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Encyclopedia > Province of Maryland
Province of Maryland
British colony
1632 – 1776
A map of the Province of Maryland.
Capital St. Mary's City
Language(s) English
Government Constitutional monarchy
Royally Chartered Proprietor
 - 1632-1675 Lord Baltimore, 2nd
 - 1751-1776 Lord Baltimore, 6th
Proprietary Governor
 - 1634-1647 Leonard Calvert
 - 1769-1776 Robert Eden
Legislature Maryland General Assembly
History
 - Charter granted 1632
 - Independence 1776
Currency Pound sterling

The Province of Maryland was an English colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen colonies in establishing the United States and became the U.S. state of Maryland. The Province began as a proprietary colony of the British Lords Baltimore, who wished to create a haven for English Catholics in the new world. Although Maryland was an early pioneer of religious toleration in the British colonies, religious strife between Anglicans, Puritans, Catholics, and Quakers was common in the early years, and Puritan rebels briefly seized control of the Province. The Catholicism of the Lords Baltimore would result in seizure of the Province by the Protestant King of England during the Glorious Revolution in 1688. It was restored to the family when Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, swore publicly that he was a Protestant. An anachronous map of British (and prior to the existence of Britain, English) imperial possessions This is a list of the various overseas territories that have been under the political control of the United Kingdom and/or its predecessor states[1]. Collectively, these territories are traditionally referred to as the... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maryland. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Image File history File links Marycolony. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... St. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (August 8, 1605 – November 30, 1675), usually called Cecil, was an English coloniser who was the first proprietor of the Maryland colony. ... Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore (February 6, 1731-September 4, 1771) was an English nobleman and last in the line of Barons Baltimore. ... Proprietary Governors were individuals authorized to govern proprietary colonies. ... Leonard Calvert (1606 - 1647) was the younger son of George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore. ... Robert Eden Sir Robert Eden, 1st Baronet (1741–1784) was the last Royal Governor of Maryland. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Maryland State House in downtown Annapolis. ... GBP redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore (September 29, 1699 - April 24, 1751) was a British noble and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. ...


Despite early competition with the colony of Virginia to its south, the Province of Maryland developed along very similar lines to Virginia. Its early settlements and populations centers tended to cluster around the rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay. Like Virginia, Maryland's economy quickly became centered around the farming of tobacco for sale in Europe. The need for cheap labor to help with the growth of tobacco, and later with the mixed farming economy that developed when tobacco prices collapsed, led to a rapid expansion of indentured servitude and, later, forcible immigration and enslavement of Africans. The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ...


In the latter colonial period, the southern and eastern portions of the Province continued in their tobacco economy, but as the revolution approached, northern and central Maryland increasingly became centers of wheat production. This helped drive the expansion of interior farming towns like Frederick and Maryland's major port city of Baltimore. The Province of Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American revolution, and echoed events in New England by establishing committees of correspondence and hosting its own tea party similar to the one that took place in Boston. Location in Maryland Coordinates: , Country United States State Maryland County Frederick Founded 1745 Government  - Mayor William J. Holtzinger (R)  - Board of Alderman Marcia Hall (D) Alan E. Imhoff (R) David P. Koontz (D) Donna K. Ramsburg (D) C. Paul Smith (R) Area  - City  20. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Committee of correspondence (disambiguation). ... The Chestertown Tea Party was a political protest held in Chestertown, Maryland, in 1774 against the British tea tax. ... This article is about a 1773 American protest. ...

Contents

Charter

Charles I of England granted the charter for Maryland, a proprietary colony of about twelve million acres (49,000 km²), to Cæcilius Calvert (Cecil), 2nd Baron Baltimore in the Peerage of Ireland, on June 20, 1632. Some historians view this grant as a form of compensation for Calvert's father's having been stripped of his title of Secretary of State upon announcing his Roman Catholicism in 1625. The charter had originally been granted to Calvert's father, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, but the 1st Baron Baltimore died before it could be executed, so it was granted to his son in his place.[1] The new colony was named after Henrietta Maria, the Queen Consort.[2] Lords Baltimore were the only Catholics or members of the Irish House of Lords in the history of the British Empire to have or obtain a proprietary colony; all other such nobles were Protestant and were endowed with an English, Quakers,Scottish, British or UK peerage title. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... A proprietary colony is a colony in which the king gave land to one or more people called proprietors. ... Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (August 8, 1605 – November 30, 1675), usually called Cecil, was an English coloniser who was the first proprietor of the Maryland colony. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Peerage of Ireland the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (c. ... Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert... The former House of Lords chamber in the Irish Parliament Building, today in use as a function room by the Bank of Ireland. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Colonial Maryland was larger than the present-day state of Maryland. The original charter granted the Calverts an imprecisely defined territory north of Virginia and south of the 40th parallel, comprising perhaps as much as 12 million acres (49,000 km²).[3] Maryland lost some of its putative original territory to Pennsylvania in the 1760s, when the Mason-Dixon Line was drawn to resolve a boundary dispute between the two colonies. Maryland also ceded some territory to create the new District of Columbia after the American Revolution. This article is about the U.S. State. ... For the fictional character, see Mason Dixon (Rocky Balboa character). ... ...


Maryland's foundational charter created a state ruled by the Palatine lord, Lord Baltimore. As ruler, Lord Baltimore owned directly all of the land granted in the charter. He possessed absolute authority over his domain. Settlers were required to swear allegiance to him rather than to the King of England. The charter created an aristocracy of lords of the manor, who bought 6,000 acres (24 km²) from Baltimore and held greater legal and social privileges than the common settlers. A Palatine lord is a title of nobility that grants a degree of royal power over an area to its bearer. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The title of Lord of the Manor arose in the English medieval system of Manorialism following the Norman Conquest. ...


