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Protestantism
The Reformation
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Pre-Reformation Movements

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Reformation churches

Anglicanism · Anabaptism · Calvinism · Lutheranism · Zwinglianism This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... -1... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ...


Post-Reformation movements

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Great Awakenings

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Disciples of Christ The Great Awakenings refer to several periods of dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history, generally recognized as beginning in the 1730s. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Revival in... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), often abbreviated as the Disciples of Christ or Christian Church, is a denomination of Christian Restorationism that grew out of the Restoration Movement founded by Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell of Pennsylvania and West Virginia (then Virginia) and Barton W. Stone of Kentucky. ...


Restorationism

Adventism · Restoration Movement For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone...

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Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. Protestant doctrine, in contradistinction to that of Roman Catholicism, rejects papal authority and doctrine, and is also known in continental European traditions as Evangelical doctrine. It typically holds that scripture (rather than tradition or ecclesiastic interpretation of scripture[1]) is the only source of revealed truth, and also that salvation can be achieved through God's grace alone. The key tenets of Protestantism are outlined in the Five Solas. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Sola gratia, one of the five solas propounded to summarise the Reformers basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation, it is a Latin term meaning grace alone. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


The word Protestant is derived from the Latin protestatio meaning declaration which refers to the letter of protestation by Lutheran princes against the decision of the Diet of Speyer in 1529, which reaffirmed the edict of the Diet of Worms against the Reformation.[2] Since that time, the term Protestantism has been used in many different senses, often as a general term to refer to Western Christianity that is not subject to Papal authority.[2] The Memorial Church which commemorates the protestation at Speyer On the 19th April 1529 six Fürsten (princes) and 14 Imperial Free Cities, representing the Protestant minority, petitioned the Reichstag at Speyer against the Reichsacht (Imperial Ban) against Martin Luther, as well as the proscription of his works and teachings... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The second Diet of Speyer was convened in March, 1529, for action against the Turks, and against the further progress of Protestantism. ... For other uses, see Diet of Worms (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. ...


While the faiths and churches born directly or indirectly of the Protestant Reformation constitute Protestantism, in common usage, the term is often used in contradistinction to Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.[3] This usage is imprecise. There are many non-Roman Catholic, non-Eastern Orthodox communions that long predate the Reformation (notably Oriental Orthodoxy). The Anglican Church, although born of the Protestant reformation, differs from the reformation principles of most other Protestants and is referred to as a middle path—a via media—between Roman Catholic and Protestant doctrines. Other groups, such as the Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses, reject Protestantism as a deviation from true Christianity, while perceiving themselves to be restorationists. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ...

Contents

Major groupings

The churches most commonly associated with Protestantism can be divided along four fairly definitive lines:

  1. Mainline Protestants—a North American phrase—are those who trace their lineage to Luther, Calvin, or Anglicanism. These groups hold the doctrines of the Reformation. They include such denominations as Lutherans, Presbyterians, and Methodists. Baptists,[4] Pentecostals, and Adventists also developed from this movement, though they developed aspects of Anabaptist beliefs as well.
  2. Anabaptists are part of a movement that developed from the Radical Reformation. Today, denominations such as the Brethren, Mennonites, Hutterites, and Amish eschew infant baptism and have historically been Peace churches.
  3. Restorationists are a more recent movement beginning with the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement. Restorationists may not consider themselves Protestants. Nevertheless, they do not recognize papal authority, and so they are most commonly deemed Protestants by those who include them among Christian denominations.
  4. Nontrinitarian movements reject the doctrine of the trinity. Today, they include such denominations as the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses, Unitarians, Christadelphians and some Quakers.

In the United States, the Mainline churches are those Protestant denominations with moderate theologies which attempt to be open to new ideas and societal changes without abandoning what they consider to be the historical basis of the Christian faith. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... For the Jim Roberts religious movement, see The Brethren (cult). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration Restorationism refers to several unaffiliated religious movements that believe that grave defects were introduced by Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians into Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... Christadelphians (From the Greek Brothers in Christ) are a religious group that developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century. ... Quaker redirects here. ...

