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Encyclopedia > Prudence
Prudence, by Luca Giordano
Prudence, by Luca Giordano
Allegory of Prudence, by Simon Vouet
Look up Prudence, prudence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Prudence (lat.:prudentia) is classically considered to be a virtue, and indeed, one of the Cardinal Virtues. The word comes from Old French prudence (13th century), from Latin prudentia "foresight, sagacity," contraction of providentia "foresight". It is often associated with Wisdom, Insight, and Knowledge. In this case, the virtue is the ability to judge between virtuous and vicious actions, not only in a general sense, but with regard to appropriate actions at a given time and place. Although prudence itself does not perform any actions, and is concerned solely with knowledge, all virtues had to be regulated by it. Distinguishing when acts are courageous, as opposed to reckless or cowardly, for instance, was an act of prudence. This is why it is classified as a "cardinal" which is to say "pivotal" virtue. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3427, 691 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prudence ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3427, 691 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prudence ... The creation of man, fresco in the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence, 1684-1686. ... Image File history File links Vouet_prudence. ... Image File history File links Vouet_prudence. ... Vouets allegory La Richesse was painted ca 1640 for one of the royal chateaux of France (Louvre) Simon Vouet (1590 - 1649) was the French painter and draftsman who introduced the Italian Baroque style to France. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... In the Christian church, there are four cardinal virtues. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For the 1986 American crime film, see Wisdom (film). ... Look up Insight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Bravery and Fortitude redirect here. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence, to thwart all courage or bravery. ...


Although prudence would be applied to any such judgment, the more difficult tasks, which distinguish a person as prudent, are those in which various goods have to be weighed against each other, as when a person is determining what would be best to give charitable donations, or how to punish a child so as to prevent repeating an offense.


Conventionally, prudence is the exercise of sound judgment in practical affairs.


In modern English, however, the word has become increasingly synonymous with cautiousness. In this sense, prudence names a reluctance to take risks, which remains a virtue with respect to unnecessary risks, but when unreasonably extended (i.e. over-cautiousness), can become the vice of cowardice. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ...


In the Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle gives a lengthy account of the virtue phronesis (Greek: ϕρονησιϛ), which has traditionally been translated as "prudence", although this has become increasingly problematic as the word has fallen out of common usage. More recently ϕρονησιϛ has been translated by such terms as "practical wisdom" or "practical judgment." The Nicomachean Ethics is one of Aristotles great works and discusses virtues. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Phronesis is a term used by Aristotle in Nicomachean ethics to describe practical wisdom or the ability to act on what one knows are good for man. ...

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Prudence as the “mother” of all virtues

Prudence was considered by the ancient Greeks and later on by Christian Philosophers, most notably St. Thomas Aquinas, as the cause, measure and form of all virtues. It is considered to be the auriga virtutum or the charioteer of the virtues. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


It is the cause in the sense that the virtues, which are defined to be the “perfected ability” of man as a spiritual person (spiritual personhood in the classical western understanding means having intelligence and free will), achieve their “perfection” only when they are founded upon prudence, that is to say upon the perfected ability to make right decisions. For instance, a person can live temperance when he has acquired the habit of deciding correctly the actions to take in response to his instinctual cravings. For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Temperance may refer to: Temperance (virtue) Temperance movement Temperance (Tarot card) Temperance (band) See also Astrud Gilberto, for the album Temperance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Prudence is considered the measure of moral virtues since it provides a model of ethically good actions. “The work of art is true and real by its correspondence with the pattern of its prototype in the mind of the artist. In similar fashion, the free activity of man is good by its correspondence with the pattern of prudence.” For instance, a stock broker using his experience and all the data available to him decides that it is beneficial to sell stock A at 2PM tomorrow and buy stock B today. The content of the decision (e.g., the stock, amount, time and means) is the product of an act of prudence, while the actual carrying out of the decision may involve other virtues like fortitude (doing it in spite of fear of failure) and justice (doing his job well out of justice to his company and his family). The actual act’s “goodness” is measured against that original decision made through prudence.


