Allied Control Council formally proclaimed the dissolution of the remains of the Prussian state. In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, which became East Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were reorganised into the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, with the remaining parts of the Province of Pomerania going to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. These states were abolished in 1952 in favour of districts, but were recreated after the fall of communism in 1990. is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... GDR redirects here. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a state in northern Germany. ...


In the Western Zones of occupation, which became West Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were divided up among North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Schleswig-Holstein. Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were later merged with Baden to create the state of Baden-Württemberg. Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Württemberg-Baden is a former state of West Germany. ... Württemberg-Hohenzollern is a historical state of West Germany. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300...


Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a small number of ethnic Germans from Kazakhstan have begun to settle in the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia, once northern East Prussia, as part of the migration influx into the area, which was previously a restricted area (closed city). As of 2005, about 6,000 (0.6% of population) ethnic Germans, mostly from other parts of Russia, live there. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ...


After German reunification in 1990, a plan was developed to merge the States of Berlin and Brandenburg. Though some suggested calling the proposed new state "Prussia", no final name was proposed, and the combined state would probably have been called either "Brandenburg" or "Berlin-Brandenburg". However this proposed merger was rejected in 1996 by popular vote, achieving a majority of votes only in former West Berlin. German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


See also

The Prussians kill Adalbert The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, inhabited the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons, (in what is now northern Poland), in the region roughly occupied by the Mazurian Lakes. ... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia This is a list of the rulers of the former German state of Prussia, originally territories on the Baltic Sea which the Teutonic Knights had conquered from of Poland and Lithuania, which later became a duchy under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Poland... A standard of the Prussian Army. ...

External links

  • Preussen.de (website of the House of Hohenzollern)
  • Preußen-Chronik.de (German)
  • Administrators of Prussian provinces
  • Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz (picture archive)
  • Foundation for Prussian Palaces and Gardens Berlin-Brandenburg
  • Constitutional deed for the prussian state("Imposed Constitution" - Decembre 5th, 1848) in full-text
  • Constitutional deed for the prussian state ("Revised Constitution" - January 31st, 1850) in full-text

Hohenzollern redirects here. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Audio pronounced with an English accent
  2. ^ http://www.polishroots.com/genpoland/

