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Encyclopedia > Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(Óglaigh na hÉireann)
Participant in The Troubles

A Republican mural in Belfast depicting the hunger strikes of 1981.
Active 1969 - present
Leaders IRA Army Council
Headquarters Dublin
Strength ~10,000 over 30 years, ~1,000 in 2002, of which ~300 in active service units [1]
Originated as Irish Republican Army
Opponents United Kingdom

The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the 'RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern Ireland's status within the United Kingdom and bring about a United Ireland by force of arms and political persuasion. Since its emergence in 1969, its stated aim has been the overthrow of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and their replacement by a sovereign socialist all-island Irish state.[4] The organisation is classified as an illegal terrorist group in the United Kingdom[5] and as an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland.[6] For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... Image File history File links Belfast_mural_13_(cropped,_edit). ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ... The IRA Army Council is the decision-making body of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, more commonly known as the IRA, a paramilitary group dedicated to bringing about the end of the Union between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... The original Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence 1919-1921. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


The IRA sees itself as a direct continuation of the Irish Republican Army (the army of the Irish Republic — 1919–1921) that fought in the Irish War of Independence. Like all other organisations calling themselves the IRA (see List of IRAs), the Provisionals refer to themselves in public announcements and internal discussions as Óglaigh na hÉireann ("The Irish Volunteers"), which is also the Irish language title of the Irish Defence Forces (the Irish army). This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... The IRA (Irish Republican Army) is a name used to describe several paramilitary movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries. ... The only true Óglaigh na hÉireann is the Irish Republican Army, which is under the direction of the Continuity Army Council. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... The Irish Defence Forces encompass the army, navy, air force and reserve forces of the Republic of Ireland. ...


On 28 July 2005, the IRA Army Council announced an end to its armed campaign, stating that it would work to achieve its aims using "purely political and democratic programmes through exclusively peaceful means" and that IRA "Volunteers must not engage in any other activities whatsoever".[7] is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IRA Army Council is the decision-making body of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, more commonly known as the IRA, a paramilitary group dedicated to bringing about the end of the Union between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom. ... Volunteer, often abbreviated Vol. ...


An internal British Army document released in 2007 stated an expert opinion that the British Army had failed to defeat the IRA by force of arms but also claims to have 'shown the IRA that it could not achieve its ends through violence'. The military assessment describes the IRA as 'professional, dedicated, highly skilled and resilient'.[8]

Contents

Origins

1969 split in the IRA

Irish Political History series
REPUBLICANISM

Republicanism
- in Ireland
- in Northern Ireland
Irish republican legitimatism
Physical force republicanism
See also List of IRAs
for organisation claiming that name.

Image File history File links Ireland-up. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... In 1921, Ireland was partitioned. ... Irish republican legitimatism is a term that may be used to describe a current within Irish republicanism that denies the legitimacy of the political entities of Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and argues that the Irish Republic continues to exist. ... Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present. ... The IRA (Irish Republican Army) is a name used to describe several paramilitary movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries. ...


Key documents
Proclamation of the Republic
Declaration of Independence
Message to Free Nations
Democratic Programme
Dáil Constitution
Anglo-Irish Treaty
External Relations Act 1936
Bunreacht na hÉireann
Republic of Ireland Act 1948
The Green Book
New Ireland Forum Report
Anglo-Irish Agreement
Good Friday Agreement
Articles 2 & 3 The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... The Declaration of Independence was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21st January, 1919. ... In 1919 the First Dáil issued a Message to the Free Nations of the World. ... The Democratic Programme was a declaration of economic and social principles adopted by the First Dáil at its first meeting on 21st January, 1919. ... The Constitution of Dáil Éireann (Irish: Bunreacht Dála Éireann), more commonly known as the Dáil Constitution, was a short, provisional constitution adopted by the First Dáil in January 1919. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... The Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936 was an enactment of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament) in 1936. ... The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949[1] and which declared that the official description of the Irish state was to be the Republic of Ireland. ... The IRA Green Book is a training and induction manual issued by the Irish Republican Army to new volunteers. ... The New Ireland Forum was established in Ireland in 1983 by then Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald to discuss ways of bringing peace and stability to the whole of Ireland, and the structures and processes through which this might be achieved. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ...


Parties & Organisations
Aontacht Éireann
Clan na Gael
Clann na Poblachta
Communist Party of Ireland
Cumann na mBan
Cumann na Poblachta
Cumann Poblachta nahÉ
Córas na Poblachta
Fianna Éireann
Fianna Fáil · Ind FF
Irish Citizen Army
Irish National Invincibles
INLA
Irish Republican Army
Anti-Treaty IRA
Continuity IRA
Official IRA
Provisional IRA
Real IRA
IRB · ISRP · IRSP
Official Sinn Féin
Red Republican Party
Republican Congress
Republican Sinn Féin
Saor Éire
Sinn Féin
United Irishmen
Workers Party ·
Young Ireland
32CSM
See also: Party youth wings Aontacht Éireann was a short lived Irish political party founded by Kevin Boland (former Fianna Fail government minister) after his resignation from that party in 1971. ... With Irish immigration to the United States of America in the 18th_century there arose Irish ethnic organizations. ... Clann na Poblachta (literally meaning Family of the Republic) was an Irish republican political party founded by former IRA Chief of Staff Sean MacBride in 1946. ... The Communist Party of Ireland (CPI; Irish: Páirtí Cumannach na hÉireann) is a small all-Ireland Marxist party. ... Cumann na mBan (IPA: ; literally Womens League) was an Irish republican womens paramilitary organisation formed in April 1914 as an auxiliary of the Irish Volunteers (IV). ... Cumann na Poblachta (League of the Republic in English) was an Irish republican political party. ... Cumann Poblachta na hÉireann was a political party established by the Irish Republican Army in 1936. ... Córas na Poblachta (Republican Plan in English) was a minor Irish republican political party founded in 1940. ... A recruitment poster for the now-defunct Fianna Éireann group associated with Provisional Sinn Féin. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Independent Fianna Fáil was a splinter republican party created by Neil Blaney after his expulsion from Fianna Fáil following the Irish Arms Crisis (1969-1970). ... The Irish Citizen Army`s Starry Plough banner. ... Irish National Invincibles usually known as the Invincibles was largely composed of former Irish Republican Brotherhood members operating independently of the IRB. They planned to kill the Permanent Under Secretary at the Irish Office Thomas Henry Burke and it was Chief Secretary for Ireland Lord Frederick Cavendishs misfortune that... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The split in Sinn Féin and the Irish Republican Army following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921 led to the emergence of group of Anti-Treatyites, sometimes referred to as the Irregulars, who continued to use the name Irish Republican Army (IRA) or in Irish Óglaigh... The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) is an Irish Republican paramilitary organisation that emerged from a split in the Provisional IRA in 1986. ... The term Official IRA relates to one of the two elements of the Irish Republican Army - the other being the Provisional IRA - that emerged from the ideological split in the Irish Republican movement in 1969-70. ... The Real Irish Republican Army, otherwise known as the Real IRA (RIRA), is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation founded before the signing of the 1998 Good Friday (Belfast) Agreement by former members of the Provisional IRA who opposed the latters 1997 cease-fire and acquiescence in the Agreement in... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; Bráithreachas na Poblachta in Irish) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... The Irish Socialist Republican Party was an Irish political party founded in 1896 by James Connolly. ... Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) describes itself as a republican socialist party and claims to be both Marxist-Leninist and republican. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Workers Party of Ireland. ... The Red Republican Party was a small socialist organisation in Ireland. ... The Republican Congress was an Irish Republican political organisation founded in 1934, when left wing republicans left the Irish Republican Army. ... Republican Sinn Féin (RSF) is a political party[2] operating in Ireland. ... Saor Éire (meaning Free Ireland) was a left-wing political organisation established in September 1931 by communist-leaning members of the Irish Republican Army, with the backing of the IRA leadership. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Society of the United Irishmen was a political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that sought independence from Great Britain. ... Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish political parties | Republic of Ireland political parties | Northern Ireland political parties ... Young Ireland was an Irish nationalist revolutionary movement, active in the mid-nineteenth century. ... The 32 County Sovereignty Movement (often abbreviated to 32CSM or 32csm) is an Irish republican political organisation favouring a united Ireland and British withdrawal from Northern Ireland. ...


Publications
An Phoblacht · Daily Ireland
Irish Press · Sunday Press
Republican News · Saoirse
The Nation· United Irishman
Wolfe Tone Weekly
An Phoblacht is the official newspaper of Provisional Sinn Féin in Ireland. ... Daily Ireland was an Irish daily newspaper which existed from January 2005 to September 2006 to cover news stories from an Irish republican viewpoint. ... The Irish Press was an Irish newspaper published by Irish Press plc between 1931 and 1995. ... The Sunday Press was a weekly newspaper published in Ireland from 1949 until 1995. ... An Phoblacht/Republican News is the official newspaper of the Republican movement in Ireland. ... SAOIRSE Irish Freedom is the monthly organ of Republican Sinn Féin. ... The Nation was an Irish nationalist newspaper, published in the 19th century, co-founded by Thomas Davis and Charles Gavan Duffy, its first editor. ... This article is about the newspaper. ... The Wolfe Tone Weekly (1937–1939) was an Irish republican newspaper, edited by Brian OHiggins. ...


Strategies
Abstentionism
Éire Nua
Armed Struggle
Armalite and Ballot Box
TUAS
Abstentionism is the policy of seeking election to a body while refusing to take up the seats or even sitting in an alternative assembly. ... Éire Nua, or New Ireland, was a political strategy of the Provisional IRA and its political wing Sinn Féin during the 1970s and early 1980s. ... Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present. ... The armalite and the ballot box strategy was pursued by the Irish Republican movement in the 1980s and early 1990s, a strategy where elections in Northern Ireland and the Republic were contested by Sinn Féin, while the IRA continued to pursue a paramilitary struggle against the British army, the... Tuas is largely an industrial zone located in the western part of Singapore. ...


Symbols
The Tricolour · Easter Lily French tricolour flag A tricolour is a flag or banner having three colours, usually in approximately equal size (horizontally or vertically) and lacking additional symbols. ... The Easter Lily is an artificial paper badge worn around Easter by Irish republicans chiefly as symbol of remembrance for Irish combatants who died during or were executed after the 1916 Easter Rising. ...


Other movements & links
Loyalism {{IrishL}}
Monarchism {{IrishM}}
Nationalism {{IrishN}}
Unionism {{IrishU}}
This article does not cite its references or sources. ... King George V, the first monarch to reign in the Irish Free State. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in...

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According to modern physical force Irish republicanism theory, the two Irish governmental entities which have existed in Ireland since 1922, Northern Ireland and the state variously known at different times as the Irish Free State and the Republic of Ireland, were illegitimate, as they had been imposed by the British at the time of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, in defiance of the last all-Ireland election in 1918, when the majority had voted for full independence. The real Irish state was the Irish Republic, unilaterally declared in 1919 and which, according to republican theory, was still in existence. According to this theory, the modern day Provisional Irish Republican Army is merely the continuation of the original Irish Republican Army which served as the army of the Irish Republic during the Irish War of Independence. Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used by historians in Ireland to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of a newly formed or reformed independent state from a part or the whole of the territory of another, or a document containing such a declaration. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...