Denominations

Protestants often refer to specific Protestant churches and groups as denominations to imply that they are differently named parts of the whole church. This "invisible unity" is assumed to be imperfectly displayed, visibly: some denominations are less accepting of others, and the basic orthodoxy of some is questioned by most of the others. Individual denominations also have formed over very subtle theological differences. Other denominations are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs. The actual number of distinct denominations is hard to calculate, but has been estimated to be over thirty thousand. Various ecumenical movements have attempted cooperation or reorganization of Protestant churches, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions, as there is no overarching authority to which any of the sects owe allegiance, which can authoritatively define the faith. Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith, while differing in many secondary doctrines, although what is major and what is secondary is a matter of idiosyncratic belief. There are "over 33,000 denominations in 238 countries" and every year there is a net increase of around 270 to 300 denominations.[5] According to David Barrett's study (1970), there are 8,196 denominations within Protestantism. The following is a list of Protestants by country. ... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... Christian ecumenism is the promotion of unity or cooperation between distinct religious groups or denominations of the Christian religion, more or less broadly defined. ...


There are about 800 million Protestants worldwide,[6] among approximately 1.5 billion Christians.[7][8] These include 170 million in North America, 160 million in Africa, 120 million in Europe, 70 million in Latin America, 60 million in Asia, and 10 million in Oceania.


Protestants can be differentiated according to how they have been influenced by important movements since the magisterial Reformation and the Puritan Reformation in England. Some of these movements have a common lineage, sometimes directly spawning later movements in the same groups. Only general families are listed here (due to the above-stated multitude of denominations); some of these groups do not consider themselves as part of the Protestant movement, but are generally viewed as such by the public at large: List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ...

 v  d  e  Christian Denominations in

The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The charismatic movement began with the adoption of certain Pentecostal beliefs—specifically what are known as the biblical charisms of Christianity: speaking in tongues, prophesying, etc. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Brethren are a Christian Evangelical movement that began in Dublin, London, Plymouth, and the continent of Europe in the late 1820s. ... -1... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Quaker redirects here. ... -1... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ...

Theological tenets of the reformation

Main article: Five solas

The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers' basic theological beliefs in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. The Latin word sola means "alone," "only," or "single" in English. The five solas were what the Reformers believed to be the only things needed in their respective opinions for Christian salvation. The Bible was taught as the only norm. Listing them as such was also done with a view to excluding other things that in the Reformers' respective views hindered or were unnecessary for salvation. This formulation was intended to distinguish between what were viewed as deviations in the Christian church and the essentials of Christian life and practice. In these opinions they differed from the universal consensus of Christians in historical Christianity. The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...

The Protestants characterize the dogma concerning the Pope as Christ's representative head of the Church on earth, the concept of meritorious works, and the Catholic idea of a treasury of the merits of saints, as a denial that Christ is the only mediator between God and man. Catholics, on the other hand, maintained the traditions of Judaism on these questions, and appealed to the universal consensus of Christian tradition, that Peter and his successors were mandated by Jesus Christ as his vicars on earth after his ascension, to keep his followers united.(Matt. 16:18, 1 Cor. 3:11, Eph. 2:20, 1 Pet. 2:5–6, Rev. 21:14).
Protestants believe that the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church obscure the teachings of the Bible by convoluting it with church history and doctrine. Catholics believed that the Holy Spirit, which Jesus Christ promised would be with his followers until the end of time, and guide it into the fullness of truth, led the Catholic Church into a more sophisticated understanding of revelation in history.(Matthew 10:19; Mark 13:11; Luke 12:11, 21:14)
Protestants believe that faith in Christ alone is enough for eternal salvation as described in Ephesians 2:8-9, whereas Catholics believe that the phrases "faith without works is dead" (as stated in James 2:20) and "Ye see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only" (James 2:24); points to the justified person needing to persevere in charity. Protestants, pointing to the same scripture,believe that practicing good works merely attest to one's faith in Christ and his teachings.
Protestants perceived Roman Catholic salvation to be dependent upon the grace of God and the merits of one's own works. The Reformers posited that salvation is a gift of God (i.e., God's act of free grace), dispensed by the Holy Spirit owing to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ alone. Consequently, they argued that a sinner is not accepted by God on account of the change wrought in the believer by God's grace, and that the believer is accepted without regard for the merit of his works — for no one deserves salvation. Catholics believed that faith was not just a belief, but a way of life, and in both lay salvation, not faith alone. (Matt.7:21)
All glory is due to God alone, since salvation is accomplished solely through his will and action—not only the gift of the all-sufficient atonement of Jesus on the cross but also the gift of faith in that atonement, created in the heart of the believer by the Holy Spirit. The reformers believed that human beings—even saints canonized by the Roman Catholic Church, the popes, and the ecclesiastical hierarchy—are not worthy of the glory that was accorded them. On these bases they considered themselves justified in forming new denominations at war with the Catholic Church, rather than sharing its mission.

