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Encyclopedia > Proverb
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A proverb (from the Latin proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying popularly known and repeated, which expresses a truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. They are often metaphorical. A proverb that describes a basic rule of conduct may also be known as a maxim. If a proverb is distinguished by particularly good phrasing, it may be known as an aphorism. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... According to Immanuel Kant, a maxim is a subjective principle or rule, that the will of an individual uses in making a decision. ... An aphorism (literally distinction or definition, from Greek αφοριζειν to define) expresses a general truth in a pithy sentence. ...


Proverbs are often borrowed from similar languages and cultures, and sometimes come down to the present through more than one language. Both the Bible (Book of Proverbs) and medieval Latin have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs across Western Europe and even further. The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ...

Contents

Paremiology

The study of proverbs is called paremiology (from Greek paremia = proverb) and can be dated back as far as Aristotle. Paremiography, on the other hand, is the collection of proverbs. Currently, the foremost proverb scholar in the United States is Wolfgang Mieder, who defines the term proverb as follows: For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...

"A proverb is a short, generally known sentence of the folk which contains wisdom, truth, morals, and traditional views in a metaphorical, fixed and memorizable form and which is handed down from generation to generation.” (Mieder 1985:119; also in Mieder 1993:24)

Subgenres include proverbial expressions (“to bite the dust”), proverbial comparisons (“as busy as a bee”), proverbial interrogatives (“Does a chicken have lips?”) and twin formulas (“give and take”).


Another subcategory are wellerisms, named after Sam Weller from Charles Dickens's The Pickwick Papers (1837). They are constructed in a triadic manner which consists of a statement (often a proverb), an identification of a speaker (person or animal) and a phrase that places the statement into an unexpected situation. Ex.: “Every evil is followed by some good,” as the man said when his wife died the day after he became bankrupt. A wellerism is a comparison by well known quotation and a facetious sequel, used by Sam Weller in Dickenss Pickwick Papers Examples: Everyone to his own liking, the old woman said when she kissed her cow. ... Sam Weller is a fictional character in The Pickwick Papers, the first novel by Charles Dickens, and is allegedly the character that made Dickens famous. ... “Dickens” redirects here. ...


Typical stylistic features of proverbs (as Shirley Arora points out in her article, The Perception of Proverbiality (1984)) are:

Internal features that can be found quite frequently include : Alliteration is a literary device in which the same sound appears at the beginning of two or more consecutive words. ... Parallelism may refer to: Parallelism (philosophy) - in the philosophy of mind a theistic, dualist solution to the mind-body problem Parallelism in computing Parallelism in grammar or in rhetoric This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words (i. ... An ellipsis is a rhetorical figure of speech, the omission of a word or words required by strict grammatical rules but not by sense. ...

To make the respective statement more general most proverbs are based on a metaphor. Further typical features of the proverb are its shortness (average: seven words), and the fact that its author is generally unknown (otherwise it would be a quotation). Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...


Russian Proverbs

Although all countries have their own proverbs that relate to their morals, values, and attitudes (and which are often most applicable in their own society—for example, the Nigerian proverb “a leopard hides his spots” is not going to have the same effect in Texas or Ireland), Russians in particular may claim how their older proverbs truly illustrate not only the political climate of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but also the social and psychological ways that the peasants survived their political and economic oppression. Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ...


In the article “Tensions in Proverbs: More Light on International Understanding,” Joseph Raymond comments on what common Russian proverbs from the 1700s and 1800s portray: Potent antiauthoritarian proverbs reflected tensions between the Russian people and the Czar. The rollickingly malicious undertone of these folk verbalizations constitutes what might be labeled a ‘paremiological revolt.’ To avoid openly criticizing a given authority or cultural pattern, folk take recourse to proverbial expressions which voice personal tensions in a tone of generalized consent. Thus, personal involvement is linked with public opinion [1] Proverbs that speak to the political disgruntlement include: “When the Czar spits into the soup dish, it fairly bursts with pride”; “If the Czar be a rhymester, woe be to the poets”; and “The hen of the Czarina herself does not lay swan’s eggs.” While none of these proverbs state directly, “I hate the Czar and detest my situation” (which would have been incredibly dangerous), they do get their points across. Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... A Tsaritsa (Цари́ца), also called tsarina, czarina, or czaritsa, was the title of Tsars wife or a female autocratic ruler(monarch) of Russia or Bulgaria. ...