While at the time of Treaty and the subsequent Irish Civil War the majority of the "old" IRA held this position, by the 1930s most republicans had accepted the Free State and were willing to work within it - recognising the Irish Army as the state's armed force. However, a minority of republicans argued that the army of the Republic was still the pre-1969 Irish Republican Army, itself the lineal descendant of the defeated faction in the Irish Civil War of 1922-23. Moreover, the IRA Army Council was the legitimate government of Ireland until the Irish Republic could be re-established. This IRA in theory wanted to overthrow both Irish states, but by the late 1940s, it issued orders that "no armed action was to be taken against 26 county forces under any circumstances whatsoever". From then on, they concentrated on the overthrow of Northern Ireland, which was still part of the United Kingdom, but which contained a substantial Catholic and nationalist population. In the 1950s, the IRA waged a largely ineffective guerilla campaign against Northern Ireland, known as the "Border Campaign". This was called off in 1962. The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ... The IRA Army Council is the decision-making body of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, more commonly known as the IRA, a paramilitary group dedicated to bringing about the end of the Union between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom. ... Anthem The Soldiers Song Republic of Ireland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Dublin Official languages Irish, English Demonym Irish Government Republic and Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Mary McAleese  -  Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, TD Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared 24 April 1916   -  Ratified 21... The Border Campaign (December 12, 1956–February 26, 1962) was a campaign of guerrilla warfare (codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland, with the aim of overthrowing that state and creating a United Ireland. ...


The IRA split into two groups at its Special Army Convention in December 1969, over the issue of abstentionism (whether to sit in or to "abstain" from the Dáil or parliament of the Republic of Ireland) and over the question of how to respond to the escalating violence in Northern Ireland (see The Troubles). In 1969, serious rioting had broken out in Derry following an Apprentice Boys march. Subsequently hundreds of Catholic homes were destroyed in Belfast by loyalists in the Northern Ireland riots of August 1969. The IRA had not been armed or organised to defend the Catholic community, as it had done since the 1920s. The two groups that emerged from the split became known as the Official IRA (which espoused a Marxist analysis of Irish partition) and the Provisional IRA. Abstentionism is the policy of seeking election to a body while refusing to take up the seats or even sitting in an alternative assembly. ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... É ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... For the township in Canada, see Loyalist, Ontario In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be. ... From August 13-17 1969, Northern Ireland was rocked by intensive sectarian rioting. ... The term Official IRA relates to one of the two elements of the Irish Republican Army - the other being the Provisional IRA - that emerged from the ideological split in the Irish Republican movement in 1969-70. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921. ...


The Official IRA did not want to get involved in what it considered to be divisive sectarian violence, nor did it want to launch an armed campaign against Northern Ireland, citing the failure of the IRA's Border Campaign in the 1950s. They favoured building up a political base among the working class, both Catholic and Protestant, north and south, which would eventually undermine partition. This involved recognising and sitting in elected bodies north and south of the border. The Provisionals, by contrast, advocated a robust armed defence of Catholics in the north and an offensive campaign in Northern Ireland to end British rule there. They also denounced the "communist" tendencies of the "Official" faction in favour of traditional Irish republicanism, and they refused to recognise the legitimacy of either the northern or southern Irish states. Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... Combatants Irish Republican Army Royal Ulster Constabulary Ulster Special Constabulary British Army Commanders IRA Army Council Seán Cronin Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Strength c. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Foundation of the Provisional IRA

Dáithí Ó Conaill at the 1986 Sinn Féin Ard Fheis.

The Provisional IRA had its origins in the "Provisional Army Council" formed in December 1969, when an IRA Convention voted to recognise the Parliaments of Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Opponents of this change in the IRA Constitution argued strongly against this, and when the vote took place, Sean MacStiofain, present as IRA Director of Intelligence, announced that he no longer considered that the IRA leadership represented Republican goals.[9] However, there was not a walkout. Those opposed, who include Mac Stiofain and Ruairi O Bradaigh, did refuse to go forward for election to the new IRA Executive.[10] Image File history File links Daithioc. ... Image File history File links Daithioc. ... Dáithí Ó Conaill (1938 – 1 January 1991) was an Irish republican, a member of the IRA Army Council, vice-president of Provisional Sinn Féin and Republican Sinn Féin. ... Seán Mac Stíofáin (17 February 1928- 18 May 2001) was an Irish republican and first chief of staff of the Provisional IRA. Sean MacStiofain // Childhood Although he used the Gaelicised version of his name in later life, Mac Stíofáin was born an only child as...


While others organized throughout Ireland, MacStiofain was a key person making a connection with the Belfast IRA, under Billy McKee and Joe Cahill, who had refused to take orders from the IRA's Dublin leadership since September 1969, in protest at their failure to defend Catholic areas in August 1969. Nine out of thirteen IRA units in Belfast sided with the Provisionals in 1969, roughly 120 activists and 500 supporters.[11] The new group elected a "Provisional Army Council" to head the new IRA. The first Provisional IRA Army Council was: Sean Mac Stiofain, C/S, Ruairi O Bradaigh, Paddy Mulcahy, Sean Tracey, Leo Martin, and Joe Cahill.[12] A political wing, Provisional Sinn Féin, was founded on 11 January 1970, when a third of the delegates walked out of the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis in protest at the party leadership's attempt to force through the ending of the abstentionist policy, despite its failure to achieve a two-thirds majority vote of delegates required to change the policy.[13] Billy McKee is an Irish Republican and was an original founding member and former leader of the Provisional Irish Republican Army[1]. // McKee was born in Belfast in the early 1920s. ... Joe Cahill (1920 - July 23, 2004) was a controversial Irish politician and former member of the Irish Republican Army. ... Provisional Sinn Féin is an Irish republican political party which evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in the late 1960s. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Ard Fheis is an annual convention, usually of a political party. ...


There are allegations that the early Provisional IRA got off the ground due to arms and funding from the Fianna Fáil-led Irish government in 1969. This was not found to be the case when investigated in the Arms trial. However, roughly £100,000 was donated by the Irish government to "Defence Committees" in Catholic areas and according to historian Richard English, "there is now no doubt that some money did go from the Dublin government to the proto-Provisionals".[14] Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... The Government (Irish: ) [ral̪ˠt̪ˠəs̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Arms Crisis was a political scandal in the Republic of Ireland, in which two government ministers from the Fianna Fáil political party were accused of attempting to illegally import £100,000 worth of weapons for the Provisional Irish Republican Army. ... Richard English is a historian from Northern Ireland. ...


The main figures in the early Provisional IRA were Seán Mac Stiofáin (who served as the organisation's first chief of staff), Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (the first president of Provisional Sinn Féin), Dáithí Ó Conaill, and Joe Cahill. All served on the first Provisional IRA Army Council.[15] The Provisional appellation deliberately echoed the "Provisional Government" proclaimed during the 1916 Easter Rising.[16] Seán Mac Stiofáin (17 February 1928- 18 May 2001) was an Irish republican and first chief of staff of the Provisional IRA. // Childhood Although he used the Gaelicised version of his name in later life, Mac Stiofáin was born an only child as John Edward Drayton Stephenson... The following is the list of those who have served as Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army in the various incarnations of organisations bearing that name. ... Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (born 1932) is an Irish republican. ... Provisional Sinn Féin is an Irish republican political party which evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in the late 1960s. ... Dáithí Ó Conaill (1938 – 1 January 1991) was an Irish republican, a member of the IRA Army Council, vice-president of Provisional Sinn Féin and Republican Sinn Féin. ... Joe Cahill (1920 - July 23, 2004) was a controversial Irish politician and former member of the Irish Republican Army. ... The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ...


The Provisionals maintained a number of the principles of the pre-1969 IRA. It considered British rule in Northern Ireland and the government of the Republic of Ireland to be illegitimate. Like the pre-1969 IRA, it believed that the IRA Army Council was the legitimate government of the all-island Irish Republic. This belief was based on a complicated series of perceived political inheritances which constructed a legal continuity from the Second Dáil. Most of these abstentionist principles were abandoned in 1986, although Sinn Féin still refuses to take its seats in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.[17][18] The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16th August, 1921 until 8th June, 1922. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats...


As the violence in Northern Ireland steadily increased, both the Official IRA and Provisional IRA espoused military means to pursue their goals. Unlike the Officials, however, who characterised their violence as purely "defensive," the Provisionals called for a more aggressive campaign against the Northern Ireland state. While the Officials were initially, for a short period, the larger organisation and enjoyed more support from the republican community, the Provisionals came to dominate, especially after the Official IRA declared an indefinite ceasefire in 1972. The Provisionals inherited most of the existing IRA organisation in the north by 1971 and the more militant IRA members in the rest of Ireland. In addition they recruited many young nationalists from the north, who had not been involved in the IRA before, but had been radicalised by the communal violence that broke out in 1969. These people were known in republican parlance as "sixty niners", having joined after 1969.[19] The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from June 7, 1921 to March 30, 1972, when it was suspended. ...


Although the Provisional IRA had a political wing, Provisional Sinn Féin, which split with Official Sinn Féin at the same time as the split in the IRA, the early Provisional IRA was extremely suspicious of political activity, arguing rather for the primacy of armed struggle.[20] Provisional Sinn Féin is an Irish republican political party which evolved from the split in Sinn Féin and the IRA that took place in the late 1960s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Workers Party of Ireland. ...


Organisation

The IRA is organised hierarchically. At the top of the organisation is the IRA Army Council, headed by the IRA Chief of Staff. The IRA Army Council is the decision-making body of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, more commonly known as the IRA, a paramilitary group dedicated to bringing about the end of the Union between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom. ... The following is the list of those who are believed to have served as Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army in the various incarnations of organisations bearing that name. ...


Leadership

All levels of the IRA are entitled to send delegates to IRA General Army Conventions (GACs). The GAC is the IRA's supreme decision-making authority. Before 1969, GACs met regularly. Since 1969 there have only been two, in 1970 and 1986, owing to the difficulty in organising such a large secret gathering of what is an illegal organisation.[21][22]


The GAC in turn elects a 12-member IRA Executive, which in turn selects seven volunteers to form the IRA Army Council.[21] For day-to-day purposes authority is vested in the Army Council which, as well as directing policy and taking major tactical decisions, appoints a Chief of Staff from one of its number or, less commonly, from outside its ranks.[23]


The chief of staff then appoints an adjutant general as well as a General Headquarters (GHQ), which consists of a number of individual departments. These departments are:

  • IRA Quartermaster General
  • IRA Director of Finance
  • IRA Director of Engineering
  • IRA Director of Training
  • IRA Director of Intelligence
  • IRA Director of Publicity
  • IRA Director of Operations
  • IRA Director of Security

The IRA Quartermaster General (QMG) runs a department which is responsible for obtaining, concealing and maintaining the store of weaponry of the Irish Republican Army. ...

Regional command

At a regional level, the IRA is divided into a Northern Command, which operates in the nine Ulster counties as well as County Leitrim and County Louth, and a Southern Command, operating in the rest of Ireland. The Provisional IRA was originally commanded by a leadership based in Dublin. However, in 1977, parallel to the introduction of cell structures at local level, command of the "war-zone" was given to the Northern Command. These moves at reorganisation were, according to Ed Moloney the idea of Ivor Bell, Gerry Adams and Brian Keenan.[24] Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Carrick-on-Shannon Code: LM Area: 1,588 km² Population (2006) 28,837 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dundalk Code: LH Area: 820 km² Population (2006) 110,894 Website: www. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... Edward Ed Moloney is an Irish journalist and author. ... Ivor Bell was a Protestant member (volunteer) in the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who later became Chief of Staff on the Army Council. ... Gerard Adams (Irish Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh[1]; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist Westminster Member of Parliament for Belfast West. ... For other persons of the same name, see Brian Keenan. ...


