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Encyclopedia > Proxy war

A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly.


While superpowers have sometimes used whole governments as proxies, terrorist groups or other third parties are more often employed. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war. Terrorist redirects here. ...


Proxy wars have also been fought alongside full-scale conflicts. For instance, during the Iran-Iraq War, both nations armed factions in the Lebanese Civil War and pitted them against each other.[citation needed] Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders - Ruhollah Khomeini, - Abolhassan Banisadr, - Ali Shamkhani, - Mostafa Chamran† - Saddam Hussein, - Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 1,000 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 450 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 4,500 tanks... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The multi-sided Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire and was exacerbated by the nations...


It is almost impossible to have a pure proxy war, as the groups fighting for a certain superpower usually have their own interests, which are often divergent from those of their patron. For instance, after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the groups that the United States had been backing later turned against the U.S. and became the nucleus of the Taliban and al-Qaeda. A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Public execution of a woman by Taliban at Ghazi Sports Stadium, 1999. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...

Contents

Examples

Spanish Civil War

A famous conflict which exhibits patterns of a proxy war was the Spanish Civil War. An internal political conflict soon involved a battle between fascism and communism as Nazi Germany and Italy (on the fascist side) and the Soviet Union (on the republican side) poured resources and advisers into Spain. This war served as a useful proving ground for the great powers to test equipment and tactics that would later be employed in the Second World War. This article is about the Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... Anthem: El Himno de Riego The situation near the beginning of the Spanish Civil War Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic President of the Government  - April 14, 1931-October 14, 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - May 17 1937-January 30 1939 Juan Negrín Legislature Congress of... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Cold War

Proxy wars were common in the Cold War, because the two nuclear-armed superpowers (the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America) did not wish to fight each other directly, since that would have run the risk of escalation to a nuclear war. Proxies were used in conflicts in Afghanistan, Angola, Korea, Vietnam, and many other states. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or 조선, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


The first proxy war in the Cold War was the Greek Civil War, in which the Western-allied Greek government was nearly overthrown by Communist rebels with limited direct aid from Soviet client states in Yugoslavia, Albania, and Bulgaria. The Greek Communists managed to seize most of Greece, but a strong government counterattack forced them back. The Western Allies eventually won, due largely to an ideological split between Stalin and Tito. Though previously allied to the rebels, Tito closed Yugoslavia's borders to ELAS partisans when, despite the nonexistence of Soviet aid to the rebels, Greek Communists sided with Stalin. Albania followed Tito's suit shortly thereafter. With no way to get aid, the rebellion collapsed. Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 100,000 men 20,000 men and women[] Casualties 12,777 killed 37,732 wounded 4,527 missing 38,000 killed[] 40,000 captured or surrendered The... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos (ELAS) (Greek Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στράτος (ΕΛΑΣ) National Popular Liberation Army) was the military arm of the Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo (ELAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance and the Greek Civil War. ...


An example of war by proxy was East Germany's covert support for the Red Army Faction (RAF) which was active from 1968 and carried out a succession of terrorist attacks in West Germany during the 1970s and to a lesser extent in the 1980s. After German reunification in 1990, it was discovered that the RAF had received financial and logistic support from the Stasi, the security and intelligence organization of East Germany. It had also given several RAF terrorists shelter and new identities. It had not been in the interests of either the RAF or the East Germans to be seen as co-operating. The apologists for the RAF argued that they were striving for a true socialist society not the sort that existed in Eastern Europe. The East German government was involved in Ostpolitik, and it was not in its interest to be caught overtly aiding a terrorist organization operating in West Germany. For more details see the History of Germany since 1945. GDR redirects here. ... Red Army Fraction Insignia - a Red Star and a Heckler & Koch MP5 The Red Army Faction (or Red Army Fraction; also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Group [or Gang] in German: Rote Armee Fraktion or simply RAF), was one of postwar West Germanys most active and prominent militant... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... It has been suggested that West Germany be merged into this article or section. ...