From the Five Solas, the statement that Christ alone (Solus Christus, or Solo Christo) was necessary for salvation. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... Sola gratia, one of the five solas propounded to summarise the Reformers basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation, it is a Latin term meaning grace alone. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ...

Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper

Main articles: Real Presence and Eucharist

The Protestant movement began to coalesce into several distinct branches in the mid-to-late sixteenth century. One of the central points of divergence was controversy over the Lord's Supper. Every Protestant Reformer had his own novel view. The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Early Protestants generally rejected the Roman Catholic dogma of transubstantiation, which teaches that the bread and wine used in the sacrificial rite of the Mass lose their natural substance by being transformed into the Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of Christ. They disagreed with one another concerning the manner in which Christ is present in Holy Communion. For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ...

  • Lutherans hold to the Real Presence as Consubstantiation (although some Lutherans disapprove of the term "Consubstantiation". It was Philipp Melancthon's term used with Martin Luther's approval), which affirms the physical presence of Christ's true Body & Blood supernaturally "in, with, and under" the Consecrated Bread and Wine. Lutherans point to Jesus' statement, "...This IS my body...". According to the Lutheran Confessions of Faith the Sacramental Union takes place at the time of Consecration, when Christ's Words of Institution are spoken by the celebrant. Lutheran teaching insists that the Consecrated Bread & Wine ARE the truly abiding and adorable Body & Blood of Christ in a Sacramental Union, while also affirming the Lord's Supper ranges along the continuum from Calvin to Zwingli.
  • The Reformed closest to Calvin emphasize the real presence, or sacramental presence, of Christ, saying that the sacrament is a means of saving grace through which only the elect believer actually partakes of Christ, but merely WITH the Bread & Wine rather than in the Elements. Calvinists deny the Lutheran assertion that Christ makes himself present to the believer in the elements of the sacrament, but affirm that Christ is united to the believer through faith—toward which the supper is an outward and visible aid, this is often referred to as dynamic presence. Why this aid is necessary in addition to faith differs according to the believer. Some Protestants (such as the Salvation Army) do not believe it is necessary at all.
  • A Protestant holding a popular simplification of the Zwinglian view, without concern for theological intricacies as hinted at above, may see the Lord's Supper merely as a symbol of the shared faith of the participants, a commemoration of the facts of the crucifixion, and a reminder of their standing together as the Body of Christ (a view referred to somewhat derisively as memorialism).
  • The churches of the Anglican Communion do not have a single understanding of the Eucharist, and there is no official doctrine common to Anglicans on the question. Some hold to understandings like those of Lutherans, Calvinists, or Zwinglians, while others hold doctrines very similar (or even identical) to the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. Historically, the Church of England was opposed to the doctrine of transubstantiation, as described in the twenty-eighth of the 39 Articles; although the 39 Articles in contemporary Anglicanism are almost universally ignored, at least in part.

In Protestant theology, as the bread shares identity with Christ (which he calls "my body"), in an analogous way, the Church shares identity with Christ (and also is called "the Body of Christ"). Thus, controversies over the Lord's Supper may seem to be only about the nature of the bread and wine, but are ultimately about the nature of salvation and the Church; and indirectly about the nature of Christ. There are as many different views on the question as there are Protestant denominations. The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Melancthon, in a portrait engraved by Albrecht Dürer, 1526 Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ...


Catholicism

Contrary to how the Protestant reformers were often characterized, the concept of a catholic, or universal, Church was not brushed aside during the Protestant Reformation. To the contrary, the visible unity of the Catholic Church was an important and essential doctrine of the Reformation. The Magisterial Reformers, such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli, believed that they were reforming a corrupt and heretical Catholic Church. Each of them took very seriously the charges of schism and innovation, denying these charges and maintaining that it was the medieval Roman Catholic Church that had left them;notwithstanding that they were individuals in the 16th century who espoused radically different opinions from what was the common and constant teaching of the Christian Church hitherto. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ...