Brigades

The IRA refers to its ordinary members as volunteers (or óglaigh in Irish). Up until the late 1970s, IRA volunteers were organised in units based on conventional military structures. Volunteers living in one area formed a company, which in turn was part of a battalion, which could be part of a brigade, although many battalions were not attached to a brigade. Volunteer, often abbreviated Vol. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ...


For most of its existence, the IRA had five Brigade areas within what it referred to as the "war-zone". These Brigades were located in Belfast, Derry, Tyrone/Monaghan and Armagh.[25] The Belfast Brigade had three battalions, respectively in the west, north and east of the city. In the early years of the Troubles, the IRA in Belfast expanded rapidly. In August 1969, the Belfast Brigade had just 50 active members. By the end of 1971, it had 1,200 members, giving it a large but loosely controlled structure.[26] Derry city had one battalion and south County Londonderry another. The Derry Battalion became the Derry Brigade in 1972 after a rapid increase in membership following Bloody Sunday when British paratroopers killed 14 unarmed demonstrators at a civil rights march. County Armagh had three battalions, two very active ones in South Armagh and a less effective unit in North Armagh. For this reason the Armagh IRA unit is often referred to as the South Armagh Brigade. Similarly, the Tyrone/Monaghan Brigade, which operated from around the Border, is often called the East Tyrone Brigade. Fermanagh, South Down, North Antrim had units not attached to Brigades.[27] The leadership structure at battalion and company level was the same: each had its own commanding officer, quartermaster, explosives officer and intelligence officer. There was sometimes a training officer or finance officer. The Provisional Irish Republican Army Belfast Brigade was the largest of the organisations command areas, based in the city of Belfast. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... Bloody Sunday refers to several historical events (listed in chronological order): Bloody Sunday (1887), a demonstration in London against coercion in Ireland Bloody Sunday (1900), a day of high casualties in the Second Boer War Bloody Sunday (1905), a massacre in Saint Petersburg A violent event during the 1913 Dublin... The Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade was the most elite and experienced IRA brigade during the Troubles. ... The Provisional IRAs East Tyrone Brigade was one of the most active Republican paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland over the course of the Troubles. They are believed to have drawn their membership from right across the eastern side of County Tyrone as well as north Monaghan and south Londonderry. ...


Active Service Units

In 1977, the IRA moved away from the larger conventional military organisational principle owing to its perceived security vulnerability. In place of the battalion structures, a system of two parallel types of unit within an IRA Brigade was introduced. Firstly, the old "company" structures were used for tasks such as "policing" nationalist areas, intelligence gathering, and hiding weapons. These were essential support activities. However, the bulk of actual attacks were the responsibility of a second type of unit, the active service unit (ASU). To improve security and operational capacity these ASUs were smaller, tight-knit cells, usually consisting of 5-8 members, for carrying out armed attacks. The ASU's weapons were controlled by a quartermaster under the direct control of the IRA leadership.[28] By the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was estimated that the IRA had roughly 300 members in ASUs and another 450 or so others serving in supporting roles.[29] Active Service Unit (ASU) were Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) cells of between 5-8 members tasked with carrying out armed attacks. ... Quartermaster is a term usually referring to a military unit which specializes in supplying and provisioning troops, or to an individual who does the same. ...


The exception to this reorganisation was the South Armagh Brigade which retained its traditional hierarchy and battalion structure and used relatively large numbers of volunteers in its actions.[30] The Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade was the most elite and experienced IRA brigade during the Troubles. ...


The IRA's Southern Command, located in the Republic of Ireland, consists of a Dublin Brigade and a number of smaller units in rural areas. These were charged mainly with the importation and storage of arms for the Northern units and with raising finance through robberies and other means.[31] There are also organisational units in Great Britain and the United States.


Strategy 1969–1998

See also: Provisional IRA campaign 1969-1997

From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Armyconducted an armed campaign in Northern Ireland aimed at overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland. ...

"Escalation, escalation and escalation"

In the early years of the Troubles, the Provisional IRA's strategy was to use as much force as possible to cause the collapse of the Northern Ireland administration and to inflict enough casualties on the British forces that the British government would be forced by public opinion to withdraw from Ireland. A policy described by Sean MacStiofain as "escalation, escalation and escalation". This was modelled on the success of the Irish Republican Army in the Irish War of Independence 1919–1922 and was articulated in slogans such as "Victory 1972". However, this policy failed to take into account the strong unionist commitment to remain within the United Kingdom and the risk that an armed campaign would result not in a united Ireland, but in a sectarian civil war. For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


At the time of the Irish War of Independence in the 1920s, IRA actions in the north had been responded to with widespread random attacks on Catholic nationalists by loyalists. The IRA Border campaign in the 1950s had avoided actions in urban centres of Northern Ireland to avoid provoking retaliatory attacks on the Catholic/nationalist community there. The Provisional IRA's determination to carry out such a campaign and risk escalating sectarian violence was one of the principal areas of disagreement between the Provisional and Official IRAs. Combatants Irish Republican Army Royal Ulster Constabulary Ulster Special Constabulary British Army Commanders IRA Army Council Seán Cronin Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Strength c. ...


The British government held secret talks with the IRA leadership in 1972 to try and secure a ceasefire based on a compromise settlement within Northern Ireland after the events of Bloody Sunday when IRA recruitment and support increased. The IRA agreed to a temporary ceasefire from 26 June to 9 July. In July 1972, IRA leaders Seán Mac Stíofáin, Dáithí Ó Conaill, Ivor Bell, Seamus Twomey, Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness met a British delegation led by William Whitelaw. The IRA leaders refused to consider a peace settlement that did not include a commitment to British withdrawal, a retreat of the British Army to barracks and a release of republican prisoners. The British refused and the talks broke up.[32] // The Bogside area viewed from the city walls Bloody Sunday (Irish: Domhnach na Fola) is the term used to describe an incident in Derry[1], Northern Ireland, on 30 January 1972 in which 26 civil rights protesters were shot by members of the 1st Battalion of the British Parachute Regiment... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Seán Mac Stíofáin (17 February 1928- 18 May 2001) was an Irish republican and first chief of staff of the Provisional IRA. Image:Macstiofains. ... Dáithí Ó Conaill (1938 – 1 January 1991) was an Irish republican, a member of the IRA Army Council, vice-president of Provisional Sinn Féin and Republican Sinn Féin. ... Ivor Bell was a Protestant member (volunteer) in the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who later became Chief of Staff on the Army Council. ... Seamus Twomey (1919 – 12 September 1989) was an Irish republican and twice chief of staff of the Provisional Irish Republican Army. ... Gerard Adams (Irish Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh[1]; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist Westminster Member of Parliament for Belfast West. ... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness MP MLA (Irish: Máirtín Mag Aonghusa,[1] born in Derry 23 May 1950) is the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, KT, CH, MC, PC, DL (June 28, 1918 - July 1, 1999), commonly known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative politician. ...


Éire Nua and the 1975 ceasefire

The Provisionals' ultimate goal in this period was the abolition of both the Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland states and their replacement with a new all-Ireland federal republic, with decentralised governments and parliaments for each of the four Irish historic provinces. This programme was known as Éire Nua - "New Ireland". The Éire Nua programme was discarded by the Provisionals under the leadership of Gerry Adams in the early 1980s in favour of the pursuit of a new unitary all-Ireland Republic. A map displaying todays federations. ... Éire Nua, or New Ireland, was a political strategy of the Provisional IRA and its political wing Sinn Féin during the 1970s and early 1980s. ... A map showing the unitary states. ...


By the mid 1970s, it was clear that the hopes of the IRA leadership for a quick military victory were receding. In addition, the British military was equally unsure of when it would begin to see any substantial success against the IRA. Secret meetings between Provisional IRA leaders Ruairí Ó Brádaigh and Billy McKee with British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Merlyn Rees secured an IRA ceasefire from February 1975 until January of the next year. The IRA initially believed that this was the start of a long term process of British withdrawal, but came to the conclusion that Rees was trying to bring the Provisionals into peaceful politics without giving them any guarantees.[33] Critics of the IRA leadership, most notably Gerry Adams, felt that the ceasefire was disastrous for the IRA, leading to infiltration by British informers, the arrest of many activists and a breakdown in IRA discipline - leading to sectarian killings and a feud with fellow republicans in the Official IRA. The ceasefire broke down in January 1976.[34] Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (born 1932) is an Irish republican. ... Billy McKee is an Irish Republican and was an original founding member and former leader of the Provisional Irish Republican Army[1]. // McKee was born in Belfast in the early 1920s. ... The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the British cabinet minister who has responsibility for the government of Northern Ireland. ... Merlyn Rees, later Baron Merlyn-Rees of Cilfynydd, PC (18 December 1920 - 5 January 2006) was a British Labour party Member of Parliament from 1963 until 1992. ... From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Armyconducted an armed campaign in Northern Ireland aimed at overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland. ... The term Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA refers to one of the two organisations - the other being the Provisional Irish Republican Army - that emerged from the split in the then Irish Republican Army in 1969-70. ...


The "Long War"

IRA political poster from the 1980s

Thereafter, the IRA, under the leadership of Adams and his supporters, evolved a new strategy termed the "Long War", which underpinned IRA strategy for the rest of the Troubles. It involved a re-organisation of the IRA into small cells, an acceptance that their campaign would last many years before being successful and an increased emphasis on political activity through the Sinn Féin party. A republican document of the early 1980s states, "Both Sinn Féin and the IRA play different but converging roles in the war of national liberation. The Irish Republican Army wages an armed campaign... Sinn Féin maintains the propaganda war and is the public and political voice of the movement".[35] The 1977 edition of the Green Book, an induction and training manual used by the Provisionals, describes the strategy of the "Long War" in these terms: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixel Image in higher resolution (1231 × 841 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Republican poster in support of the (Provisional) Irish Republican Army (IRA). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixel Image in higher resolution (1231 × 841 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Republican poster in support of the (Provisional) Irish Republican Army (IRA). ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The IRA Green Book is a training and induction manual issued by the Irish Republican Army to new volunteers. ...

  1. A war of attrition against enemy personnel [British Army] based on causing as many deaths as possible so as to create a demand from their [the British] people at home for their withdrawal.
  2. A bombing campaign aimed at making the enemy's financial interests in our country unprofitable while at the same time curbing long term investment in our country.
  3. To make the Six Counties... ungovernable except by colonial military rule.
  4. To sustain the war and gain support for its ends by National and International propaganda and publicity campaigns.
  5. By defending the war of liberation by punishing criminals, collaborators and informers.[36]

For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ...

1981 Hunger Strikes and electoral politics

IRA prisoners convicted after March 1976 did not have Special Category Status applied in prison. In response, over 500 prisoners refused to wash or wear prison clothes (see Dirty protest and Blanket protest.) This activity culminated in the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike, when seven IRA and three Irish National Liberation Army members starved themselves to death in pursuit of political status. One hunger striker (Bobby Sands) and Anti H-Block activist Owen Carron were elected to the British Parliament and two other hunger strikers to the Irish Dáil. In addition, there were work stoppages and large demonstrations all over Ireland in sympathy with the hunger strikers. Over 100,000 people attended the funeral of Bobby Sands, the first hunger striker to die. In July 1972, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland William Whitelaw, granted Special Category Status to all prisoners convicted of scheduled terrorist crimes. ... The dirty protest was part of a dispute (see also Blanket protest) between Irish republican paramilitary prisoners and the prison authorities at the Maze prison (Long Kesh) and Armagh Womens Prison which ran from September 1976 until October 1981. ... The blanket protest was part of a dispute involving Provisional IRA and Irish National Liberation Army prisoners held in the Maze prison (Long Kesh) in Northern Ireland. ... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: [1][2]), commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981), was a Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteer who died on hunger strike whilst in HM Prison Maze (also known as Long Kesh) for the possession of firearms. ... Anti H-Block was the political party label used by candidates standing in Northern Ireland in support of the 1981 hunger strike. ... Owen Carron (born 1953) is an Irish republican activist and the former MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: [1][2]), commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981), was a Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteer who died on hunger strike whilst in HM Prison Maze (also known as Long Kesh) for the possession of firearms. ...


