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Encyclopedia > Provirus

A provirus is a retrovirus that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. To do this, the RNA of the retrovirus is transcribed into DNA by reverse transcriptase, then inserted into the host genome by an integrase. Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two RNA molecules, which may or may not be identical. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and most viruses. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ... Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Or, in other words, the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA. In the case of protein-encoding DNA, transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Integrase is a protein produced by a virus that enables genetic material that is helpful to the virus, proviral DNA, to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell. ...


A provirus is not active while integrated into a host genome in this way. Instead, it is passively replicated along with the host genome and passed on to the original cell's offspring; all descendants of the infected cell will also bear proviruses in their genomes. Eventually, in response to changes in the host's environmental conditions or health, the provirus will be activated and begin massive transcription of its viral genome. This results in the destruction of its host as its protein synthesis machinery is hijacked to produce more viruses.


Examples in humans include HIV and HTLV. Human immunodeficiency virus (commonly known as HIV, and formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus) is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... ...


See also

Proviral DNA: This is DNA created when a retrovirus enters the host cell and uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA copies of the RNA genome. Proviral DNA is linear and single stranded; once in the nucleus, it can integrate into the host genome. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements and are ubiquitous in the genomes of many eukaryotic organisms. ... Germline is a word used in biology and genetics. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i. ... Retroviruses are viruses that reverse-transcribe their RNA to DNA for their integration to the hosts genome. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Provirus Summary (347 words)
Temin formed a possible explanation, the provirus hypothesis, claiming that the RNA of the invading virus is somehow copied or translated into the DNA of the host cell.
Temin's provirus hypothesis met with skepticism, as the prevailing dogma at the time was that genetic information passed only from DNA to RNA.
A provirus is a retrovirus that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell.
Provirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (165 words)
A provirus is a retrovirus that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell.
To do this, the RNA of the retrovirus is transcribed into DNA by reverse transcriptase, then inserted into the host genome by an integrase.
Instead, it is passively replicated along with the host genome and passed on to the original cell's offspring; all descendants of the infected cell will also bear proviruses in their genomes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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