The visible church, in the idea of the Scottish theologians, is "catholic", rather than "Catholic". You have not an indefinite number of Parochial, or Congregational, or National churches, constituting, as it were, so many ecclesiastical individualities, but one great spiritual republic, of which these various organizations form a part, notwithstanding that they each have very different opinions. The visible church is not a genus, so to speak, with so many species under it. It is thus you may think of the State, but the visible church is a totum integrale, it is an empire, with an ethereal emperor, rather than a visible one. The churches of the various nationalities constitute the provinces of this empire; and though they are so far independent of each other, yet they are so one, that membership in one is membership in all, and separation from one is separation from all... This conception of the church, of which, in at least some aspects, we have practically so much lost sight, had a firm hold of the Scottish theologians of the seventeenth century.[9]

Wherever the Magisterial Reformation, which received support from the ruling authorities, took place, the result was a reformed national church envisioned to be a part of the whole visible Holy catholic Church described in the creeds, but disagreeing, in certain important points of doctrine and doctrine-linked practice, with what had until then been considered the normative reference point on such matters, namely the See of Rome. The Reformed Churches thus believed in a form of Catholicity, founded on their doctrines of the five solas and a visible ecclesiastical organization based on the 14th and 15th century Conciliar movement, rejecting the Papacy and Papal Infallibility in favor of Ecumenical councils, but rejecting the Council of Trent. Catholic unity therefore became not one of doctrine and identity, but one of invisible character, wherein the unity was one of faith in Jesus Christ, not common identity, belief, and collaborative action. This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Today there is a growing movement of Protestants, especially of the Reformed tradition, that reject the designation "Protestant" because of its negative "anti-catholic" connotations, preferring the designation "Reformed," "Evangelical" or even "Reformed Catholic" expressive of what they call a "Reformed Catholicity" [1] and defending their arguments from the traditional Protestant Confessions. [10] In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... A Confession of Faith is a statement of doctrine very similar to a creed, but usually longer and polemical, as well as didactic. ...


Radical Reformation

Unlike mainstream Evangelical (Lutheran), Reformed (Zwinglian and Calvinist) Protestant movements, the Radical Reformation, which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the "Church Visible" as distinct from the "Church Invisible". It was a rational extension of the State-approved Protestant dissent, which took the value of independence from constituted authority a step further, arguing the same for the civic realm. For them, the Church only consisted of the tiny community of believers, who accepted Jesus Christ by adult baptism, called "believer's baptism". Others believed that the Church could not be defined as anything more than a single congregation meeting together for worship at one time in a single place (congregationalism). The Radical Reformation thus did not believe that the Magisterial Reformation had gone far enough. For example, radical reformer Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt referred to the Lutheran theologians at Wittenberg as the "new papists".[11] It was exactly because the Reformation still strongly defended the visible unity of the Catholic Church that they were criticized by the Radical Reformers and vice versa. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... Believers baptism (also called credobaptism) is the Christian ritual of baptism as given only to adults and children who have made a declaration of faith in Jesus as their personal savior, because he died for their sins, and was resurrected by the power of God the Father. ... Congregationalist polity, often known as congregationalism, is a system of church governance in which every local congregation is independent. ...


Movements within Protestantism

Diagram showing major branches and movements within Protestantism

Pietism and Methodism

Main articles: Pietism and Methodism

The German Pietist movement, together with the influence of the Puritan Reformation in England in the seventeenth century, were important influences upon John Wesley and Methodism, as well as through smaller, new groups such as the Religious Society of Friends ("Quakers") and the Moravian Brethren from Herrnhut, Saxony, Germany. Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th century. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th century. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Quaker redirects here. ... A Moravian can be: an ethnic group a Christian denomination This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Herrnhut (Sorbian: Ochranow) is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittau, in the state of Saxony, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...


The practice of a spiritual life, typically combined with social engagement, predominates in classical Pietism, which was a protest against the doctrine-centeredness Protestant Orthodoxy of the times, in favor of depth of religious experience. Many of the more conservative, Methodists went on to form the Holiness movement, which emphasized a rigorous experience of holiness in practical, daily life. The Holiness movement is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature of man can be cleansed through faith and by the power of the Holy Spirit if one has had his sins forgiven through faith in Jesus. ...