After the success of IRA hunger strikers in mobilising support and winning elections on an Anti H-Block platform in 1981, republicans increasingly devoted time and resources to electoral politics, through the Sinn Féin party. Danny Morrison summed up this policy in a 1982 Sinn Féin Ard Fheis (annual meeting) as a "ballot paper in this hand and an Armalite in the other".[37] (See Armalite and ballot box strategy) Anti H-Block was the political party label used by candidates standing in Northern Ireland in support of the 1981 hunger strike. ... Danny Morrison, full name Daniel Gerard Morrison, (born Belfast 1953) is an Irish Republican activist and writer. ... An Ard Fheis is an annual convention, usually of a political party. ... The armalite and the ballot box strategy was pursued by the Irish Republican movement in the 1980s and early 1990s, a strategy where elections in Northern Ireland and the Republic were contested by Sinn Féin, while the IRA continued to pursue a paramilitary struggle against the British army, the...


"TUAS" - peace strategy

In the 1980s, the IRA made an attempt to escalate the conflict with the so called "Tet Offensive" (see here). When this did not prove successful, republican leaders increasingly looked for a political compromise to end the conflict. Gerry Adams entered talks with John Hume the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) (moderate nationalist) leader and secret talks were also conducted with British civil servants. Thereafter, Adams increasingly tried to disassociate Sinn Féin from the IRA, claiming they were separate organisations and refusing to comment on IRA actions. Within the Republican movement (the IRA and Sinn Féin), the new strategy was described by the acronym TUAS (meaning either "Tactical Use of Armed Struggle" or "Totally Unarmed Strategy").[38] From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Armyconducted an armed campaign in Northern Ireland aimed at overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland. ... John Hume. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ...


The IRA ultimately called an indefinite ceasefire in 1994 on the understanding that Sinn Féin would be included in political talks for a settlement. When this did not happen, the IRA called off its ceasefire from February 1996 until July 1997, carrying out several bombing and shooting attacks. After its ceasefire was reinstated, Sinn Féin was admitted into the "Peace Process", which produced the Belfast Agreement of 1998. For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Weaponry and operations

Mural in Derry depicting IRA weapons, 1986
Main articles: Provisional IRA arms importation, Provisional IRA campaign 1969-1997, and Chronology of Provisional IRA Actions

In the early days of the Troubles from around 1969-71, the Provisional IRA was very poorly armed, but starting in the early 1970s it procured large amounts of modern weaponry from such sources as supporters in the United States, Libyan leader Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi,[39] arms dealers in Europe, America, the Middle East and elsewhere. Image File history File links NIrelandWeaponsJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen. ... Image File history File links NIrelandWeaponsJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army imported large quantities of weapons and ammunition into Ireland for use in Northern Ireland since the early 1970s. ... From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Armyconducted an armed campaign in Northern Ireland aimed at overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland. ... This page is chronology of activities by the Provisional Irish Republican Army - an Irish paramilitary group. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born c. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In the first years of the conflict, the Provisionals' main activities were providing firepower to support nationalist rioters and defending nationalist areas from attacks. The IRA gained much of its support from these activities, as they were widely perceived within the nationalist community as being defenders of Irish nationalist and Roman Catholic people against aggression.[40] An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


However, from 1971–1994, the Provisionals launched a sustained offensive armed campaign that mainly targeted the British Army, the RUC, UDR and economic targets in Northern Ireland. The first half of the 1970s was the most intense period of the IRA campaign.

The Armalite AR-18 - obtained by the IRA from the US in the early 1970s and an emotive symbol of its armed campaign.

In addition, IRA units carried out sectarian killings such as the Kingsmill massacre of 1976. Other instances of alleged sectarian attacks included killing Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) servicemen when they were off duty and the killing of people who worked in a civilian capacity with the RUC and British Army. Because these people were almost exclusively Protestant and unionist, these killings were also widely seen as a campaign of sectarian assassination.[citation needed] However, the IRA also killed Catholic members of the RUC and UDR. Image File history File links AR-18. ... Image File history File links AR-18. ... The AR-18 is an assault rifle chambered for 5. ... Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... In the Kingsmill massacre on January 5, 1976, ten Protestant men were killed in South Armagh, Northern Ireland, by members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, using the cover name South Armagh Republican Action Force. The victims were textile workers returning home to Bessbrook in a Ford Transit mini-bus... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... UDR Badge The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ...


The IRA was chiefly active in Northern Ireland, although it took its campaign to England, and also carried out attacks in the Republic of Ireland, the Netherlands and West Germany. The IRA also targeted certain British government officials, politicians, judges, senior military and police officers in England, and in other areas such as West Germany and the Netherlands. The bombing campaign principally targeted political, economic and military targets, and approximately 60 civilians were killed by the IRA in England during the conflict.[41] It has been argued that this bombing campaign helped convince the British government (who had hoped to contain the conflict to Northern Ireland with its Ulsterisation policy) to negotiate with Sinn Féin after the IRA ceasefires of August 1994 and July 1997. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Ulsterisation refers to a British Government strategy on the 1970s to pacify Northern Ireland during the conflict known as the The Troubles. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...

The devastation on Corporation Street in Manchester after the IRA bombing of 1996

Image File history File links Manchesterbomb-devestation. ... Image File history File links Manchesterbomb-devestation. ... The Manchester City Centre bombing was a terrorist attack in Manchester, England by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA). ...

Ceasefires and decommissioning of arms

In August 1994, the Provisional IRA declared an indefinite ceasefire. Although this ceasefire temporarily broke down in 1995-97, it essentially marked the end of the full scale IRA campaign.


From December 1995 until July 1997, the Provisional IRA called off its 1994 ceasefire because of its dissatisfaction with the state of negotiations. They re-instated the ceasefire in July 1997, it has been in operation since then.[42]


The Provisional IRA decommissioned all of its arms between July and September 2005. The decommissioning of its weaponry was supervised by the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD). Among the weaponry estimated, (by Jane's Information Group), to have been destroyed as part of this process were:

The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Ireland, as part of the peace process. ... Janes Information Group (often referred to as Janes) was founded by John F.T. Jane in 1898. ...

  • 1,000 rifles
  • 3 tonnes of Semtex
  • 20-30 heavy machine guns
  • 7 Surface-to-air missiles (unused)
  • 7 flame throwers
  • 1,200 detonators
  • 20 rocket-propelled grenade launchers
  • 100 hand guns
  • 100+ grenades[43]

The conclusion of the IICD (that all Provisional IRA weaponry has been destroyed) was arrived at by their full involvement in the process of destroying the weapons and their comparison of weapons destroyed with the figures British security forces estimate the IRA had.[44] Since the process of decommissioning was completed, unnamed sources in MI5 and the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) have reported to the press that not all IRA arms were destroyed during the process. This claim remains unsubstantiated so far.[45] Although the group overseeing the activities of paramilitaries in Northern Ireland - the Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC), in its latest report, dated April 2006, points out that it has no reason to disbelieve the IRA or information to suspect that the group has not fully decommissioned. Rather it indicated that any weaponry that had not been handed in had been retained by individuals outside the IRA's control.[46] Semtex is a general-purpose plastic explosive. ... MI5 Logo. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... The Independent Monitoring Commission is an organisation, founded on 7 January 2004, to promote peace and stability in Northern Ireland. ...

Other activities

Apart from its armed campaign, the Provisional IRA has also been involved in many other activities, including "policing", robberies and kidnapping for the purposes of raising funds.


Policing of communities

One of the areas the RUC were unwelcome was the bogside area of Derry often known as Free Derry.

The IRA looked on itself as the police force of nationalist areas of Northern Ireland during the Troubles instead of the RUC. There were a number of reasons for this. In many Nationalist areas of Northern Ireland, the RUC and British Army, as a result of their conduct and perceived involvement in oppression and violence against Nationalists, were considered biased and untrustworthy, and so were not welcome.[47] Also, the RUC and other forces of the authorities were in some instances reluctant to enter certain Nationalist areas, or patrol, unless it was in armoured Land Rovers and in convoy. Police stations were also heavily armoured because of persistent attacks from the IRA. This gave them the appearance of being fortresses. These conditions led to a situation where in some areas, the community would turn to the IRA first to deal with troublemakers or those practising what came to be called "anti-social behaviour".[48] In efforts to stamp out "anti-social behaviour" and alleged instances of drug dealing reported to or noticed by the organisation, it killed or otherwise attacked suspected drug dealers and other suspected criminals. These attacks varied in severity and depended on various factors. In the first instance, the IRA may serve a caution on the perceived offender, which if they transgressed again might escalate to an attack known as a "punishment beating". Shooting the offender was seen as a last resort, although the process which the IRA went through to determine an offenders "guilt" or "innocence" was never open to debate or scrutiny. The IRA also engaged in attacks which broke the bones of alleged offenders, or involved shooting through the hands, or knees for persistent offenders of activities such as joyriding or drug dealing.[49] In certain cases, for persistent offenders the IRA would serve a notice for the individual to leave the country, this was known as being "put out" of the community/country, and the clear message given to individuals served with these notices was that if they returned to the community/country they would be killed. This practice was frequently criticised by all sections of the political establishment in Northern Ireland as "summary justice". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1230x890, 176 KB) Description: mural in Derry. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1230x890, 176 KB) Description: mural in Derry. ... Knee-capping is a form of malicious wounding used by gangsters or terrorists to punish enemies, or as a drastic form of torture. ... To joyride is to drive around in a car with no particular goal, a ride taken solely for pleasure. ... Summary Justice refers to the informal punishment of suspected offenders without recourse to a formal trial under the legal system. ...


Informers

In an effort to stamp out what the IRA termed "collaboration with British forces" and "informing", they killed over 60 Catholic civilians.[citation needed] Purges against these individuals, who the IRA considered traitors to their own community and the cause of nationalism were most prevalent when the IRA found itself persistently vulnerable to infiltration. Investigations into informers and infiltration are suspected to have been dealt with an IRA unit called the Internal Security Unit (ISU) known colloquially as the 'Nutting Squad'. This unit is said to be directly attached to IRA GHQ. Where a confession was solicited the victim was often exiled or executed with a bullet in the back of the head. The body was either buried or later in the IRA campaign left in a public place often in South Armagh. The Internal Security Unit (ISU) is the name given to a counter intelligence and interrogation unit that operated/operates within the paramilitary organisation the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA). ...


One particular example of the killing of a person deemed by the IRA to be an informer that is the source of continuing controversy is that of Jean McConville from Belfast who was killed by the IRA. IRA sources continue to claim she was an informer despite the Police Ombudsman recently stating that this was not the case. The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) have described the killing as a 'War Crime'. Her family contend that she was killed as a punishment for aiding a dying British soldier in West Belfast. Jean McConville was a Belfast-born mother of 10 who was abducted from her home and murdered by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in or around Christmas of 1972. ... The Northern Ireland Police Ombudsman provides an independent, impartial police complaints system for the people and police under the Police (Northern Ireland) Act 1998 and 2000. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


In March 2007 Police Ombudsman Nuala O'Loan announced that there would be an inquiry into claims of collusion between IRA members and the British security forces.[50] The Northern Ireland Police Ombudsman provides an independent, impartial police complaints system for the people and police under the Police (Northern Ireland) Act 1998 and 2000. ... Nuala OLoan the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland Nuala OLoan is the first Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland. ...


