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Encyclopedia > Protic solvent

In chemistry a protic solvent is a solvent that carries hydrogen bond between an oxygen as in a hydroxyl group or a nitrogen as in an amine group. More generally, any molecular solvent which contains dissociable H+, such as hydrogen fluoride, is called a protic solvent. The molecules of such solvents can donate an H+ (proton). Conversely, aprotic solvents cannot donate hydrogen bonds. Chemistry (from Persian language کیمیا Kimia and Greek χημεία khēmeía[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Snapshot from a simulation of liquid water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Atomic mass 14. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Hydrogen fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula HF. It is the only fluoride of hydrogen. ...


Common characteristics of protic solvents:

Examples are water, methanol, ethanol, formic acid, hydrogen fluoride and ammonia. In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... Multivalent redirects here. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... A lone pair is an electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms. ... ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, wood alcohol or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... Hydrogen fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula HF. It is the only fluoride of hydrogen. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ...


Polar aprotic solvents are solvents that share ion dissolving power with protic solvents but lack an acidic hydrogen. These solvents generally have high dielectric constants and high polarity. The dielectric constant εr (represented as or K in some cases) is defined as the ratio: where εs is the static permittivity of the material in question, and ε0 is the vacuum permittivity. ... The polarity of an object is, in general, its physical alignment of atoms. ...


Examples are dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and hexamethylphosphorotriamide. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the chemical compound (CH3)2SO. This colorless liquid is an important dipolar aprotic solvent. ... Dimethylformamide (DMF, N,N-dimethylformamide) is a clear liquid, miscible with water and majority of organic solvents. ... Hexamethylphosphoramide (abbreviated HMPA) is a colorless organic liquid with the formula [(CH3)2N]3PO. It is used as a polymer solvent, as a selective solvent for gases, stabilizer in polystyrene against thermal degradation, as a laboratory solvent for organometallic and organic reactions. ...


Polar protic solvents are favorable for SN1 reactions, while polar aprotic solvents are favorable for SN2 reactions.


References

Loudon, G. Mark. Organic Chemistry 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. 2002. pg 317.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Process for preparing a sulfate ester of a polyhydroxy polymer - United States Patent 4,177,345 (15247 words)
To the suspension of the polyhydroxypolymer(s) in one of the specified solvents or solvent mixtures, enough dinitrogentetroxide and/or nitrosylchloride is added in gaseous or liquid form or as a solution preferably in one of the previously mentioned solvents to obtain a highly esterified nitrite ester of the polyhydroxypolymer(s).
In this case, the acidic catalyst is added to the protic solvent to be used subsequently for the regeneration of the polyhydroxypolymer and the separation of the polymer mixture in the form of certain shaped articles.
As already mentioned, the choice of the protic solvent depends on the polymer mixture, and it should be selected in such a way that, on contact, regeneration of the polyhydroxypolymer and separation of both the polyhydroxypolymer and the polymer lacking hydroxyl groups occur essentially simultaneously.
Solvent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1507 words)
Solvents should therefore not react chemically with the dissolved compounds — they have to be inert.
Solvent vapors can also form in supposedly empty drums and cans, posing a flash fire hazard; hence empty containers of volatile solvents should be stored open and upside down.
Solvents are often refluxed with an appropriate desiccant prior to distillation to remove water.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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