Evangelicalism

Main article: Evangelicalism

Beginning at the end of eighteenth century, several international revivals of Pietism (such as the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening) took place across denominational lines, largely in the English-speaking world. Their teachings and successor groupings are referred to generally as the Evangelical movement. The chief emphases of this movement were individual conversion, personal piety and Bible study, public morality often including Temperance and Abolitionism, de-emphasis of formalism in worship and in doctrine, a broadened role for laity (including women) in worship, evangelism and teaching, and cooperation in evangelism across denominational lines. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... The Great Awakenings refer to several periods of dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history, generally recognized as beginning in the 1730s. ... The Second Great Awakening  (1800–1830s) was the second great religious revival in United States  history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Temperance is the practice of moderation. ... This article is about slavery. ...


Adventism

Main article: Adventism

Adventism, as a movement, began in the United States in middle nineteenth century. The Adventist family of churches are regarded today as conservative Protestants.[12] The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ...


Modernism, Sunderianism and Liberalism

Main article: Liberal Christianity


Modernism, Liberalism and Sunderianism do not constitute rigorous and well-defined schools of theology, but are rather an inclination by some writers and teachers to integrate Christian thought into the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment. New understandings of history and the natural sciences of the day led directly to new approaches to theology. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ...


Pentecostalism

Main article: Pentecostalism

Pentecostalism, as a movement, began in the United States early in the twentieth century, starting especially within the Holiness movement. Seeking a return to the operation of New Testament gifts of the Holy Spirit, speaking in tongues as evidence of the "baptism of the Holy Ghost" or to make the unbeliever believe became the leading feature. Divine healing and miracles were also emphasized. Pentecostalism swept through much of the Holiness movement, and eventually spawned hundreds of new denominations in the United States. A later "charismatic" movement also stressed the gifts of the Spirit, but often operated within existing denominations, rather than by coming out of them. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began...


Fundamentalism

In reaction to liberal Bible critique, fundamentalism arose in the twentieth century, primarily in the United States and Canada, among those denominations most affected by Evangelicalism. Fundamentalism placed primary emphasis on the authority and sufficiency of the Bible, and typically advised separation from error and cultural conservatism as an important aspect of the Christian life. Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Neo-orthodoxy

Main article: Neo-orthodoxy

A non-fundamentalist rejection of liberal Christianity, associated primarily with Karl Barth, neo-orthodoxy sought to counter-act the tendency of liberal theology to make theological accommodations to modern scientific perspectives. Sometimes called "Crisis theology", according to the influence of philosophical existentialism on some important segments of the movement; also, somewhat confusingly, sometimes called neo-evangelicalism. Neo-orthodoxy is an approach to theology that was developed in the aftermath of the First World War (1914-1918). ... Karl Barth Karl Barth (May 10, 1886 – December 10, 1968) (pronounced bart) a Swiss Reformed theologian, was one of the most important Christian thinkers of the 20th century; Pope Pius XII described him as the most important theologian since Thomas Aquinas. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ...


New Evangelicalism

Main article: Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism is a movement from the middle of the twentieth century, that reacted to perceived excesses of Fundamentalism, adding to concern for biblical authority, an emphasis on liberal arts, cooperation among churches, Christian Apologetics, and non-denominational evangelization. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Apologists are authors, writers, editors of scientific logs or academic journals, and leaders known for taking on the points in arguments, conflicts or positions that are either placed under popular scrutinies or viewed under persecutory examinations. ...


Paleo-Orthodoxy

Main article: Paleo-orthodoxy

Paleo-orthodoxy is a movement similar in some respects to Neo-evangelicalism but emphasising the ancient Christian consensus of the undivided Church of the first millennium AD, including in particular the early Creeds and councils of the church as a means of properly understanding the Scriptures. This movement is cross-denominational and the theological giant of the movement is United Methodist theologian Thomas Oden. Thomas Oden Paleo-Orthodoxy is a Christian theological movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... Dr. Thomas C. Oden Thomas Clark Oden (October 21, 1931 - ) is an American Christian theologian associated with Drew University in New Jersey. ...