In Greek and Scholastic philosophy, “form” denotes that which provides a thing the specific characteristic that makes it what it is. With this language, prudence confers upon another virtues the form of its inner essence; that is, its specific character as a virtue. For instance, not all acts of telling the truth are considered good, considered as done with the virtue of honesty. What makes telling the truth a virtue is whether it is done with prudence. Telling a competitor the professional secrets of your company is not prudent and therefore not considered good and virtuous.


Prudence versus cunning and false prudence

In the Christian understanding, the difference between prudence and cunning is the ends or the end in which the decision of the contents of an action is made. The Christian understanding of the world includes the existence of God, the natural law and moral implications of human actions. In this context, prudence is different from cunning in that it takes into account the supernatural good. For instance, the decision of persecuted Christians to be martyred rather than deny their faith is considered prudent. Pretending to deny their faith could be considered prudent from the point of view of a non-believer. Cunning Cunning (カンニング) is a Japanese comedy duo (kombi from Fukuoka Prefecture. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ...


Judgments using reasons for evil ends or using evil means are considered to be made through “cunning” and “false prudence” and not through prudence.


Integral Parts of Prudence

“Integral parts” of virtues, in Scholastic philosophy, are those which must be present for any complete or perfect act of the virtue. The following are the integral parts of prudence:

  • Memoria – Accurate memory; that is, memory which is true to reality
  • Intelligentia - Understanding of first principles
  • Docilitas - The kind of open-mindedness which recognizes the true variety of things and situations to be experienced and does not cage itself in any presumption of deceptive knowledge; the ability to make use of the experience and authority of others to make prudent decisions
  • Shrewdness or quick-wittedness (solertia) – sizing up a situation on one’s own quickly
  • Discursive reasoning (ratio) – research and compare alternative possibilities
  • Foresight (providentia) – capacity to estimate whether a particular action will lead to the realization of our goal
  • Circumspection – ability to take all relevant circumstances into account
  • Caution – risk mitigation

Prudential judgments

In ethics, a "prudential judgment" is one where the circumstances must be weighed to determine the correct action. Generally, it applies to situations where two people could weigh the circumstances differently and ethically come to different conclusions.


For instance, in Just War theory, the government of a nation must weigh whether the harms they suffer are more than the harms that would be produced by their going to war against another nation that is harming them; the decision whether to go to war is therefore a prudential judgment. Meaning being rational and not impetuous. The doctrine of the just war has its foundations in ancient Greek society and was first developed in the Christian tradition by Augustine in Civitas Dei, The City of God, in reaction to the absolutist pacifist strain of Christian ethics based on the doctrine of Turn the other cheek espoused...


For instance, a patient who has a terminal illness with no conventional treatment may hear of an experimental treatment. To decide whether to take it would require weighing on one hand, the cost, time, possible lack of benefit, and possible pain, disability, and hastened death, and on the other hand, the possible benefit and the benefit to others of what could be learned from his case.


Rules of Prudence

Prudence, by Giotto di Bondone
Prudence, by Giotto di Bondone

Rules of Prudence are designed to serve self interest. "Do not drink the cleaning solution" would be a rule of prudence. This rule would be considered a moral rule because it is morally wrong to drink cleaning solution; it does serve your best interest not to. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (292x646, 47 KB) Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Cappella Scrovegni a Padova, Prudence File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prudence ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (292x646, 47 KB) Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337), Cappella Scrovegni a Padova, Prudence File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prudence ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ...


Feminine Name

Prudence is also in use as a given animal, usually feminine. The name is a Medieval form of Prudentia. Look up feminine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...