In the Korean War the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China aided the Communists in North Korea and China against the United Nations forces led by the United States, but the Soviet Union did not enter the war directly. China however did enter the war directly and sent millions of its troops in 1950 preventing the U.N. coalition from defeating the communist government of the north. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...


In the Vietnam War the Soviet Union supplied North Vietnam and the Viet Minh with training, logistics and materiel but unlike the United States Armed Forces they fought the war through their proxies and did not enter the conflict directly. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ...


During most of the Angolan Civil War after independence in 1975 the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc supported the Marxist government of the MPLA with money, logistics, and weapons, while the Cuban Armed Forces were sent to fight alongside the Angolan Army. The United States cooperated with the Apartheid regime of South Africa in sending support to the largest anti-communist rebel group, UNITA. The MPLA government in Angola was also sending aid and support to antiApartheid groups in South Africa and the independence movement in South West Africa (present day Namibia, which led the South African government to support UNITA with guns and money, and eventually with thousands of troops from the South African National Defence Force. Combatants MPLA SWAPO Republic of Cuba U.S.S.R. UNITA Republic of South Africa Republic of Zaire U.S.A. Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Civilians killed = hundreds of thousands The Angolan Civil War was a conflict that devastated newly-independent Angola following the end of... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Under Castro, Cuba became a highly militarized society. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conqured from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is the name of the armed forces of South Africa. ...


During the Mozambique civil war, the communist government of Mozambique supported the rebellion against the racist, white minority led government of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). In response the Rhodesian government organized and than funded an anti-communist rebel group called RENAMO (Mozambique National Resistance). After Rhodesia collapsed and became Zimbabwe in 1980, South Africa took over supporting RENAMO. In 1991 the South African government began reforms at ending Apartheid and also ending its involvement in armed conflict elsewhere. Later that year both South African and Cuban troops withdrew from Angola and in 1992 RENAMO and the government of Mozambique signed a peace accord. UNITA continued to fight the freely elected government of Angola, eventually losing its support from all of its former allies (including the United States and South Africa). The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... The Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO; Portuguese: Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a conservative political party in Mozambique led by Afonso Dhlakama. ...


The war between the mujahadeen and the Red Army during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a classic asymmetric war. The aid given by the U.S. to the mujahadeen during the war was only covert at the tactical level. Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


During the Lebanese Civil War Syria supported the Maronite Christian dominated Lebanese Front with arms and troops, while interestingly enough Syria's enemy Israel support the Lebanese Front by providing them with arms, tanks and money. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) support the Lebanese National Movement (NLM). Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The multi-sided Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire and was exacerbated by the nations... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ... The Lebanese Front (Arabic: الجبهة اللبنانية) was a right-wing coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ‎;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ...


Second Congo War

Since the end of the Cold War the largest war by proxy has been the Second Congo War in which the governments of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and Rwanda all used (and are perhaps still using) third party armed irregular groups. Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D...


See also

Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal power or capacity of action, interact and take advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of themselves and their enemies. ... This is a list of proxy wars. ...

References

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
proxy war: Information from Answers.com (1017 words)
Proxy wars were common in the Cold War, because the two nuclear-armed superpowers (the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America) did not wish to fight each other directly, since that would have run the risk of escalation to a nuclear war.
The war between the mujahadeen and the Red Army during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a classic asymmetric war.
Of all the proxy wars fought by the USA against the USSR during the Cold War this was the most cost effective and politically successful, as it was the USSR's most humiliating military defeat, and that defeat was a contributing factor to the implosion of the Soviet Union.
Proxy war - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1101 words)
It is almost impossible to have a pure proxy war, as the groups fighting for a certain superpower usually have their own interests, which are often divergent from those of their patron.
This war served as a useful proving ground for the great powers to test equipment and tactics that would later be employed in the Second World War.
The first proxy war in the Cold War was the Greek Civil War, in which the Western Allied Greek government was nearly overrun by Communist rebels with limited direct aid from Soviet puppet states in Yugoslavia, Albania, and Bulgaria.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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