Ecumenism

Main article: Christian ecumenism

The ecumenical movement has had an influence on mainline churches, beginning at least in 1910 with the Edinburgh Missionary Conference. Its origins lay in the recognition of the need for cooperation on the mission field in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Since 1948, the World Council of Churches has been influential, but ineffective in creating a united Church. There are also ecumenical bodies at regional, national and local levels across the globe; but schisms still far outnumber unifications. One, but not the only expression of the ecumenical movement, has been the move to form united churches, such as the Church of South India, the Church of North India, The US-based United Church of Christ, The United Church of Canada and the Uniting Church in Australia, which have rapidly declining memberships. There has been a strong engagement of Orthodox churches in the ecumenical movement, though the reaction of individual Orthodox theologians has ranged from tentative approval of the aim of Christian unity to outright condemnation of the perceived effect of watering down Orthodox doctrine.[2] Christian ecumenism is the promotion of unity or cooperation between distinct religious groups or denominations of the Christian religion, more or less broadly defined. ... In the United States, the mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) or mainline Protestant denominations are those Protestant denominations with a mix of moderate and liberal theologies. ... The Edinburgh Missionary Conference held in June of 1910 was both the culmination of nineteenth-century Christian missions and the formal beginning of the modern Christian ecumenical movement. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... CSI St. ... The Church of North India has united various denominations and missions and orders in India. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ... Logo of the UCA The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was formed on June 22, 1977 when the Methodist Church of Australasia, Presbyterian Church of Australia and Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union document. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


In 1999, the representatives of Lutheran World Federation and Roman Catholic Church signed The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of Justification which was at the root of the Protestant Reformation, although some conservative Lutherans did not agree to this resolution. This is understandable, since there is no compelling authority within them. On July 18, 2006 Delegates to the World Methodist Conference voted unanimously to adopt the Joint Declaration. [3] [4] LWF logo The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global association of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification [1] is a document created by and agreed to by clerical representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of Justification which was at the... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ...


Founders: the first Protestant major reformers and theologians

(in alphabetical order by century.)


Fourteenth century

  • John Wycliffe, English reformer, the "Morning Star of the Reformation".

Insert non-formatted text here Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity...

Fifteenth century

  • Jan Hus, Czech reformist/dissident; burned to death in Constance, Germany in 1415 by Roman Catholic Church authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy. After the devastation of the Hussite Wars his more radical followers founded in 1457 the Unitas Fratrum, "Unity of Brethren," which was renewed under the leadership of Count Zinzendorf in Herrnhut, Saxony in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the 30 Years War and Counter Reformation. Today it is usually referred to in English as the Moravian Church, in German the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine.

Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... Constance (CON-stents) is a female given name most often used in the English or French-speaking worlds. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... The Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská, Latin: Unitas Fratrum) is a Christian denomination whose roots are in the pre-reformation work of Jan Hus, who was martyred in 1415. ... Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, Count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf, (May 26, 1700 – May 9, 1760), German religious and social reformer, was born at Dresden. ... Herrnhut (Sorbian: Ochranow) is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittau, in the state of Saxony, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years War, 1648. ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ...

Sixteenth century

  • Jacobus Arminius, Dutch theologian, founder of school of thought known as Arminianism
  • Heinrch Bullinger, successor of Zwingli, leading reformed theologian
  • John Calvin, French theologian, Reformer and resident of Geneva, Switzerland, he founded the school of theology known as Calvinism
  • Abaomas Kulvietis, jurs and a professor at Königsberg Albertina University, as well as a Reformer of the Lithuanian church.
  • John Knox, Scottish Calvinist reformer,
  • Martin Luther, German religious reformer, theologian, founder of the Lutheran church in Germany, founder of Lutheranism
  • Philipp Melanchthon, early Lutheran leader
  • Menno Simons, founder of Mennonitism
  • Huldrych Zwingli, founder of Swiss reformed tradition
  • John Smyth, founder of the Baptist denomination
  • David Courtney (preacher) (1542-1621), founder of the County Down Reformation[dubious ]

Jacobus Arminius Jacobus Arminius (aka Jacob Arminius, James Arminius, and his Dutch name Jacob Harmenszoon or Jakob Hermann) (1560–1609) was a Dutch heretical theologian and (until 1603) professor in theology at the University of Leiden. ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... Coat of arms of the Canton of Geneva Coat of arms of the City of Geneva Geneva (French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh Genevra, Spanish: Ginebra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zurich), located where Lake Geneva (French: Lac de Genève or Lac L... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Menno Simons - wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem 1610 Menno Simons (1496–1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... John Smyth (1570 - c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is...