Attacks on other Republican paramilitary groups

The IRA has also feuded with other republican paramilitary groups such as the Official IRA in the 1970s and the Irish People's Liberation Organisation in the 1990s. The term Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA refers to one of the two organisations - the other being the Provisional Irish Republican Army - that emerged from the split in the then Irish Republican Army in 1969-70. ... The Irish Peoples Liberation Organisation was an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed in 1986 by disaffected and expelled members of the Irish National Liberation Army in the aftermath of the supergrass trials. ...


Joseph O'Connor (26) was shot dead in Ballymurphy, west Belfast on 11 October 2000. He was a leading member of the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA). Claims have made by O'Connor's family and people associated with the RIRA, that he was murdered by Provisionals as the result of a feud between the organisations,[51] but Sinn Féin denied the claims.[52] No-one has been charged as yet with his killing. is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Real Irish Republican Army, otherwise known as the Real IRA (RIRA), is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation founded before the signing of the 1998 Good Friday (Belfast) Agreement by former members of the Provisional IRA who opposed the latters 1997 cease-fire and acquiescence in the Agreement in...


Fundraising via organised crime

The IRA has carried out many kidnappings and robberies of bank and post offices North and South of the Irish border over the 30 or so years of its existence. The IRA have killed six Gardaí and one Irish Army soldier, mostly during such activities. Garda Síochána na hÉireann (pronounced ; Irish for Peace Guard of Ireland, often rendered[1] as The Guardians of the Peace of Ireland) is the police force of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ...


According to the Irish Minister of Justice from 2002 to 2007, Michael McDowell, the IRA was involved in organised crime on both sides of the Irish border. These activities include smuggling of counterfeit goods, contraband cigarettes and oil.[53] Michael McDowell (Irish: ;[1] born 1 May 1951) is a former Irish politician and a founding member of the Progressive Democrats political party. ...


Casualties

This is a summary. For a detailed breakdown of casualties caused by and inflicted on the IRA see Provisional IRA campaign 1969-1997#Casualties From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Armyconducted an armed campaign in Northern Ireland aimed at overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland. ...


The IRA have reportedly killed more people than any other organisation since the Troubles began. In addition, they have killed more Roman Catholics, more Protestants, more civilians and more foreigners (those not from Northern Ireland) than any other organisation. Members of the IRA however have frequently disputed that the forces ranged in opposition to the IRA throughout 'the Troubles' represent separate, distinct "organisations". In the republican analysis of the conflict, organisations like the UDR, British Army, along with the UVF, and UDA represent an alliance of state and paramilitary forces, making a tally of this type nonsensical as it does not represent the nature of the conflict in their view.[54] For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ...


Two very detailed studies of deaths in the Troubles, the CAIN project at the University of Ulster, and Lost Lives,[55] differ slightly on the numbers killed by the Provisional IRA but a rough synthesis gives a figure of 1,800 deaths. Of these, roughly 1,100 were members of the security forces - British Army, Royal Ulster Constabulary and Ulster Defence Regiment, between 600 and 650 were civilians and the remainder were either loyalist or republican paramilitaries (including over 100 IRA members accidentally killed by their own bombs). The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... UDR Badge The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ...


It has also been estimated that the IRA injured 6,000 British Army, UDR and RUC and up to 14,000 civilians, during the Troubles.[56]


The IRA lost a little under 300 members killed in the Troubles.[57] In addition, roughly 50-60 members of Sinn Féin were killed.[58] For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...


Far more common than the killing of IRA volunteers however, was their imprisonment. Journalists Eamonn Mallie and Patrick Bishop estimate in their book The Provisional IRA, that between eight and ten thousand members of the organisation had been imprisoned by the mid-1980s, a number they also give as the total number of past and present IRA members at that time.[59]


Categorisation

The IRA is described as a terrorist organisation by the governments of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany and Italy, the latter three of which have alleged the existence of IRA links with terrorist organisations within their own jurisdictions including ETA and the Red Brigades.[citation needed] It is described as a terrorist organisation by An Garda Síochána[citation needed], the police force of the Republic of Ireland[citation needed], and the Police Service of Northern Ireland[citation needed]. On the island of Ireland among political parties Fianna Fáil and the Progressive Democrats who together have formed a coalition government in the Republic of Ireland refer to it as a terrorist organisation[citation needed], as do the main opposition parties Fine Gael[citation needed], the Labour Party[citation needed], the Green Party, and the Workers Party, while in Northern Ireland it is described as a terrorist movement by the mainly nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party[citation needed], the cross community Alliance Party, and from the unionist community the Ulster Unionist Party, the Democratic Unionist Party and the Progressive Unionist Party. Members of the IRA are tried in the Republic in the Special Criminal Court, a court set up by emergency legislation and which is described in its functioning as dealing with terrorism. On the island of Ireland the largest political party to suggest that the IRA is not a terrorist organisation is Sinn Féin, currently the largest pro-Belfast Agreement political party in Northern Ireland. Sinn Féin is widely regarded as the political wing of the IRA, but the party insists that the two organisations are separate. The United States Department of State and the European Union have taken the IRA off their lists of terrorist organisations due to the fact that there is a cease-fire. Peter Mandelson, a former Northern Ireland Secretary (a member of the British cabinet with responsibility for Northern Ireland) contrasted the post-1997 activities of the IRA with those of Al-Qaeda, describing the latter as "terrorists" and the former as "freedom fighters" (though Mandelson subsequently denied this sentiment [60]). IRA supporters preferred the labels freedom fighter, guerrilla and volunteer. For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse in Italian, often abbreviated as the BR) were a terrorist group[1] located in Italy and active during the Years of Lead. Formed in 1970, the Marxist-Leninist Red Brigades sought to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the... The Progressive Democrats (Irish An Páirtí Daonlathach, lit. ... Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicised to ) (approximate English translation: Family or Tribe of the Irish) and officially, Fine Gael - The United Ireland Party, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland, presently forming the largest opposition party in the Dail (Irish Parliament), and claims a membership... Logo of the Irish Labour Party The Irish Labour Party (Irish: Páirti an Lucht Oibre) is the third largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Green Party/Comhaontas Glas) was founded as the Ecology Party of Ireland in 1981. ... Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish political parties | Republic of Ireland political parties | Northern Ireland political parties ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI), is a political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... “DUP” redirects here. ... The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) are a small political party from Northern Ireland. ... The Special Criminal Court is a juryless criminal court in the Republic of Ireland which tries terrorist and organized crime cases. ... “Department of State” redirects here. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Volunteer, often abbreviated Vol. ...


The IRA describes its actions throughout 'The Troubles' as a military campaign waged against the British Army, the RUC, other security forces, judiciary, loyalist politicians and loyalist paramilitaries in Northern Ireland, England and Europe. The IRA considers these groups to be all part of the same apparatus.[61] As noted above, the IRA seeks to draw a direct descendancy from the original IRA and those who engaged in the 1916 Rebellion. The IRA sees the previous conflict as a guerrilla war which accomplished some of its aims, with some remaining "unfinished business".[62] This is the context which the IRA prefers, couching its violence in terms of a continuing struggle against what they perceive to be the occupation of their country. Within this context then, IRA members are "guerrillas" fighting a war. An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ...


However, this interpretation has consistently been criticised and rejected by many residents of Northern Ireland, commentators, and politicians from all sides of the political spectrum.[63] It is rejected for a number of reasons. Firstly, the term "guerrilla" confers legitimacy on violence which critics say was an attempt to coerce people who wish to remain within the Union into accepting a united Ireland. Secondly, IRA violence is considered a rejection of democratic principles and due process. Thirdly, armed attacks by the IRA, coupled with the consequences of their activities, generally considered to be horrifying, brought (sometimes indiscriminate) misery, terror and death to the people proximate to those events. Also, along with the killing or injuring of people who were sometimes involved, and sometimes entirely innocent, in the conflict, the IRA persistently focused attacks on commercial targets in an attempt to destabilise or even wreck the economy of Northern Ireland.[64] Fourthly, political leaders of the major parties in Britain and Ireland have preferred to label the IRA's activities "terrorist" and "criminal" as this nomenclature denies space for any competing interpretation in which the IRA may choose to phrase or contextualise events. This process of "Criminalisation" was begun in the mid 1970s via the wider British strategy of "Criminalisation, Ulsterisation, and Normalisation". The policy was outlined in a 1975 British strategy paper titled "The Way Ahead", which was not published but was referred to by Labour's first Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Merlyn Rees, and came to be the dominant British political theme in the conflict as it raged into the 1980s. Unionism, in the context of Ireland, is a belief in the continuation of the Act of Union 1800 (as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920) so that Northern Ireland (created by the 1920 Act) remains part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


A less loaded categorisation of IRA violence exists. It does not involve the terms "guerrilla" or "terrorist" but does view the conflict in military terms. The phrase originated with the British military strategist Frank Kitson who was active in Northern Ireland during the early 1970s. In Kitson's view, the violence of the IRA represented an "insurrection" situation, with the enveloping atmosphere of belligerence representing a "low intensity conflict" — a conflict where the forces involved in fighting operate at a greatly reduced tempo, with fewer combatants, at a reduced range of tactical equipment and limited scope to operate in a military manner. General Sir Frank Edward Kitson. ... Low intensity conflict (LIC) is the use of military forces applied selectively and with restraint to enforce compliance with the policies or objectives of the political body controlling the military force. ...


Membership of the IRA remains illegal in both the UK and the Republic of Ireland, but IRA prisoners convicted of offences committed before 1998 have been granted conditional early release as part of the Good Friday (Belfast) Agreement. In the United Kingdom a person convicted of membership of a "proscribed organisation", such as the IRA, still nominally faces imprisonment for up to 10 years.[65] The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ...


Strength and support

Republican mural, Derry 1986, with evidence of vandalism.

Image File history File links NIrelandDerryFreeJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen. ... Image File history File links NIrelandDerryFreeJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ...

Numerical strength

In the early to mid 1970s, the numbers recruited by the Provisional IRA, may have reached several thousand, but these were reduced when the IRA re-organised its structures from 1977 onwards. An RUC report of 1986 estimated that the IRA had 300 or so members in Active Service Units and up to 750 active members in total in Northern Ireland.[66] This does not take into consideration the IRA units in the Republic of Ireland or those in Britain, continental Europe, and throughout the world. In 2005, the then Irish Minister for Justice Michael McDowell told the Dáil that the organisation had "between 1,000 and 1,500" active members.[67] According to The Provisional IRA (Eamon Mallie and Patrick Bishop), roughly 8,000 people passed through the ranks of the IRA in the first 20 years of its existence, many of them leaving after arrest, "retirement" or disillusionment.[68] The total figure for the number to have passed through the organisation must therefore be higher again, once those recruited since 1988 are taken into account. In recent times the IRA's strength has been somewhat weakened by members leaving the organisation to join hardline splinter groups such as the Continuity IRA and the Real IRA. According to former Irish Minister for Justice Michael McDowell, these organisations have little more than 150 members each.[69] Despite some successes by the British and Irish security services, military and police at infiltrating the IRA, as of the year 2001, the British, Irish and American governments believed that the IRA remained an extremely potent and capable terrorist organisation. The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Michael McDowell (Irish: ;[1] born 1 May 1951) is a former Irish politician and a founding member of the Progressive Democrats political party. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) is an Irish republican paramilitary group that split from the Provisional IRA in 1986 in a dispute over the attendance of the elected representatives of Sinn Féin (the political party affiliated to the Provisional IRA) at Dáil Éireann (the lower house of... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Organization stubs | Terrorist organizations in Northern Ireland | Rebellion ...