Raymond also argued that proverbs are important verbal instruments for minimizing interpersonal friction and tensions [2] His “safety-valve” hypothesis explained that proverbs are most used by lower-class persons and that within this group, expressions of anger, rebellion, and nonconformance are found frequently [3] These short sentences were a way of venting with one another, vastly safer than a violent expression of discontent.


In the article “Richard Pipes’s Foreign Strategy: Anti-Soviet or Anti-Russian?” Wladislaw G. Krasnow discusses how the professor’s critiques of Russian foreign policy could and in his belief was best studied from Russian proverbs, rather than from the collected works of the ‘coryphaei’ of Marxism-Leninism [4] Dr. Pipes offered examples such as “the tears of others are water,” “beat a Russian and he will make you a watch,” and “It is the pike’s job to keep the carps awake.” He considered these to epitomize Russian folk wisdom. They mean, respectively, "that life is hard and that to survive one must learn to take care of oneself and one’s own without wasting much thought on others,” and the world is “a ruthless fighting ground, where one either eats others or is eaten by them, where one plays either the pike or the carp” [5]. Anti-Soviet refers to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or the Soviet power within the Soviet Union. ... The Nazi inscription reads: The Russian must die so that we may live (1941) Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime Genocide · Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


Other well known Russian proverbs include: “Every seed knows its time” (everything comes in time), “you will reap what you sow,” “a titmouse in the hand is better than a crane in the sky” (remarkably similar to “a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush”), “idleness is the mother of all vices” (similarly, “idle hands are the Devil’s workshop”), “God takes care of the one who takes care of himself,” and “chickens are counted in autumn” (“don’t count your chickens until the eggs have hatched”) (cogweb.ucla.edu). These proverbs have in common the values of diligent work, patience, and gratitude—all of which peasants would teach their children.


Spanish proverbs

Main article: Spanish proverbs

In Spanish language, the native, popular proverbs receive the name of refranes or dichos. ...

Philippine Proverbs

One country which has contributed to the worldwide repertoire of proverbs is the Philippines. With more than 120 languages in its 7,107 islands, Filipino proverbs have shaped the culture and subcultures of the people who use them. The most popular proverb is "He who does not look back from where he came from will never reach his destination."


This proverb appears in almost all the languages spoken in the country, reflecting the value of the Filipinos who have a high regard for those people who have helped them before.


See also

Netherlandish Proverbs (also called The Blue Cloak or The Topsy Turvy World) is a 1559 oil-on-oak-panel painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder which depicts a land populated with literal renditions of Flemish proverbs of the day. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... Gnomic Literature, including Maxims I and Maxims II, is a genre of Medieval Literature in England. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ J. Raymond. Tensions in Proverbs: More Light on International Understanding. pg 153-154
  2. ^ J. Raymond. Tensions in Proverbs: More Light on International Understanding. pg 153-154
  3. ^ J. Raymond. Tensions in Proverbs: More Light on International Understanding. pg 153-154
  4. ^ W. Krasnow. Richard Pipes’s Foreign Strategy: Anti-Soviet or Anti-Russian?. pg 182
  5. ^ W. Krasnow. Richard Pipes’s Foreign Strategy: Anti-Soviet or Anti-Russian?. pg 182

  Results from FactBites:
 
Proverb - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (510 words)
A proverb (from the Latin proverbium) is a saying popularly known and repeated, usually expressing simply and concretely, though often metaphorically, a truth based on common sense or the practical experience of mankind.
Proverbs are often borrowed from different languages and cultures, and sometimes come down to the present through more than one language.
Further typical features of the proverb are its shortness (average: seven words), and the fact that its author is generally unknown (otherwise it would be a quotation).
proverb - definition of proverb in Encyclopedia (99 words)
A proverb (from the Latin proverbium) is a pithy saying which had gained credence through widespread or frequent use.
A proverb which describes a basic rule of conduct may also be known as a "maxim".
Proverbs of cultures which exist close to each other often overlap.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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