See also

This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... Anti-Protestantism is an institutional, ideological or emotional bias against Protestantism and its followers. ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... The terms catholic evangelical and evangelical catholic combine two descriptive words that often seem contradictory to post-Reformational ears. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the... The Christian Flag The Christian Flag is a flag designed to represent all of Christianity (see also Christendom), but flown mainly by Protestant churches in North America, Africa, and Latin America. ... Christian humanism is the belief that human freedom and individualism are compatible with the practice of Christianity or intrinsic in its doctrine. ... Timeline of Christianity (1AD-Present) The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from 1AD to the present. ... For other uses, see Forgiveness (disambiguation). ... The History of Protestantism begins with the Reformation movement, which began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church and led to the fracturing of Christendom. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of Protestant churches by denomination. ... A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ O'Gorman, Robert T. and Faulkner, Mary. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding Catholicism. 2003, page 317.
  2. ^ a b Definition of Protestantism at the Episcopal Church website
  3. ^ Protestantism, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
  4. ^ Baptists usually are considered Protestants, although some Baptists reject that association. See the Baptist article and its Origins subsection for a further discussion of Baptist Perpetuity.
  5. ^ World Christian Encyclopedia (2nd edition). David Barrett, George Kurian and Todd Johnson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
  6. ^ Jay Diamond, Larry. Plattner, Marc F. and Costopoulos, Philip J. World Religions and Democracy. 2005, page 119.(also in PDF file, p49)
  7. ^ "between 1,250 and 1,750 million adherents, depending on the criteria employed": McGrath, Alister E. Christianity: An Introduction. 2006, page xv1.
  8. ^ "1.5 thousand million Christians": Hinnells, John R. The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. 2005, page 441.
  9. ^ Dr. James Walker in The Theology of Theologians of Scotland. (Edinburgh: Rpt. Knox Press, 1982) Lecture iv. pp.95-6.
  10. ^ The Canadian Reformed Magazine 18 (Sept. 20–27, Oct. 4–11, 18, Nov. 1, 8, 1969) http://spindleworks.com/library/faber/008_theca.htm
  11. ^ The Magisterial Reformation.
  12. ^ "Adventist and Sabbatarian (Hebraic) Churches" section (p. 256–276) in Frank S. Mead, Samuel S. Hill and Craig D. Atwood, Handbook of Denominations in the United States, 12th edn. Nashville: Abingdon Press

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... David V. Barrett is a British author who has written on religious and esoteric topics. ...

External links

Look up Protestant, Protestantism, evangelical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Supporting

Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an influential Christian philosopher, apologist, and debater. ... Peter J. Leithart (born 1959) is the author of many books on literature and theology, a frequent contributor to such ecumenical and Trinitarian publications as First Things, Touchstone, and Credenda/Agenda, as well as theological journals such as Westminster Theological Journal. ... First Things is a monthly ecumenical journal concerned with the creation of a religiously informed public philosophy for the ordering of society (First Things website). ...

Critical

  • Catholic websites on sola scriptura
  • "Protestantism" from the 1917 Catholic Encyclopedia
  • "Why Only Catholicism Can Make Protestantism Work" by Mark Brumley

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

Miscellaneous

This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Protestantism - Encyclopedia Article (1498 words)
Protestantism in the strict sense of the word is the group of princes and imperial cities who, at the diet of Speyer in 1529, signed a protestation against the edict of Worms forbidding the Lutheran teachings in the whole empire.
In a broader sense of the word, Protestantism is any of the Christian religious groups, of Western European origin, that broke with the Roman Catholic Church as a result of the influence of Martin Luther, founder of the Lutheran churches, and John Calvin, founder of the Calvinist movement.
From the beginning, Protestantism was in agreement against the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, which teaches that the substance of the bread and wine used in the sacrificial rite of the Mass, is exchanged for the substance of Christ's body and blood.
Protestantism - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Protestantism (468 words)
Protestantism takes its name from the protest of the German Protestant reformer Martin Luther and his supporters during the Reformation, in particular their protest at the Diet of Spires (1529) against the decision to reaffirm an edict against the Reformation made at the Diet of Worms (1521).
Initially, Protestantism stood for the position of the Lutherans as opposed to both the Roman Catholic and Reformed churches (Zwinglian or Calvinist), but it later came to be applied to any group who would not accept the pope as their leader.
Protestantism sat at ease, unmindful of schisms, careless of proselytism: Dissent was an inheritance along with a superior pew and a business connection; and Churchmanship only wondered contemptuously at Dissent as a foolish habit that clung greatly to families in the grocery and chandlering lines, though not incompatible with prosperous wholesale dealing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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