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Encyclopedia > Provinces of New Zealand

(For the current top-level subdivision of New Zealand, see Regions of New Zealand) Image File history File links New_Zealand_provinces. ... Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ...


Provinces in New Zealand were used from 1841 until the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on November 1, 1876. 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Following abolition, the provinces became known as provincial districts. Their only visible function today is their use to determine, with the exception of the Chatham Islands, Northland, and South Canterbury, the geographical boundaries for anniversary day public holidays. The Chatham Islands from space. ... This article is about the Northland region of New Zealand. ... The New Zealand region of Canterbury mostly comprises the Canterbury Plains. ...

Contents

1841 to 1853

When New Zealand became a separate Colony from New South Wales in 1841, the Royal Charter established three provinces: Emblems: Floral - Waratah (Telopea speciosissima); Bird - Kookaburra (Dacelo gigas); Animal - Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus); Fish - Blue Groper (Achoerodus viridis) Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Slogan or Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Const. ...

In 1846 the British Parliament passed the first New Zealand Constitution Act, which was almost totally suspended on the advice of Governor George Grey. The only operative provisions related to the reform of the provinces. The reformed provinces were: The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... The Patea River is located in Taranaki in the North Island of New Zealand. ... New Munster was originally the name of South Island New Zealand, it was given the name by an Irishman Captain William Hobson in honour of Munster in Ireland. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... The South Island The South Island is one of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the North Island. ... Stewart Island/Rakiura New Leinster was, briefly, a Province of New Zealand, consisting of Stewart Island/Rakiura. ... Stewart Island/Rakiura is the third largest island of New Zealand. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... George Edward Grey Statue of Sir George Grey in Albert Park, Auckland For other men with a similar name, see George Grey or George Gray Sir George Edward Grey KCB (April 14, 1812–September 19, 1898) was a soldier, explorer, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor...

In addition, the provinces were separated from the central government for the first time. The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... New Munster was originally the name of South Island New Zealand, it was given the name by an Irishman Captain William Hobson in honour of Munster in Ireland. ... The South Island The South Island is one of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the North Island. ... Stewart Island/Rakiura is the third largest island of New Zealand. ...


1853 to 1876

Creation

The provinces were formed by the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852. This act established the first six provinces of Auckland, New Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury and Otago. Each province had its own legislature known as a Provincial Council that elected its own Speaker and Superintendent. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was the first enactment to grant the colony of New Zealand self-government. ... The Auckland Metropolitan Area, or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest urban area in New Zealand. ... New Plymouth is the port and main city in the Taranaki region on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara or Poneke in Māori) is the capital of New Zealand, the countrys second largest urban area and the most populous national capital in Oceania. ... A view of Nelson from the Centre of New Zealand Whakatu/Nelson stands on the southern corner of Tasman Bay in Te Tau Ihu O Te Waka O Maui (the northern end of the South Island), Aotearoa (New Zealand) and is the administrative centre for Nelson Province. ... The New Zealand region of Canterbury mostly comprises the Canterbury Plains. ... Otago (help· info) is one of the regions of New Zealand and lies in the south-east of the South Island. ...


Elections were open to males 21 years or older who owned freehold property worth £50 a year. Elections were to be held every four years. An Amendment to the Constitution Act in 1856 provided for the appointment of a Deputy Superintendent.


The act also created a national General Assembly consisting of the Legislative Council appointed by the Governor and the directly-elected House of Representatives. These provinces came into effect on 17 January 1853 and the regulations defining the boundaries of the provinces were gazetted on 28 February. The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council. ... The Legislative Council of New Zealand was the upper house of the New Zealand Parliament from 1853 until 1951. ... Flag of the Governor-General of New Zealand. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ...

Province Independent county Formed Renamed Dissolution
Date Broke from Date New name Date Reason
Auckland   1853       1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
New Plymouth   1853   1 January 1859 Taranaki 1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
Hawke's Bay   1 November 1858 Wellington     1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
Wellington   1853       1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
Nelson   1853       1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
Marlborough   1 November 1859 Nelson     1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
Westland 1 January 1868 1 December 1873 Canterbury     1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
Canterbury   1853       1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
Otago   1853       1 November 1876 Provinces abolished
Southland   25 March 1861 Otago     5 October 1870 Reunited with Otago

