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Encyclopedia > Proton
Proton

The quark structure of the proton.
Composition: 2 up, 1 down
Family: Fermion
Group: Quark
Interaction: Gravity, Electromagnetic, Weak, Strong
Antiparticle: Antiproton
Discovered: Ernest Rutherford (1919)
Symbol: p+
Mass: 1.672 621 71(29) × 10−27 kg

938.272 029(80) MeV/c2 Proton has several meanings:- Proton in physics is a subatomic particle with a positive fundamental electric charge of 1. ... Image File history File links Quark_structure_proton. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... A fundamental interaction or fundamental force is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Electromagnetic interaction is a fundamental force of nature and is felt by charged leptons and quarks. ... The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. ... The strong interaction or strong force is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... The antiproton (aka pbar) is the antiparticle of the proton. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 - 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... The invariant mass or intrinsic mass or proper mass or just mass is a measurement or calculation of the mass of an object that is the same for all frames of reference. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... The speed of light in vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ...

1.007 276 466 88(13) u
Electric charge: 1.602 176 53(14) × 10−19 C
Spin: ½

In physics, the proton (Greek πρώτον / proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1.602 × 10−19 coulomb), a diameter of about 1.5×10−15 m, and a mass of 938.27231(28) MeV/c2 (1.6726 × 10−27 kg), 1.007 276 466 88(13) u or about 1836 times the mass of an electron. The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... The coulomb (symbol: C) is the SI unit of electric charge. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... The coulomb (symbol: C) is the SI unit of electric charge. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... The speed of light in vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 0. ... The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ...


Protons are spin-1/2 fermions and are composed of three quarks[1], making them baryons. The two up quarks and one down quark of the proton are also held together by the strong nuclear force, mediated by gluons. In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... Combinations of three u, d or s-quarks with a total spin of 3/2 form the so-called baryon decuplet. ... The up quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... The down quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e. ... The strong interaction or strong force is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ...


Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be bound by the nuclear force into atomic nuclei. The most common isotope of the hydrogen atom is a single proton (it contains no neutrons). The nuclei of other atoms are composed of various numbers of protons and neutrons. The number of protons in the nucleus determines the chemical properties of the atom and which chemical element it is. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... A Feynman diagram of a strong proton-neutron interaction mediated by a neutral pion. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...

Contents

Stability

Protons are observed to be stable. However, protons are known to transform into neutrons through the process of electron capture. This process does not occur spontaneously but only when energy is supplied. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron...

The process is reversible: neutrons can convert back to protons through beta decay, a common form of radioactive decay. In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ...


Grand unified theories generally predict that proton decay should take place, although experiments so far have only resulted in a lower limit of 1035 years for the proton's lifetime. Grand unification, grand unified theory, or GUT is a theory in physics that unifies the strong interaction and electroweak interaction. ... In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, usually a neutral pion and a positron. ...


In Physics and biochemistry

In physics and biochemistry, the proton is thought of as the hydrogen ion, denoted H+. In this context, a proton donor is an acid and a proton acceptor is a base (see acid-base reaction theories). However it should be noted that the hydrogen ion is not observed in aqueous solution; instead we observe the hydronium ion, which is considered a proton donating ion. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ...


History

Ernest Rutherford is generally credited with the discovery of the proton. In 1918 Rutherford noticed that when alpha particles were shot into nitrogen gas, his scintillation detectors showed the signatures of hydrogen nuclei. Rutherford determined that the only place this hydrogen could have come from was the nitrogen, and therefore nitrogen must contain hydrogen nuclei. He thus suggested that the hydrogen nucleus, which was known to have an atomic number of 1, was an elementary particle. Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 - 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... Scintillation detectors make use of the property of certain chemical compounds to emit short light pulses after excitation by the passage of charged particles or by photons (x-rays and gamma-rays). ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ...

See also: William Prout and Prout's hypothesis

Prior to Rutherford, Eugene Goldstein had observed canal rays, which were composed of positively charged ions. After the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson, Goldstein suggested that since the atom is electrically neutral there must be a positively charged particle in the atom and tried to discover it. He used the "canal rays" observed to be moving against the electron flow in cathode ray tubes. After the electron had been removed from particles inside the cathode ray tube they became positively charged and moved towards the cathode. Most of the charged particles passed through the cathode, it being perforated, and produced a glow on the glass. At this point, Goldstein believed that he had discovered the proton.[2] When he calculated the ratio of charge to mass of this new particle (which in case of the electron was found to be the same for every gas that was used in the cathode ray tube) was found to be different when the gases used were changed. The reason was simple. What Goldstein assumed to be a proton was actually an ion. He gave up his work there. But promised that "he would return." However, he was widely ignored. William Prout (January 15, 1785 – April 9, 1850) was an English chemist and physician. ... Prouts hypothesis was an early 19th century attempt to explain the existence of the various chemical elements through a hypothesis regarding the internal structure of the atom. ... Eugene Goldstein (1850 – 1930) was a German physicist. ... Anode rays (or Canal rays) were observed in experiments by a German scientist, Eugen Goldstein, in 1886. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Sir Joseph John Thomson, OM , FRS (December 18, 1756 – August 30, 1940) often known as J. J. Thomson, was an English physicist, the discoverer of the electron. ... The cathode ray tube or CRT, invented by Karl Ferdinand Braun, is the display device used in most computer displays, televisions and oscilloscopes. ...