Fictional Characters

  • Prudence Bates, a 29 year old spinster who works for a "vague cultural organisation" and keeps in touch with her best friend from Oxford, vicar's wife Jane Cleveland: together the heroines of Barbara Pym's eponymous novel Jane and Prudence (published 1953).
  • Prudence Halliwell known mainly as Prue was one of the lead characters on the TV show Charmed until her death at the end of the third season. She was portrayed by Shannen Doherty.
  • Prudence Harbinger, a fictional character created by Laurence Marks and Maurice Gran. She is the new (United Kingdom) Prime Minister's Director of Media Liaison. Her diary is serialised in the Sunday Telegraph, the first episode appearing on 10th May 2007.
  • Prudence King mostly called Prue; she is the main character of Love Lessons, a novel by Children's Laureate, Jacqueline Wilson.
  • Prudence Farrow, sister of actress Mia Farrow, was John Lennon's inspiration for the Beatles' song "Dear Prudence"
  • Prudence McLeod, the mother of the main character Claire McLeod on the TV show McLeod's Daughters.
  • Prudence is the name of Ryuske Minami's first guitar in the Japanese.
  • Prudence is the name of a Disney character who appears in Cinderella II, Cinderella III, and Twice Charmed, as well as other Disney continuations of the Cinderella story. She is the majordomo of Cinderella's castle, as well as the love interest of the Grand Duke. She is voiced by Holland Taylor.

The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Barbara Mary Crampton Pym (June 2, 1913 - January 11, 1980) was an English novelist. ... Prudence Prue Halliwell, is a fictional character who appeared in the first three seasons of the WB television series Charmed, and was played by actress Shannen Doherty. ... Shannen Maria Doherty (born April 12, 1971) is an American actress and television director, perhaps best known for her work as Heather Duke in Heathers, as Brenda Walsh in Beverly Hills, 90210 and as Prue Halliwell in Charmed. ... Prudence Harbinger is a fictional character with her own Sunday Telegraph column[1], created by Laurence Marks and Maurice Gran in June 2007 to replace Alan BStard as power within the (United Kingdom)Labour Party passed from Tony Blair to Gordon Brown[2]. Aged 41 at the columns... Laurence Marks (born 8 December 1948 in Islington, London) is one half of writing duo Marks & Gran. ... Maurice Bernard Gran (born 26 October 1949 in London) is one half of writing duo Marks & Gran. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The word laureate or laureated has came in English to signify eminent, or associated with glory, literary or military. ... Jacqueline Jackie Wilson, OBE (born Jacqueline Aitken in Bath on 17 December 1945) is a British author of childrens books. ... Mia Farrow (born Maria de Lourdes Villiers-Farrow on February 9, 1945) is an American actress. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... Dear Prudence is a song by the Beatles, written by John Lennon,[1] and credited to Lennon/McCartney. ... Claire Louise McLeod (often simply called Claire) is a character in the Australian TV show McLeods Daughters. ... McLeods Daughters is an Australian television drama set in the rural outback. ... Cinderella II: Dreams Come True is a direct-to-video film sequel to the 1950 Disney classic Cinderella. ... Cinderella III is the second direct-to-video sequel to the 1950 Walt Disney animated classic Cinderella, after 2002s Cinderella II: Dreams Come True. ... Gustave Dorés illustration for Cendrillon Cinderella (French: Cendrillon) is a popular fairy tale embodying a classic folk tale myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward. ... Holland Taylor (b. ...

Anime

Beck Mongolian Chop Squad, which was later changed in for his Les Paul, Lucille.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prudence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (616 words)
Prudence is also in use as a given name, usually of feminine use, the name is a Medieval form of Prudentia, which is derived of from the English word, prudence.
Prudence Halliwell known mainly as Prue was one of the lead charcters on the TV show Charmed until her death at the end of the third season.
Prudence King mostly called Prue; she is the main character of Love Lessons, a novel by Children's Laureate, Jacqueline Wilson.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prudence (760 words)
Besides the prudence which is the fruit of training and experience, and is developed into a stable habit by repeated acts, there is another sort termed "infused".
Although acquired prudence considered as a principle of operation is quite compatible with sin in the agent, still it is well to note that vice obscures or at times utterly beclouds its judgment.
Imprudence in so far as it implies a want of obligatory prudence and not a mere gap in practical mentality is a sin, not however always necessarily distinct from the special wicked indulgence which it happens to accompany.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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