FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Protoscience" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Protoscience

In the philosophy of science, a protoscience is an "area of science" which is in its formulative or speculative stages, and may in the future become established as a science, or be discarded as a falsified claim or unfruitful approach. The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ...


Protoscience is a term sometimes used to describe a hypothesis which has not yet been tested adequately by the scientific method, but which is otherwise consistent with existing science or which, where inconsistent, offers reasonable account of the inconsistency. A hypothesis (from ancient Greek hypotithenai meaning to put under or to suppose) offers a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. ... Scientific method as envisaged by one of its early exponents, Sir Isaac Newton, is fundamental to the investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ...


In some cases, hypotheses discarded (or disregarded) by mainstream science become embodied in a pseudoscience. But while protoscience is often speculative, certain claims may be distinguished from pseudoscience by at least a partial adherence to the scientific method —most notably an acceptance of falsifiability and an expectation of developing toward becoming an operant and predictive theory. Scientific skeptics may refer to unusual endeavors as pathological science. Phrenology is regarded today as being a classic example of pseudoscience. ... Phrenology is regarded today as being a classic example of pseudoscience. ... Scientific method as envisaged by one of its early exponents, Sir Isaac Newton, is fundamental to the investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... Falsifiability is an important concept in the philosophy of science that amounts to the principle that a proposition or theory cannot be considered scientific if it does not admit the possibility of being shown false. ... Theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on the context and their methodologies. ... Scientific skepticism or rational skepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry, is a scientific, or practical, epistemological position (or paradigm) in which one questions the veracity of claims unless they can be empirically tested. ... Pathological science is a neologism to pejoratively describe the pursuit of pseudoscientific claims as like a pathology, or Such claims are said to be distinguished from pseudoscience (itself a pejorative) in that they have a larger and more dogmatic following, and are asserted to be based in self-deception amongst...

Contents


Historical perspective

Fields such as astrology and alchemy prior to the invention of the development of natural philosophy are sometimes regarded as protosciences. With the advent of the scientific method, natural philosophers rapidly produced the scientific fields of astronomy and chemistry respectively, leaving those who refused to adopt the scientific method to practice pseudoscience. Several sciences started as branches of philosophy, such as mathematics, physics and biology (see philosophy of nature); more arguably, due to the problem of defining science, economics, psychology and sociology. Astrology refers to any of several systems, traditions or beliefs in which knowledge of the apparent positions of celestial bodies is held to be useful in understanding, interpreting, and organizing knowledge about human affairs and events on earth. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Lunar astronomy: the large crater is Daedalus, photographed by the crew of Apollo 11 as they circled the Moon in 1969. ... Multicolored chemicals are frequent hallmarks of chemistry. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Euclid, detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... A Superconductor demonstrating the Meissner Effect Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. ... Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... Philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, was the precursor of what is now called natural science, especially physics. ... Economics (from the Greek οίκος [oikos], family, household, estate, and νομος [nomos], custom, law, hence household management and management of the state) is a social science that studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. ... Auguste Rodins The Thinker, bronze cast by Alexis Rudier, Laeken Cemetery, Brussels, Belgium. ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ...


Generally, a protoscientific field is one where the hypothesis presented is in accordance with the known evidence at that time, and a body of associated predictions have been made, but the predictions have not yet been tested (or cannot be tested, due to current technological limitations). Prediction of future events is an ancient human wish. ...


Some protosciences go on to become an accepted part of mainstream science. Others fail to become established, or become pseudoscientific, as their followers persist in the face of lack of scientific evidence for their views.


Examples of protosciences

Main article: List of protosciences

The most famous modern example of protosciences might be the theory of continental drift as originally proposed by Alfred Wegener (which eventually became an accepted scientific model when the mechanisms of plate tectonics became understood). Other examples include: This is a list of protosciences. ... Portrayal of shifting continents The concept of continental drift was first proposed by Alfred Wegener. ... Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift was widely ridiculed in his day. ... Plate tectonics (from the Greek word for one who constructs and destroys, τεκτων, tekton) is a theory of geology developed to explain the phenomenon of continental drift and is currently the theory accepted by the vast majority of scientists working in this area. ...