(For the current top-level subdivision of Auckland in New Zealand, see Auckland Region) The Auckland Province was a province of New Zealand from 1853 until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... (For the current top-level subdivision of Taranaki in New Zealand, see Taranaki) The Taranaki Province was a province of New Zealand from 1853 until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Hawkes Bay Province was a province of New Zealand that was separated from the Wellington Province following a meeting in Napier in February 1858, until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... (For the current top-level subdivision of Nelson in New Zealand, see Nelson, New Zealand) The Nelson Province was a province of New Zealand from 1853 until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Marlborough Province was a province of New Zealand until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Westland Province was a province of New Zealand from 1873 until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... (For the current top-level subdivision of Canterbury in New Zealand, see Canterbury, New Zealand) The Canterbury Province was a province of New Zealand from 1853 until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... (For the current top-level subdivision of Otago in New Zealand, see Otago) The Otago Province was a province of New Zealand until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... (For the current top-level subdivision of Southland in New Zealand, see Southland Region) The Southland Province was a province of New Zealand from the March 1861 until the province rejoined with Otago Province in 1870. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

Abolition

Almost as soon as they were founded, New Zealand's Provinces were the subject of protracted political debate. Two factions emerged in the General Assembly: "Centralists", favouring a strong central government and "Provincialists", favouring strong regional governments. The Centralists members of the General Assembly regarded the Provinces as inherently self-interested, and prone to pork-barrel politics. In the construction of railways, for example, three of the Provinces had constructed railways (as was the case in Australia) to different track gauges, with Canterbury Provincial Railways being built to "broad" gauge, Southland's railways being built to "standard" gauge. As a result, the Public Works Act of 1870 standardised the gauge to be used, and Otago's first railway, the Port Chalmers railway, was built to the new "standard" narrow gauge. Colonial Treasurer (and later Premier) Julius Vogel launched his famous immigration and public works schemes of the 1870s, borrowing the massive sum of 10 million pounds, to develop significant infrastructure of roads, railways and communications, all administered by central government. This diminished the power of the provinces greatly. The provinces were finally abolished by the Abolition of Provinces Act 1876, during the Premiership of Harry Atkinson. For the purposes of the Act, the provinces formally ceased to exist on 1 January 1877. The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... Rail gauge is the distance between two rails of a railroad. ... The Canterbury Provincial Railways were an early part of the railways of New Zealand. ... The Port Chalmers Branch was the first railway line built in Otago, New Zealand, and linked the regions major city of Dunedin with the port in Port Chalmers. ... Sir Julius Vogel Sir Julius Vogel KCMG (February 24, 1835 - March 12, 1899) was New Zealands only practicing Jewish prime minister. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... Harry Albert Atkinson served as Premier of New Zealand on four separate occasions in the late 19th century. ...


Replacement

Following the abolition of the Provinces, local governement was vested in elected borough and county councils. The Counties Bill of 1876 created 63 counties out of the old provinces. The former boundaries of the provinces served as administrative areas for the education boards set up under the Education Act of 1877 and for the offices of several Government Departments, including the Deparment of Lands and Survey.


Modern uses of the old names

It is important to note that the provincial districts have different boundaries from the present day regions, for example, the Manawatu-Wanganui region is largely in the Wellington provincial district. They are also not to be confused with the use of the term in rugby's Air New Zealand Cup and Heartland Championship (both of which replaced the National Provincial Championship). Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... A scrum Rugby union (often referred to as rugby, union or football) is one of the two codes of rugby football, the other being rugby league. ... The Air New Zealand Cup (also referred to by its previous name of the National Provincial Championship, its abbreviation of NPC, or for sponsorship reasons as the Air New Zealand NPC) is New Zealands professional domestic rugby union competition. ... The Heartland Championship, known for sponsorship reasons as the AA Rewards Heartland Championship,[1] is an amateur domestic rugby union competition in New Zealand. ...


Some of the names persist in other contexts as well, such as health administration districts.


Some of the names of former provinces and current regions have a tendency to be preceded by "the", as, for example, in this extract from a recent Court of Appeal judgment: "At trial, there was evidence of a sticker ostensibly from the Manawatu on the courier bag."


Sources and external links

  • List at Rulers site with provincial superintendents
  • "New Zealand’s Nine Provinces (1853–76)" - Welcome to the Hocken Bulletin No.31 March 2000, Friends of the Hocking Collections - Dunedin 2000
  • Speeches and Documents on New Zealand History, McIntyre and Gardner (Eds), 1971, Oxford University Press

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