Electoral and popular support

The popular support for the IRA's campaign in the Troubles is hard to gauge, given that Sinn Féin, the IRA's political wing, did not stand in election until the early 1980s. Even after this, most nationalists in Northern Ireland voted for the moderate Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) until the early 2000s. After the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike, Sinn Féin mobilised large electoral support and won 105,000 votes or 43% of the nationalist vote in Northern Ireland, in the United Kingdom general election, 1983, only 34,000 votes behind the SDLP.[70] However, by the 1992 UK General Election, the SDLP won 184,445 votes and four seats to Sinn Féin's 78,291 votes and no seats.[71] In the 1993 Local District Council Elections in Northern Ireland, the SDLP won roughly 150,000 votes to Sinn Féin's 80,000 votes.[72] During the Troubles, therefore, nationalists in Northern Ireland tended to vote for non-violent nationalism rather than for Sinn Féin, who endorsed the IRA campaign. Sinn Féin did not overtake the SDLP as the main nationalist party in Northern Ireland until after the Belfast Agreement, by which time they no longer advocated violence. A few leftwing Protestant voters voted for Sinn Féin. In 1992, many of them voted for SDLP West Belfast candidate Joe Hendron rather than a unionist candidate in order to make sure Gerry Adams of Sinn Féin lost his seat in the constituency.[73] The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... The general election of April 9, 1992, was the fourth victory in a row for the Conservatives. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Joe Hendron is a Northern Ireland politician, who has been a member of both the British House of Commons and the Irish Senate. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in...


However, it is widely recognised that the IRA possessed substantial support in parts of Northern Ireland since the early 1970s. Areas of IRA support included working class Catholic/nationalist areas of Belfast, Derry and other towns and cities. The most notable of these include parts of the north and west Belfast and the Bogside and Creggan areas of Derry City. In addition, the IRA has been strongly supported in rural areas with a strong republican tradition, these include South Armagh, East Tyrone, South County Londonderry and several other localities. Such support would be indicated by the recruitment of IRA volunteers from an area and the populace hiding weapons, providing safe houses to IRA members and providing information on the movements of the Security Forces.


In the Republic of Ireland, there was some sympathy for the IRA movement in the early 1970s. However, the movement's appeal was hurt badly by more notorious bombings widely perceived as atrocities, such as the killing of civilians attending a Remembrance Day ceremony at the cenotaph in Enniskillen in 1987 and the death of two children when a bomb exploded in Warrington, which led to tens of thousands of people demonstrating on O'Connell Street in Dublin to call for an end to the IRA's campaign. Sinn Féin did very badly in elections in the Republic of Ireland during the IRA's campaign. For example, in the 1981 Irish General Election, Anti H-Block Republican candidates won just 5% of the popular vote[74] by the 1987 Irish General Election, Sinn Féin won only 1.7% of the votes cast.[75] They did not make significant electoral gains in the Republic until after the IRA ceasefires and the Belfast Agreement of 1998. Sinn Féin now has 28 members of the Northern Ireland Assembly (out of 108), five Westminster MPs (out of 18 from Northern Ireland) and five Republic of Ireland TDs (out of 166). This increase is widely perceived as support for the IRA ceasefire and some commentators maintain this support would decrease if the IRA returned to violence (although this did not happen during the brief resumption that occurred between the 1994 and 1997 ceasefires). The Remembrance Day Massacre, Enniskillen One of the IRAs most notorious acts of violence during Northern Irelands Troubles. ... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... The Warrington Bomb Attacks took place in Warrington, England in 1993. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Daniel OConnell, 19th century nationalist leader, whose statue by John Henry Foley, stands on the street named after him. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... (Redirected from 1981 Irish General Election) The election for the 22nd Dáil took place on June 11, 1981. ... (Redirected from 1987 Irish General Election) The election for the 25th Dáil was held on February 17, 1987. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ...


Support from other countries and organisations

The IRA have had contacts with foreign governments and other illegal armed organisations. The Provisional Irish Republican Army imported large quantities of weapons and ammunition into Ireland for use in Northern Ireland since the early 1970s. ...


Libya has been the biggest single supplier of arms and funds to the IRA, donating large amounts (three shipments of arms in the early 1970s and another three in the mid 1980s, the latter reputedly enough to arm two regular infantry battalions) of both in the early 1970s and mid 1980s.[76]


The IRA has also received weapons and logistical support from Irish Americans, in the United States especially the NORAID group. Apart from the Libyan aid, this has been the main source of overseas IRA support. American support has been weakened by the War against Terrorism, and the fallout from the events of 11 September 2001.[77][78] Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... Noraid or the Irish Northern Aid Committee is an Irish American fundraising organization founded after the start of the Troubles in Northern Ireland in 1969. ... ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


In the United States in November 1982, five men were acquitted of smuggling arms to the IRA after they revealed the Central Intelligence Agency had approved the shipment (although the CIA officially denied this).[79] There are allegations of contact with the East German Stasi, based on the testimony of a Soviet defector to British intelligence Vasili Mitrokhin. Mitrokhin revealed that although the Soviet KGB gave some weapons to the Marxist Official IRA, it had little sympathy with the Provisionals.[80] Another more recent allegation is that the Provisional movement has been aided by the Cuban General Intelligence Directorate. It has received some training and support from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and has had some contact with Hezbollah. According to the IRA, the organisation has also had fraternal contacts with the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, Basque group ETA and various South African groups such as the ANC.[citation needed] Since the late 1970s it is believed by many intelligence agencies that the IRA has shared bomb making and urban warfare tactics with a list of groups including: ETA, South African African National Congress (ANC) and the PLO.[citation needed] In May 1996, the Federal Security Service (FSB), Russia's internal security service, publicly accused Estonia of arms smuggling, and claimed that the IRA had contacted representatives of Estonia's volunteer defense force, Kaitseliit, and some non-government groups to buy weapons. [81][82] In 2001 three Irish men who became known as the Colombia Three were arrested after allegedly training Colombian guerrillas, (the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), in bomb making and urban warfare techniques. The U.S. House of Representatives Committee on International Relations in its report of 24 April 2002 concluded "Neither committee investigators nor the Colombians can find credible explanations for the increased, more sophisticated capacity for these specific terror tactics now being employed by the FARC, other than IRA training".[83] “CIA” redirects here. ... For the historical eastern German provinces, see Historical Eastern Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist Party-led state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The term Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA refers to one of the two organisations - the other being the Provisional Irish Republican Army - that emerged from the split in the then Irish Republican Army in 1969-70. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... ANC redirects here. ... Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йск&#1086... The Estonian Defence League (Estonian: Kaitseliit) [1] is a voluntary military national defence organisation which is a part of the Estonian Defence Forces and acts in the area of government of the Estonian Ministry of Defence. ... The Colombia Three are three individuals – Niall Connolly, James Monaghan and Martin McCauley – who are currently residing in the Republic of Ireland, having fled from Colombia, where they have been sentenced to prison terms of seventeen years for training FARC rebels. ... The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia–Peoples Army, in Spanish Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia–Ejército del Pueblo, also known by the acronym of FARC or FARC-EP is a communist revolutionary and armed guerrilla organization in Colombia. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


The Belfast Agreement

The IRA ceasefire in 1997 formed part of a process that led to the 1998 Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement. The Agreement has among its aims that all paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland cease their activities and disarm by May 2000. This is one of many Agreement aims that have yet to be realised. A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ...


Calls from Sinn Féin have led the IRA to commence disarming in a process that has been overviewed by Canadian General John de Chastelain's decommissioning body in October 2001. However, following the collapse of the Stormont power-sharing government in 2002, which was partly triggered by allegations that republican spies were operating within Parliament Buildings and the Civil Service (although no convictions came from the widely-publicised police operation, and it has since emerged that it was actually MI5 who had a spy in Stormont's Sinn Féin offices)[citation needed], the IRA temporarily broke contact with General de Chastelain. Increasing numbers of people, from the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) under Ian Paisley and the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) under Mark Durkan to the Irish government under Bertie Ahern and the mainstream Irish media, have begun demanding not merely decommissioning but the wholesale disbandment of the IRA[citation needed]. In December 2004, attempts to persuade the IRA to disarm entirely collapsed when the Democratic Unionist Party, under Ian Paisley, insisted on photographic evidence. The IRA stated that this was an attempt at humiliation. The Irish government (generally in private)[citation needed], and Justice Minister Michael McDowell (in public, and often) also insisted that there would need to be a complete end to IRA activity. This is felt by many to have been a major reason for the collapse of this deal[citation needed]. Politicians who called loudest for IRA decommissioning were often reticent on the corresponding obligation of loyalist groups to do the same[citation needed]. John de Chastelain General Alfred John Gardyne Drummond de Chastelain, OC, CMM, CD, CH, LL.D., BA (born July 30, 1937) is a retired Canadian soldier and diplomat. ... The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Ireland, as part of the peace process. ... Stormont may refer to: Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Stormont Stormont, a suburb and electoral ward of East Belfast Stormont (electoral district), a Canadian federal electoral district Parliament of Northern Ireland nickname that might include the Executive Committee of the Privy Council of Northern Ireland Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry... MI5 Logo. ... “DUP” redirects here. ... Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926), styled The Revd and Rt Hon. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Mark Henry Durkan (born in 1960) is a Roman Catholic nationalist politician in Northern Ireland and the leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. ... The Government (Irish: ) [ral̪ˠt̪ˠəs̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... Patrick Bartholomew Bertie Ahern (Irish: ;[1] born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician who, since 26 June 1997, has served as the tenth Taoiseach of Ireland. ...


At the beginning of February 2005, the IRA declared that it was withdrawing from the disarmament process, but in July 2005 it declared that its campaign of violence was over, and that transparent mechanisms would be used, under the de Chastelain process, to satisfy the Northern Ireland communities that it was disarming totally.


End of the armed campaign

On 28 July 2005, the IRA Army Council announced an end to its armed campaign. In a statement read by Séanna Breathnach, the organisation stated that it had instructed its members to dump all weapons and not to engage in "any other activities whatsoever" apart from assisting “the development of purely political and democratic programmes through exclusively peaceful means". Furthermore, the organisation authorised its representatives to engage immediately with the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) to verifiably put its arms beyond use "in a way which will further enhance public confidence and to conclude this as quickly as possible".[84] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Séanna Breathnach (English: Séanna Walsh; born 1957) is an Irish republican and a former member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army. ... The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Ireland, as part of the peace process. ...


This is not the first time that organisations styling themselves IRA have issued orders to dump arms. After its defeat in the Irish Civil War in 1924 and at the end of its unsuccessful Border Campaign in 1962, the IRA Army Council issued similar orders. However, this is the first time in Irish republicanism that any organisation has voluntarily decided to destroy its arms. The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... The Border Campaign (December 12, 1956–February 26, 1962) was a campaign of guerrilla warfare (codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland, with the aim of overthrowing that state and creating a United Ireland. ...