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) in yellow. ... The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire lying around Magdeburg along the Elbe River. ... The Bishopric of Halberstadt was a Roman Catholic diocese from 804 until 1648 and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the late Middle Ages until around 1800. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... County of Mark in 1477. ... Ravensberg, historical county in eastern Westphalia, Germany. ... The Bishopric of Minden was a Roman Catholic diocese and a state of the Holy Roman Empire. ... This article is about former colonies of Germany. ... The Brandenburger Gold Coast, later Prussian Gold Coast, was a part of the Gold Coast that was colonised by Germans before the German unification. ... Arguin is an island off the west coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin, at 20° 36 N., 16° 27 W. It is 6 km long by 2 broad. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Neuchâtel is a canton of Switzerland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Western Pomerania. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska w KÅ‚odzku Mayor Roman Lipski Area 25 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... The Netze District or District of the Netze (German: ; Polish: ) was a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 to 1793. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... South Prussia (1793-1806) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, created in Greater Poland after the second partition of Poland (1793). ... New East Prussia (German Neu-Ostpreußen) was the easternmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia between 1795 and 1807, created from areas acquired during the third Partition of Poland, with Warsaw as a capital. ... New Silesia (German: Neuschlesien, also Neu-Schlesien) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1795 to 1806, created northwest of Kraków from the third partition of Poland. ... The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions Prussia. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... The Province of Prussia was a province of Poland from the 15th century until 1660, consisting of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia. ... The Province of Brandenburg (German: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946. ... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... The Province of Saxony (German Provinz Sachsen) was a Prussian province between the Napoleonic Wars of 1815 and 1947. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Westphalia and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The Lower Rhine Province (red}, within the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), within the German Confederation (member states in black)   Capital Koblenz Population  - 1816 est. ... The province of the Jülich-Cleves-Berg (red}, within the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), within the German Confederation (member states in black). ... Hohenzollern and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Schleswig-Holstein and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... Lower Silesia (Niederschlesien in German) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... Upper Silesia (Polish: , German: ) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... The Greater Berlin Act (German: ) of 1920, in full the Law Regarding the Ronstruction of the New Local Authority of Berlin (German: ), was a law passed by the Prussian government that led to the formation of the separate Prussian administrative region of Berlin. ... The district of West Prussia was a district of East Prussia from 1920 to 1938 and was also known as the county of Marienwerder (today Kwidzyn). ... The Grenzmark Posen-Westpreussen were the lands of the former Germany/Prussian provinces of Posen and West Prussia, that remained in Germany after 1920 (end of World War I). ... Capital Kassel Government Gau Gauleiter Karl Gerland Historical era World War II  - Established 1 April, 1944  - Disestablished 19 September, 1945  - State of Hesse 1 December 1946 Area  - 1944 9,200 km2 3,552 sq mi Population  - 1944 est. ... ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The States of the German Confederation were those member states that from June 20, 1815 were part of the German Confederation, which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until August 24, 1866, under the presidency of the Austrian imperial house of Habsburg, which was represented by an Austrian... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Wappen_Deutscher_Bund. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Coat of Arms of Lauenburg The Duchy of Lauenburg, also known as Saxe-Lauenburg was a medieval Duchy (Reichsfreiheit) that existed from 1296 in the extreme southeast region of Schleswig-Holstein with its territorial center in the modern district of Lauenburg. ... The Duchy of Limburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, located between the river Meuse and the city of Aachen. ... For other uses, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Saxe-Coburg (German Sachsen-Coburg) is a historical state in todays Bavaria, Germany. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: ) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were... Hildburghausen is a district in Thuringia, Germany. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hesse-Homburg was formed into a separate landgraviate in 1622 by the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt to be ruled by his son, although it did not become independent of Hesse-Darmstadt until 1668. ... Hohenzollern-Hechingen is a branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... Lippe within the German Empire Capital Detmold Government Principality History  - Established 1123  - Raised to County 1528  - Raised to Principality 1789  - German Revolution 1918 Lippe was a historical state in Germany. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Reuss Elder Line within the German Empire Capital Greiz Government Principality History  - Established 1778  - German Revolution 1918  - Merged into Thuringia 1919 The Principality of Reuss Elder Line (German: ) was a state in Germany. ... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Waldeck (or later Waldeck-Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse (Germany). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other articles with similar names, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Lippe within the German Empire Capital Detmold Government Principality History  - Established 1123  - Raised to County 1528  - Raised to Principality 1789  - German Revolution 1918 Lippe was a historical state in Germany. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Reuss Elder Line within the German Empire Capital Greiz Government Principality History  - Established 1778  - German Revolution 1918  - Merged into Thuringia 1919 The Principality of Reuss Elder Line (German: ) was a state in Germany. ... Waldeck (or later Waldeck-Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse (Germany). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (615x707, 424 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German Empire Hamburg Mecklenburg-Strelitz Württemberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schaumburg Bremen (state) Reuss Duchy of Anhalt... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Lippe within the German Empire Capital Detmold Government Principality History  - Established 1123  - Raised to County 1528  - Raised to Principality 1789  - German Revolution 1918 Lippe was a historical state in Germany. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Reuss Elder Line within the German Empire Capital Greiz Government Principality History  - Established 1778  - German Revolution 1918  - Merged into Thuringia 1919 The Principality of Reuss Elder Line (German: ) was a state in Germany. ... Waldeck (or later Waldeck-Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse (Germany). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... This article is about former colonies of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem: Anhaltlied The Free State of Anhalt (green), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Dessau Government Republic Prime Minister  - 1918-1919 Wolfgang Heine  - 1940-1945 Rudolf Jordan Historical era Interwar period  - Established 12 November, 1918  - Abolition (de facto) May 1932  - Abolition (de jure) 23 July... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Brunswick was a historical state in Germany, established as a duchy by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... Flag Anthem: Hessenlied Hesse (red), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Darmstadt Government Republic President  - 1919-1928 Carl Ulrich  - 1935-1945 Jakob Sprenger Historical era Interwar period  - German revolution 9 November, 1918  - Constitution 12 December 1919  - Disestablished 19 September, 1945  - State of Hesse 1 December 1946... Lippe, within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Detmold Government Republic Chairman  - 1918-1920 Clemens Becker  - 1920-1933 Heinrich Drake  - 1933 Ernst Krappe Minister-President  - 1933-1936 Hans Joachim Riecke  - 1936-1945 Alfred Meyer  - 1945-1947 Heinrich Drake Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Incorporation... Flag Capital Schwerin Government Republic Historical era Interwar period  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1933 Population  - 1925 est. ... Flag Capital Neustrelitz Government Republic Historical era Interwar period  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1933 The Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (German: ) was a state of the Weimar Republic established in 1918 following the German Revolution which had overthrown the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... Capital Oldenburg Government Republic History  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1946 The Free State of Oldenburg was a state of the Weimar Republic. ... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Capital Bückeburg Government Republic Minister President  - 1918 Friedrich Freiherr von Feilitzsch  - 1933-1945 Karl Dreier History  - German Revolution 15 November, 1918  - Disestablished 1 November, 1946 Area  - 1939 340 km2 131 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Flag Anthem Das Waldecker Lied Location of Waldeck within Germany (after 1921) Capital Arolsen Government Republic Historical era Interwar period  - Established 1918  - Pyrmont joins Hanover 1921  - Disestablished 1929 Population  - 1925 est. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Image File history File links Wappen_Deutsches_Reich_(Weimarer_Republik). ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. ... Reuss Elder Line within the German Empire Capital Greiz Government Principality History  - Established 1778  - German Revolution 1918  - Merged into Thuringia 1919 The Principality of Reuss Elder Line (German: ) was a state in Germany. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ... Capital Lorch Government Republic President E. Pnischeck Historical era Interwar period  - Established 10 January 1919  - Abolished 23 February 1923 Population  - 1920 est. ... The Rhenish Republic (Rheinische Republik), as proclaimed at Aachen / Aix-la-Chapelle, in October 1923, comprised three territories, named North, South and Ruhr, with regional capitals respectively in Aachen / Aix-la-Chapelle, Koblenz and Essen. ...


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Prussia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4327 words)
Prussia attained its greatest importance in the 18th and 19th century, after it ascended to the fifth European great power under the government Frederick II of Prussia the Great (1740-1786), and after Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who pursued the Kleindeutsche Lösung, made Prussia the leading power in Germany in place of Austria.
The Kingdom of Prussia dominated north Germany politically, economically and in terms of population size and was the core of the unified North German Confederation formed in 1867, transformed into the German Empire in 1871.
Prussia as a state was abolished de facto by the Nazis in 1934 and de jure by the Allied Powers in 1947.
Kingdom of Prussia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1106 words)
The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire.
With the exception of Prussia proper, all of Brandenburg's lands were a part of the Holy Roman Empire, by this time under the all but hereditary nominal rule of the House of Habsburg.
As a result of Prussia's defeat at Jena and Auerstädt, King Friedrich Wilhelm III lost all his lands west of the Elbe River; the remainder of the Kingdom was occupied by French troops.
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