Early settlement

The Maryland Toleration Act

Colonial Maryland was a southern colony. Lord Baltimore (the younger) was a convert to Catholicism. This was a severe stigma for a nobleman in 17th century England, where Roman Catholics were considered enemies of the crown and traitors to their country. In Maryland, Baltimore sought to create a haven for British Catholics and to demonstrate that Catholics and Protestants could live together harmoniously, even issuing the Act Concerning Religion in matters of religion. Like other aristocratic proprietors, he also hoped to turn a profit on the new colony. Download high resolution version (1243x476, 214 KB)Large Broadside on the Maryland Toleration Act. ... Download high resolution version (1243x476, 214 KB)Large Broadside on the Maryland Toleration Act. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the Act Concerning Religion was passed in 1649 by the colonial assembly of the Province of Maryland mandating religious toleration. ...


The Calvert family recruited Catholic aristocrats and Protestant settlers for Maryland, luring them with generous land grants and a policy of religious toleration. Of the 200 or so initial settlers who traveled to Maryland on the ships Ark and Dove, the majority were Protestant. In fact, Protestants remained in the majority throughout the history of colonial Maryland.


The Ark and the Dove landed at St. Clement's Island on March 25, 1634. The new settlers were led by Lord Baltimore's younger brother Leonard Calvert, whom Baltimore had delegated to serve as governor of the new colony. The 150 or so surviving immigrants purchased land from the Yaocomico Indians and founded St. Mary's City. St. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Leonard Calvert (1606 - 1647) was the younger son of George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore. ... The Yaocomico were a Native American tribe who lived along the north bank of the Potomac River near its confluence with the Chesapeake Bay in the 17th century. ... St. ...


Maryland and the English Civil War

In 1654, after the Third English Civil War (1649-1651), Parliamentary (Protestant) forces assumed control of Maryland and Governor William Stone went into exile in Virginia. Stone returned the following spring at the head of a Cavalier (Catholic) force and marched on Annapolis. Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the third of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and include the First English Civil War... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... William Stone (Veteran). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... °°°°°°°°°°°→→→→→→→→→→→→§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§ Prince Rupert, an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ... City nickname: Americas Sailing Capital Location in the state of Maryland Founded 1649 Mayor Ellen O. Moyer (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 19. ...


In what is known as the Battle of the Severn (March 25, 1655), Stone was defeated and taken prisoner. Stone was replaced as Governor by Josias Fendall (ca. 1628-1687). is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Gov. ...


Later colonial period and the plantation economy

In the 17th century, most Marylanders lived in rough conditions on small family farms. While they raised a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, and livestock, the cash crop was tobacco, which soon came to dominate the provincial economy. Tobacco was sometimes used as money, and the colonial legislature was obliged to pass a law requiring tobacco planters to raise a certain amount of corn as well, in order to ensure that the colonists would not go hungry. Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Like its larger neighbor, the Colony of Virginia, Maryland developed into a plantation colony by the 18th century. By 1755, about 40% of Maryland's population was black.[4] Maryland planters also made extensive use of indentured servants and penal labor. An extensive system of rivers facilitated the movement of produce from inland plantations to the Atlantic coast for export. Baltimore was the second-most important port in the eighteenth-century South, after Charleston, South Carolina. A map of the Colony of Virginia. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Maryland and the Coming of the American Revolution

Tobacco was one of the leading cash crops in this colony. Maryland declared independence from Britain in 1776, with Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton signing the Declaration of Independence for the colony. In the 1776-77 debates over the Articles of Confederation, Maryland delegates led the party that insisted that states with western land claims cede them to the Confederation government, and in 1781, Maryland became the last state to ratify the Articles of Confederation. It accepted the United States Constitution more readily, ratifying it on April 28, 1788. Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... William Paca portrait by Charles Willson Peale. ... Thomas Stone Thomas Stone (1743–October 5, 1787) was an American planter who signed United States Declaration of Independence as a delegate for Maryland. ... Charles Carroll (1737-1832) Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19, 1737 – November 14, 1832) was a lawyer and politician from Maryland who was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later a United States Senator. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


See also

  • List of colonial governors of Maryland

The following is a list of the colonial governors of the Province of Maryland. ...

References

  1. ^ Sparks, Jared (1846). The Library of American Biography: George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 16-. 
  2. ^ Maryland State Manual
  3. ^ Alan Taylor, American Colonies (New York: Viking, 2001), p.136; John Mack Faragher, ed., The Encyclopedia of Colonial and Revolutionary America (New York: Facts on File, 1990), p.254.
  4. ^ John Mack Faragher, ed., The Encyclopedia of Colonial and Revolutionary America (New York: Facts on File, 1990), p.257

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

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Maryland - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta (2718 words)
Maryland’s natural regions are, from east to west, the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge province, the Ridge and Valley province, and the Appalachian Plateaus (locally called the Allegheny Plateau).
The region in Maryland is primarily one of farmlands and small rural communities, except for the urbanized areas centered on Baltimore and Washington, D.C., in the west, and Salisbury and Ocean City in the east.
The Ridge and Valley province in Maryland consists of the broad Hagerstown Valley, which is part of the Great Appalachian Valley, in the east and a series of parallel forested ridges and deep narrow valleys in the west.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Maryland (6035 words)
Maryland, and that solely and avowedly because it was a grant to a Catholic nobleman for the purpose of establishing a Catholic colony.
Maryland, went to France to obtain from Louis XV a tract of land in the Louisian territory for the purpose of transporting the Catholics of the province in a body to that country.
Maryland, and struck the shackles from the Catholics of that province.
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