On 25 September 2005, international weapons inspectors supervised the full disarmament of the outlawed Irish Republican Army, a long-sought goal of Northern Ireland's peace process. The office of IICD Chairman John de Chastelain, a retired Canadian general who oversaw the weapons destruction at secret locations, released details regarding the scrapping of many tons of IRA weaponry at a news conference in Belfast on 26 September. He said the arms had been "put beyond use" and that they were "satisfied that the arms decommissioned represent the totality of the IRA's arsenal." Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The IRA permitted two independent witnesses, including a Methodist minister, Rev. Harold Good, and Father Alec Reid, a Roman Catholic priest close to Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams, to view the secret disarmament work.[85] However, Ian Paisley, the leader of the DUP, complained that since the witnesses were appointed by the IRA themselves, rather than being appointed by the British or Irish governments, they therefore cannot be said to be unbiased witnesses to the decommissioning. These claims came as expected by Nationalists and Catholics, who viewed Ian Paisley’s consistent refusal to support devolution in Northern Ireland with Catholics in power as a simple unwillingness to accept an end to Unionist rule and Catholic equality.[86] The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Father Alec Reid is an Irish priest who is noted for his facilitator role in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Continuing activities of IRA members

The 10th report from the Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC), an organisation monitoring activity by paramilitary groups on behalf of the British and Irish governments, prefaced its remarks about IRA activity by saying: The Independent Monitoring Commission is an organisation, founded on 7 January 2004, to promote peace and stability in Northern Ireland. ...

"It remains our absolutely clear view that the PIRA leadership has committed itself to following a peaceful path. It is working to bring the whole organisation fully along with it and has expended considerable effort to refocus the movement in support of its objective. In the last three months this process has involved the further dismantling of PIRA as a military structure."

Its report made the following comments about current IRA activity:

"We are not aware of current terrorist, paramilitary or violent activity sanctioned by the leadership. We have had no indications in the last three months of training, engineering activity, recent recruitment or targeting for the purposes of attack. There has now been a substantial erosion in PIRA’s capacity to return to a military campaign without a significant period of build-up, which in any event we do not believe they have any intentions of doing. The instructions we have previously mentioned to refrain from violence or rioting still stand."[87]

The IMC has come in for criticism (mainly by Republicans) as having been set up outside the terms of the Good Friday Agreement as a sop to Unionism. Sinn Féin MP Conor Murphy summed up the typical republican feeling towards the IMC in February 2006. He said, "The IMC was established outside and in breach of the terms of the Good Friday Agreement. It is a tool for the securocrats and the opponents of change. It is not and never has been independent. It is politically biased, has a clear anti Sinn Féin agenda, and its procedures are flawed."


On 4 October 2006, the IMC ruled that the IRA were no longer a threat.[88] is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


P. O'Neill

The IRA traditionally uses a well-known signature in its public statements, which are all issued under the pseudonym of "P. O'Neill" of the "Irish Republican Publicity Bureau, Dublin".[89] A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ...


According to Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, it was Seán Mac Stiofáin, as chief of staff of the IRA, who invented the name. However, under his usage, the name was written and pronounced according to Irish orthography and pronunciation as "P. Ó Néill". Ó Brádaigh also maintains that there is no particular significance to the name, thus discounting claims that it is a reference to Sir Phelim O'Neill, the executed leader of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. According to Danny Morrison, the pseudonym "S. O'Neill" was used during the 1940s.[89] Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (born 1932) is an Irish republican. ... Seán Mac Stiofáin (17 February 1928- 18 May 2001) was an Irish republican and first chief of staff of the Provisional IRA. // Childhood Although he used the Gaelicised version of his name in later life, Mac Stiofáin was born an only child as John Edward Drayton Stephenson... Sir Felim ONeill of Kinard (died 1652), better known as Phelim ONeill was an Irish nobleman who led the Irish Rebellion of 1641 in Ulster which began on October 22, 1641. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... Danny Morrison, full name Daniel Gerard Morrison, (born Belfast 1953) is an Irish Republican activist and writer. ...


Infiltration

The IRA has been infiltrated by British Intelligence agents, and in the past some IRA members have been informers. Members suspected of being informants were usually executed after an IRA 'court-martial'. The IRA executed 63 people as informers in the Troubles.


The first large infiltrations of IRA structures occurred in the mid 1970s, around the time of the ceasefire of 1975. Many IRA volunteers were arrested when this ceasefire broke down in 1976. In the 1980s, many more IRA members were imprisoned on the testimony of former IRA members known as "supergrasses" such as Raymond Gilmour and Martin McGartland. Sean O'Callaghan, one of the IRA commanders in the Republic of Ireland, was an informer for the Garda Siochana throughout the 1980s until he was discovered and was put in protective custody in Britain. The term supergrass is used in Northern Ireland to refer police informers, typically the arrested paramilitaries who divulged the identities of their compatriots to the Royal Ulster Constabulary in exchange for immunity from prosecution and in many cases substantial sums of money. ... Raymond Gilmour is a former Provisional Irish Republican Army and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) member (volunteer) who worked clandestinely from 1977 until 1982 for the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) within these paramilitary organisations. ... Martin McGartland is a former Provisional Irish Republican Army informer[1] who joined the organisation in order to pass information to British security forces. ... OCallaghan pictured on the cover of his first book, The Informer Sean OCallaghan is a former member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who became an informer for the Garda Síochána (The Republic of Ireland State Police Force) and who was later debriefed by the UK... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ...


In recent years, there have been some high profile allegations of senior IRA figures having been British informers. In May 2003 a number of newspapers named Freddie Scappaticci as the alleged identity of the British Force Research Unit's most senior informer within the Provisional IRA, code-named Stakeknife, who is thought to have been head of the IRA's internal security force, charged with rooting out and executing informers. Scappaticci denies that this is the case and in 2003 failed in a legal bid to force the then Minister for NI, Jane Kennedy, to state he was not an informer.[90] She has refused to do so, and since then Scappaticci has not launched any libel actions against the media making the allegations. Alfredo (Freddie or Frederick) Scappaticci was exposed in the Irish & British media on 11 May 2003, as being a high-level double agent in the Provisional IRA (PIRA), known by the codename Stakeknife. ... The Force Research Unit is alleged to be a covert military intelligence organization established by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence under the British Armys Special Intelligence Wing (SIW). ... Steakknife (sometimes written as Steak knife or incorrectly as Stakeknife[1]) is the code name of a spy who infiltrated the Provisional IRA, at a high level, as a double agent working for the top secret British Force Research Unit. ... Jane Elizabeth Kennedy (born 4 May 1958, as Jane Elizabeth Hodgson) is a Labour Party politician in the United Kingdom. ...


On 16 December 2005, senior Sinn Féin member Denis Donaldson appeared before TV cameras in Dublin and confessed to being a British spy for twenty years.[91] He was expelled from Sinn Féin and was said to have been debriefed by the party.[92] Donaldson was a former Provisional IRA volunteer and subsequently highly placed Sinn Féin party member. One example of the trust put in Donaldson is that he had been entrusted by Gerry Adams with the running of Sinn Féin's operations in the USA in the early 1990s.[93] On 4 April 2006 Donaldson was found shot dead at his retreat near Glenties in County Donegal.[94] When asked whether he felt Donaldson's role as an informer in Sinn Féin was significant, the IRA double agent using the pseudonym "Kevin Fulton" described Donaldson's role as a spy within Sinn Féin as "the tip of the iceberg".[95] The former Force Research Unit and MI5 operative using the pseudonym "Martin Ingram" concurs with "Kevin Fulton" and has even gone so far as to allege that Gerry Adams knew that Donaldson was an agent. Ingram has also claimed that Martin McGuinness is a British agent. As evidence for this claim he alleges that McGuinness was involved in the death of IRA volunteer and FRU agent Frank Hegarty in May 1986.[96] McGuinness has denied any involvement in the Hegarty case and brushed off allegations that he is a spy.[97] He also brushed off the most recent allegations made by Ingram in the Sunday World newspaper on 28 May 2006.[98] Allegations such as these have caused disquiet in republican circles. Dissent has also arisen over the recent case of the "Tohill 4"- four men currently on the run (OTR) after the abduction of dissident republican Bobby Tohill in 2004. McGuinness has asked that the men hand themselves in "to the authorities".[99] The lack of disclosure over what secrets Donaldson divulged during his 20 year period as a British spy have caused a simmering discontent amongst Republicans. Donaldson took his secrets to the grave. Whether the allegations against McGuinness and Adams are true or whether they are a British intelligence dirty tricks campaign has yet to be revealed. The allegations have started some commentators asking whether the entire Provisional IRA peace strategy has been orchestrated by the presence of British informers at the highest levels of their movement.[100] Journalist and author Ed Moloney also hints at this in his book, "The Secret History of the IRA". is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Denis Donaldson (left) pictured with Bobby Sands Denis Martin Donaldson (Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1950 – April 4, 2006 in Donegal, Republic of Ireland) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Sinn Féin who was exposed in December 2005 as an informer in the employ of MI5... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Glenties (Na Gleannta in Irish, meaning The Glens) is a small town in the northwest of Ireland in central County Donegal. ... Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Kevin Fulton is the pseudonym of a British agent from Newry, County Down, Northern Ireland who allegedly acted as a spy against the Provisional IRA during their campaign. ... MI5 Logo. ... Martin Ingram is the pseudonym of an ex-British Army soldier who served in the Intelligence Corp and Force Research Unit (FRU). ... The Sunday World is an Irish newspaper published by Sunday Newspapers Limited, a division of Independent News and Media. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

British Military Intelligence Systems in Northern Ireland is a term used to describe various HUMINT, ELINT, and SIGINT systems used by the RUC and British Army Intelligence in Northern Ireland during the latest round of the conflict there. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... When discussing the history of Northern Ireland, the peace process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 IRA ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of The Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ...