Other fields, like parapsychology are nearer the boundary between protoscience and pseudoscience. Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory String theory is a model of fundamental physics whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects (strings) rather than the zero-dimensional points (particles... The cognitive science of mathematics is the study of mathematical ideas using the techniques of cognitive science. ... Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary field, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology, which is focused primarily on the study of the origin, distribution and evolution of life. ... The existence of extraterrestrial life remains hypothetical though human beings continue to search Extraterrestrial life is life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth. ... Alternative biochemistry collectively refers to an assortment of astrobiology theories and hypotheses in which life can be based on biochemical systems other than systems based upon organic chemistry, which is used by currently known forms of life. ... Memetics is an approach to evolutionary models of information transfer based on the concept of the meme. ... The term meme (, phonetically; rhymes with theme), refers to any piece of information transferable from one mind to another. ... Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that attempts to explain behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ... Sanity considered as a legal term denotes that an individual is of sound mind and therefore can bear legal responsibility for his or her actions. ... General Semantics is a school of thought founded by Alfred Korzybski in about 1933 in response to his observations that most people had difficulty defining human and social discussions and problems and could almost never predictably resolve them into elements that were responsive to successful intervention or correction. ... This article is about Neurotheology. ... Spirituality is, in a narrow sense, a concern with matters of the spirit. ... Chiropractic, or chiropractic care, is a system of health care based on the belief that many health problems can be prevented and treated using spinal adjustments in order to correct vertebral subluxations which are believed to be the cause of much disease. ... In the jargon of chiropractic, vertebral subluxation is a condition in which a vertebra has lost its proper juxtaposition with an adjacent vertebra (to an extent less than a luxation) in such a way as to alter nerve function. ... Parapsychology is the study of the evidence of mental awareness or influence of external objects without interaction from known physical means. ... Phrenology is regarded today as being a classic example of pseudoscience. ...


See also

Look up Protoscience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary logo Wiktionary[1] is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. ... Falsifiability is an important concept in the philosophy of science that amounts to the principle that a proposition or theory cannot be considered scientific if it does not admit the possibility of being shown false. ... Pathological science is a neologism to pejoratively describe the pursuit of pseudoscientific claims as like a pathology, or Such claims are said to be distinguished from pseudoscience (itself a pejorative) in that they have a larger and more dogmatic following, and are asserted to be based in self-deception amongst... Fringe science is a phrase used to describe scientific inquiry in an established field that departs significantly from mainstream or orthodox theories. ... An obsolete scientific theory is a scientific theory that was once commonly accepted but (for whatever reason) is no longer considered the most complete description of reality by mainstream science; or a falsifiable theory which has been shown to be false. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This list of alternative, speculative and disputed theories includes examples of fields of endeavor that are considered to be fringe or pseudoscientific by the mainstream scientific community. ...

External links

  • Protoscience Wikicity
  • Questions to help distinguish a pseudoscience from a protoscience

  Results from FactBites:
 
Main Page - Protoscience - a Wikia wiki (957 words)
Are you new to wiki or new to protoscience?
The term protoscience is used to describe a new area of scientific endeavor in the process of becoming established.
While protoscience is often speculative, it is to be distinguished from pseudoscience by its adherence to the scientific method and standard practices of good science, most notably a willingness to be disproven by new evidence (if and when it appears), or supplanted by a more-predictive theory.
Protoscience - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (494 words)
In the philosophy of science, a protoscience is an "area of science" which is in its formulative or speculative stages, and may in the future become established as a science, or be discarded as a falsified claim or unfruitful approach.
Protoscience is a term sometimes used to describe a hypothesis which has not yet been tested adequately by the scientific method, but which is otherwise consistent with existing science or which, where inconsistent, offers reasonable account of the inconsistency.
But while protoscience is often speculative, certain claims may be distinguished from pseudoscience by at least a partial adherence to the scientific method —most notably an acceptance of falsifiability and an expectation of developing toward becoming an operant and predictive theory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m