Antiproton

Main article: antiproton

The antiparticle of the proton is the antiproton. It was discovered in 1955 by Emilio Segrè and Owen Chamberlain, for which they were awarded the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics. The antiproton (aka pbar) is the antiparticle of the proton. ... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... Portrait of Dr. Emilio Segre Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 - April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... Owen Chamberlain Owen Chamberlain (July 10, 1920 – February 28, 2006) was a prominent American physicist. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


CPT-symmetry puts strong constraints on the relative properties of particles and antiparticles and, therefore, is open to stringent tests. For example, the charges of the proton and antiproton must sum to exactly zero. This equality has been tested to one part in 108. The equality of their masses is also tested to better than one part in 108. By holding antiprotons in a Penning trap, the equality of the charge to mass ratio of the proton and the antiproton has been tested to 1 part in 9×1011. The magnetic moment of the antiproton has been measured with error of 8×10−3 nuclear Bohr magnetons, and is found to be equal and opposite to that of the proton. CPT symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under transformations that involve the inversions of charge, parity and time simultaneously. ... For each kind of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass but opposite electromagnetic, weak, and strong charges, as well as spin. ... Penning traps are devices for the storage of charged particles using a constant magnetic field and a constant electric field. ... A bar magnet. ... In atomic physics, the Bohr magneton (symbol ) is named after the physicist Niels Bohr. ...


High-energy physics

Due to their stability and large mass (compared to electrons), protons are well suited to use in particle colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and the Tevatron at Fermilab. Protons also make up a large majority of the cosmic rays which impinge on the Earth's atmosphere. Such high-energy proton collisions are more complicated to study than electron collisions, due to the composite nature of the proton. Understanding the details of proton structure requires quantum chromodynamics. For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... A particle accelerator uses electric fields to propel charged particles to great energies. ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland (). Currently under construction, the LHC is scheduled to begin operation in May 2008. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Tevatron is a circular particle accelerator (or synchrotron) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. ... Aerial view of the Fermilab site. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... “Air” redirects here. ... Quantum chromodynamics (abbreviated as QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction (color force), a fundamental force describing the interactions of the quarks and gluons found in hadrons (such as the proton, neutron or pion). ...


See also

Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... In physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks, i. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Overveiw of the proton-proton chain. ... proton gradient: Pink represents the matrix while the red dots represent protons. ... Proton pump inhibitors (or PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. ... Proton therapy is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where protons are directed to a tumor site. ... This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ... Fermions are particles whose quantum mechanical wavefunction is totally antisymmetric under quantum number interchange. ... Proton Holdings Berhad is the holding company for the Malaysian national carmaker Proton (Malay acronym for Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional, National Automobile Enterprise), which was established in 1983 under the direction of the former Prime Minister, Tun Mahathir Mohamad. ...

References

  1. ^ Adair, Robert K.: "The Great Design: Particles, Fields, and Creation.", page 214. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
  2. ^ Gilreath, Esmarch S.: "Fundamental Concepts of Inorganic Chemistry.", page 5. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

External links

  • Particle Data Group
  • Large Hadron Collider

  Results from FactBites:
 
Proton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (720 words)
Protons may be transmuted into neutrons by inverse beta decay (that is, by capturing an electron); since neutrons are heavier than protons, this process does not occur spontaneously but only when energy is supplied.
Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be bound by the nuclear force into atomic nuclei.
The number of protons in the nucleus determines the chemical properties of the atom and which chemical element it is.
Proton (company) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (944 words)
By 2002 Proton held a market share of over 60 per cent in Malaysia, which was reduced to barely 30 percent by 2005 and is expected to reduce further in 2008 when AFTA mandates reduce import tariffs to a maximum of 5%.
Proton exports cars to the United Kingdom and Australia and the company is aggressively marketing its cars in several other countries including the Middle East.
Proton began its exports with countries where (as in Malaysia) drivers use the left side of the road like New Zealand in the late 1980s, but its success was mostly limited to the United Kingdom where it entered the market in 1989.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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