References

  1. ^ Moloney, Ed (2002). A Secret History of the IRA. Penguin Books, p. xiv. ISBN 0-141-01041-X. 
  2. ^ Henry McDonald (13 February 2005). Grieving sisters square up to IRA. The Observer. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  3. ^ Coogan, Tim Pat (1987). The IRA. Fontana Books, 681-682. ISBN 000636943X. 
  4. ^ Éire Nua policy statement
  5. ^ Home Office - Proscribed Terror Groups — Home Office website, retrieved 11 May 2007
  6. ^ McDowell insists IRA will remain illegal. RTÉ (28 August 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  7. ^ Full text: IRA statement. The Guardian (28 July 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  8. ^ Army paper says IRA not defeated
  9. ^ Mallie, Bishop p136
  10. ^ Robert White, Ruairi O Bradaigh, the Life and Politics of an Irish Revolutionary, 2006, Indiana University Press.
  11. ^ Mallie, Bishop p141.
  12. ^ Patrick Bishop and Eamonn Mallie, The Provisional IRA.
  13. ^ Taylor, Peter (1997). Provos The IRA & Sinn Féin. Bloomsbury Publishing, p. 67. ISBN 0-7475-3818-2. 
  14. ^ English, Richard (2003). Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. Pan Books, p. 119. ISBN 0-330-49388-4. 
  15. ^ English, pp. 111-113.
  16. ^ English, p. 106.
  17. ^ Taylor, pp. 289-291.
  18. ^ Robin Sheeran (21 January 2006). Northern Ireland: The SDLP and the House of Lords. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  19. ^ Moloney, p. 80.
  20. ^ Taylor, pp. 104-105
  21. ^ a b O'Brien, Brendan (1999). The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin. O'Brien Press, p. 158. ISBN 0-86278-606-1. 
  22. ^ English, pp. 114-115
  23. ^ English, p. 43
  24. ^ Moloney, pp. 155-160
  25. ^ O'Brien p.158
  26. ^ Moloney, p103
  27. ^ O'Brien page 161
  28. ^ Bowyer Bell Page 437
  29. ^ O'Brien, p.161
  30. ^ Moloney, p.377
  31. ^ O'Brien p158
  32. ^ (Taylor p139)
  33. ^ Taylor, Peter (2001). Brits. Bloomsbury Publishing, pp. 184-185. ISBN 0-7475-5806-X. 
  34. ^ (Taylor p156)
  35. ^ (O'Brien p128)
  36. ^ (cited in O'Brien p 23)
  37. ^ (O'Brien p127)
  38. ^ (Moloney p432)
  39. ^ (Taylor p156)
  40. ^ English, pp.134-135
  41. ^ Crosstabulations (two-way tables). CAIN. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  42. ^ (Moloney p472)
  43. ^ IRA guns: The list of weapons. BBC (26 September 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  44. ^ Colonel al-Gaddafi is known to have given the British Government a detailed inventory of weapons he gave to the IRA in the 1970s and 1980s, this list was handed to British intelligence in 1995. See Bowyer Bell Page 578
  45. ^ House of Commons Hansard Debates for 8 Feb 2006 (pt 26). House of Commons (8 February 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  46. ^ 10th Report of the IMC Page 15 April 2006, available here.
  47. ^ This feeling, that the RUC, B-Specials, UDR, British Army and other arms of the Governmental apparatus in Northern Ireland were biased against the Nationalist & Roman Catholic members of the community was not new. It predates the current 'Troubles' and predates organisations like the "Ulster Defence Volunteers" (Home guard) of WW2 who were also widely considered sectarian. For details see Robert Fisk, In Time of War (Gill & Macmillan) 1983 P.189.
  48. ^ Punishment beatings: A grip of fear. BBC (25 January 1999). Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  49. ^ Critics of the Provisional IRA in the Unionist orientated media and political parties such as the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) maintain that the IRA itself was involved in "antisocial behaviour" and operated a policy of kneecapping drug dealers not under its control, or not paying it protection money. This was consistently rejected by the IRA as a fantasy.
  50. ^ IRA "collusion" inquiry launched, BBC News
  51. ^ Controversy over republican's murder. BBC (17 October 2000). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  52. ^ IRA denies murdering dissident. BBC (18 October 2000). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  53. ^ Barry O'Kelly (18 January 2004). McDowell takes stock. The Sunday Business Post. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  54. ^ These accusations were particularly prevalent during the Miami Showband Massacre, the 1980s Stalker Shoot to kill inquiry, the assassination of Pat Finucane, and the Brian Nelson/Force Research Unit controversy. During these episodes Republicans were quick to highlight overlap of personnel between loyalist paramilitary organisations and arms of the British security services.
  55. ^ Lost Lives (2004. Ed's David McKitrick, Seamus Kelters, Brian Feeney, Chris Thornton, David McVea)
  56. ^ (O'Brien p135)
  57. ^ (Lost Lives p1531)
  58. ^ (cited in O'Brien, Long War p26)
  59. ^ (Mallie, Bishop p12)
  60. ^ MP denies 'IRA freedom fighters' claim. BBC (30 December 2001). Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
  61. ^ Recently released (3 May 2006) British Government documents show that overlapping membership between British Army units like the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) and loyalist paramilitary groups was a wider problem than a "few bad apples" as was often claimed. The documents include a report titled "Subversion in the UDR" which details the problem. In 1973; an estimated 5–15% of UDR soldiers were directly linked to loyalist paramilitary groups, it was believed that the "best single source of weapons, and the only significant source of modern weapons, for Protestant extremist groups was the UDR", it was feared UDR troops were loyal to "Ulster" alone rather than to "Her Majesty's Government", the British Government knew that UDR weapons were being used in the assassination and attempted assassination of Roman Catholic civilians by loyalist paramilitaries. May 2, 2006 edition of the Irish News available here.
  62. ^ Gerry Adam's 2006 Easter Message was that "unfinished business" remains, available here. "But in truth The Proclamation is also unfinished business. It is unfinished business which the vast majority of the Irish people want to see brought to completion."
  63. ^ For example, many mainstream politicians in the Republic of Ireland have always been at pains to try and draw any distinction they can between what they term "the old IRA" (that engaged in the 1916 Rebellion and Anglo-Irish War) and the "IRA".
  64. ^ Indeed, ruining the economy of the province was a stated aim of the IRA as outlined in their 1977 induction and training manual, The Green Book.
  65. ^ House of Commons Hansard Debates for 30 Oct 2002 (pt 8). House of Commons (30 October 2002). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  66. ^ (O'Brien p161)
  67. ^ [1]
  68. ^ (Mallie, Bishop p12)
  69. ^ [2]
  70. ^ (O'Brien p115)
  71. ^ (O'Brien p198)
  72. ^ (O'Brien p196)
  73. ^ (Coogan p284)
  74. ^ (Mallie, Bishop p444)
  75. ^ (O'Brien p199)
  76. ^ Bowyer Bell, J. (1997). The Secret Army: The IRA. Transaction Publishers, pp. 556-571. ISBN 1560009012
  77. ^ John O'Sullivan (15 February 2005). IThe Padre Pio. National Review. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  78. ^ John Lloyd (28 October 2002). Sinn Féin could win the peace. New Statesman. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  79. ^ A Chronology of the Conflict - 1982. CAIN. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  80. ^ Mitrokhin, Vasili (2000). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books, p. 384. ISBN 0465003125. 
  81. ^ J. Michael Waller (15 May 1996). Russia Reform Monitor No. 137. American Foreign Policy Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  82. ^ Deborah Michaels (14 May 1996). No. 93, Part II. Open Media Research Institute. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  83. ^ House International Relations Committee (24 April 2002). Report. U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  84. ^ Full text: IRA statement. The Guardian (28 July 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  85. ^ Maintaining belief in peace aided N. Ireland transformation By Kevin Cullen, The Boston Globe, 27 September 2005.
  86. ^ Weapons witnesses 'IRA-nominated'. BBC (27 September 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  87. ^ Tenth report of the Independent Monitoring Commission April 2006 available in PDF here NOTE: the IMC report is issued every six months.
  88. ^ Matt Weaver (4 October 2006). Blair: Northern Ireland final settlement within reach. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  89. ^ a b Who is P O'Neill?BBC News article, 22 September 2005.
  90. ^ Ted Oliver (19 August 2003). 'Stakeknife' loses bid to quash spy claim. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  91. ^ Sinn Féin man admits he was agent. BBC (16 December 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  92. ^ Suzanne Breen (26 March 2006). Denis Donaldson — squalid living after a life of lies. Sunday Tribune. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  93. ^ Suzanne Breen (9 April 2006). No tears over Denis Donaldson. Sunday Tribune. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  94. ^ Sinn Féin British agent shot dead. BBC (4 April 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  95. ^ "Kevin Fulton" (not his real name) made the comments on a BBC News 24 interview 10 April 2006, Realmedia available here or available on googlevideo here
  96. ^ Ingram claims that Hegarty was an agent he ran as part of his duties working in the Force Research Unit.
  97. ^ For a discussion of the issue, listen to the Radio Free Éireann interview Ingram gave- see links. Also see this summary of the allegations against McGuinness here.
  98. ^ See synopsis of allegations available here.
  99. ^ Gang 'should turn themselves in'. BBC (7 May 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  100. ^ West Belfast Journal THE BLANKET available here, is a place where such views can be aired freely.

Edward Ed Moloney is an Irish journalist and author. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Timothy Patrick Coogan is an Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and was appointed editor of the Irish Press newspaper in 1968. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ; Irish for Radio and Television of Ireland) is the national publicly-funded broadcaster of Ireland. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Taylor is a British journalist and documentary maker who has covered the Troubles in Northern Ireland for many years. ... Bloomsbury Publishing Plc is an independent, London-based publishing house known for literary novels. ... 1961 Pan Books edition of Ian Flemings James Bond novel Goldfinger is an example of the type of publication for which Pan Books became popular. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Brendan OBrien is a senior Irish journalist on RTÉs Prime Time current affairs programme. ... Peter Taylor is a British journalist and documentary maker who has covered the Troubles in Northern Ireland for many years. ... Bloomsbury Publishing Plc is an independent, London-based publishing house known for literary novels. ... In stories common to the Abrahamic religions, Cain or Káyin (קַיִן / קָיִן spear Standard Hebrew Qáyin, Tiberian Hebrew Qáyin / Qāyin; Arabic قايين Qāyīn in the Arabic Bible; قابيل Qābīl in Islam) is the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and the first man born in creation... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “DUP” redirects here. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sunday Business Post is an Irish national Sunday newspaper published by Thomas Crosbie Holdings Limited. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a loyalist group in Northern Ireland. ... This article deals with the issue of a shoot-to-kill policy during The Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... Patrick (Pat) Finucane (born 1949)[1] was a Belfast solicitor murdered by loyalist paramilitaries on February 12, 1989. ... The Force Research Unit is alleged to be a covert military intelligence organization established by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence under the British Armys Special Intelligence Wing (SIW). ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... The IRA Green Book is a training and induction manual issued by the Irish Republican Army to new volunteers. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In stories common to the Abrahamic religions, Cain or Káyin (קַיִן / קָיִן spear Standard Hebrew Qáyin, Tiberian Hebrew Qáyin / Qāyin; Arabic قايين Qāyīn in the Arabic Bible; قابيل Qābīl in Islam) is the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and the first man born in creation... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sunday Tribune is an broadsheet Irish Sunday newspaper published by Tribune Newspapers plc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Martin Dillon, 25 Years of Terror - the IRA's War against the British,
  • Richard English, Armed Struggle - A History of the IRA, MacMillan, Lodon 2003, ISBN 1-4050-0108-9
  • Peter Taylor, Provos - the IRA and Sinn Féin
  • Ed Moloney, The Secret History of the IRA, Penguin, London 2002,
  • Eamonn Mallie and Patrick Bishop, The Provisional IRA, Corgi, London 1988. ISBN 0-552-13337-X
  • Toby Harnden, Bandit Country -The IRA and South Armagh, Hodder & Stoughton, London 1999, ISBN 0-340-71736-X
  • Brendan O'Brien, The Long War - The IRA and Sinn Féin. O'Brien Press, Dublin 1995, ISBN 0-86278-359-3
  • Tim Pat Coogan, The Troubles,
  • Tim Pat Coogan, The IRA: A History (1994)
  • Tony Geraghty, The Irish War
  • David McKitrick, Seamus Kelters, Brian Feeney, Chris Thornton, David McVea, Lost Lives.
  • J Bowyer Bell, The Secret Army - The IRA, 1997 3rd Edition, ISBN 1-85371-813-0
  • Christopher Andrews, The Mitrokhin Archive (also published as The Sword and the Shield)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Provisional Irish Republican Army - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7772 words)
Although the Provisional IRA had a political wing (Provisional Sinn Féin, which split with Official Sinn Féin at the same time as the split in the IRA), the early Provisional IRA was extremely suspicious of political activity, arguing rather for the primacy of armed struggle.
The PIRA is described as a terrorist organisation by the governments of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Spain, Germany and Italy, the latter three of which have alleged the existence of IRA links with terrorist organisations within their own jurisdictions including ETA and the Red Brigades.
Irish Republican Army (Army of the Irish Republic) (1919–1922)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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