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Encyclopedia > Protestant
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For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended... Christianity
This article outlines the history of Christianity and provides links to relevant topics. Contents // 1 Roots of Christianity 1.1 The Jewish background 1.2 The life of Jesus of Nazareth 2 The earliest emergence of Christianity 2.1 Early controversies 2.2 Competing religions 3 Second and third centuries... History of Christianity
The Christian Worldview is the worldview of Christianity. Usually it is formulated as a story expressed through either three or four themes: either the triple themes Creation, Fall, and Redemption; or the quadruple themes Creation, Fall, Incarnation, and Redemption. Contents // 1 Creation 2 Fall 3 Incarnation 4 Redemption Creation The... Christian Worldview
This article is about statements of belief; Creed is also the Creed was formed in 1995 as a heavy metal, rock, and alternative rock group. They broke up in June 2004. Many people consider Creed to be a Christian rock band, because their songs include many religious and spiritual implications... Creeds · Christian philosophy is a two-millennia tradition of rational thought as applied to the Christian tradition, and is very diverse in scope and content. No survey article can do more than touch on the most major figures and traditions, each of which are covered in articles of their own. Also... Philosophy · Christian theology practises theology from a Christian viewpoint or studies Christianity theologically. Given the overwhelminmg influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. Contents // 1 Sub-disciplines 2 History 3 Methodology 4 See also Sub-disciplines Sub... Theology

Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis the first book of the Bible. The text was originally written by the early Hebrews, if not earlier. The text spans Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 of... Creation · Essentially, original sin is the doctrine, shared in one form or another by most Christian churches, that the sin of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden changed or damaged human nature, such that all human beings since then are innately predisposed to sin, and are powerless to overcome... Fall · Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the DNA-encoding, conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. Incarnation should be carefully distinguished from the phenomenon of apotheosis, which is the temporary manifestation... Incarnation
In Christianity, salvation is arguably the most important spiritual concept, second only to the divinity of Jesus. For many Christians, the primary goal of religion is to attain salvation. (Others maintain that the primary goal of Christians is to do the will of God, or that the two are equivalent... Salvation · The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France Christian Eschatology is the study of Christian beliefs concerning final events and ultimate purposes (from Gr. eskhatos, last). In Christian theology, eschatology studies the conclusion of Gods purposes, and therefore the concluding destiny... End Times · Divine grace consists of favors received from God, that God is under no need or obligation to grant. The concept of grace is of central importance in the theology of Christianity. Because it is central to salvation, grace has proven to be one of the most contentious issues in the... Divine grace ·
This article discusses faith in a religious context. For other uses, see faith (disambiguation). The best starting point, before digging into subjective human associations with the heavily-loaded word, is reviewing the very simple dictionary definitions of faith. The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is equivalent to... Faith · This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. Contents // 1 Liturgical 1.1 Seasonal prayers 1.2 Prayer to saints 1.3 Prayer for the dead 1.4 Prayerbooks 2 Vocal 3 Meditative 4 Prayer of recollection 5 Contemplative prayer 6 Charismatic prayer 7 A Christian philosophy... Prayer · This article forms part of the series For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix... Liturgy · Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from all Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. The term food also includes liquid drinks. Food is the main source of energy and of nutrition for animals, and is usually of animal or plant... Fasting

This article focuses on the concept of singular, monotheistic God. See deity, gods, or goddesses for details on divine entities in specific religions and mythologies. God is a term referring to the concept of a supreme being, generally believed to be ruler or creator of, and/or immanent within, the... Divine This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. For other uses of trinity, see disambiguation. The Blessed Trinity is God according to the doctrine of most branches of Christianity. The doctrine says that though God is one God, He exists in three distinct persons, usually referred to as God the... Trinity
In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. In many forms of Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. The word comes from the Greek words poly+theoi, literally many gods. Most ancient religions were polytheistic, holding to pantheons of... The Father · This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... The Son (Jesus) · The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. The Christian and Jewish views of the Holy Spirit vary greatly. In the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) the Hebrew term Ruach HaKodesh is used many times; it is translated literally as... Holy Spirit
Texts & Law
A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 AD, for reading aloud in a monastery. The Bible (From Greek (Ελληνικά) Spoken in: Greece, Cyprus, Albania and surrounding countries Region: The Balkans... Bible : The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures constitutes the first major part of the Christian Bible, usually divided into the categories law, history, poetry (or wisdom books) and prophecy. All of these books were written before the birth of Jesus. Contents // 1 Canon of the Old Testament 2 Historicity of... Old · New Testament Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title... New testaments · In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. When most in the Western world refer to the Apocrypha, they are typically referring to the 14 books excluded from Protestant Bibles (see below). Contents // 1 Definition 2 Apocrypha of the Bible... Apocrypha
In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. The Eastern Orthodox concept of canon law is similar to but not identical to the more legislative and juridical model of the West. In both traditions, a canon is a rule adopted by a council... Canon law · This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. For the 1956 film with Charlton Heston, see The Ten Commandments (1956 movie) The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that feature prominently in Judaism and Christianity. The name decalogue is derived from... Commandments · The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the name given to a well-known portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. In this section, Jesus lists specific blessings given to individuals with specific qualities. The word traditionally translated into English as blessed... Beatitudes
Holy Cities Events
For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). Jerusalem (Modern Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim, Biblical and trad. Sephardi Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, Arabic: القدس al-Quds, see... Jerusalem · This article is about the city in the West Bank. For other articles subjects named Bethlehem, see Bethlehem (disambiguation). Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم Bayt Laḥm house of meat; בית לחם house of bread, Standard Hebrew Bet léḥem / Bet... Bethlehem
This is about the Middle East city of Nazareth. For other uses, see Nazareth (disambiguation). Nazareth (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣirah; Hebrew נצרת) is an ancient town in Northern Israel. It is the capital of the northern region of... Nazareth · For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign... Rome
Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Modern Greek is the present vernacular language of Greece (also... Constantinople · This is about one of the cities called Antioch in Asia Minor, now Turkey. See Antioch (disambiguation) for other places called Antioch. The city of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (modern Antakya) is located in what is now Turkey. It was founded near the end of the 4th century BC by... Antioch
This is a list of cities that various groups regard as holy. Cities may be either considered holy in themselves (as Mecca for Muslims), important sites for worship or study (Fatima for Catholics), or the high seat of particular religions (Moscow for Russian Orthodox). Within each section the cities are... List of Holy Cities
The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. Distinct liturgical colours may appear in connection with different... Liturgical year
Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. According to the Christian gospels, Jesus was born to Mary in Bethlehem, where she and her... Christmas
Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Easter · For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). In Western Christianity, Lent is the period preceding the Christian holy day of Easter. Eastern Christianity calls this period Great Lent, to distinguish it from the Winter Lent or Advent that precedes Christmas. The remainder of this article will discuss Lent as it is... Lent
In the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy Days of Obligation are the days, other than Sundays, on which the faithful are required to attend Mass. The 1983 Code of Canon Law standardized ten days to be observed as Holy Days of Obligation throughout the Church. These days are: The Immaculate... Day of Obligation
Buildings Religious Roles
This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. For other uses of the word, see Church (disambiguation). The Memorial Church at Stanford University. A church building is a building used in Christian worship. See also altar, altar rails, confessional, dome, nave, pew, pulpit, sanctuary, lych gate. Contents // 1 Etymology... Church · -1... Steeple · Categories: Stub | Churches ... Pulpit
A Cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, which serves as the central church of a bishopric. As cathedrals are often particularly impressive edifices, the term is sometimes also used loosely as a designation for any large important church. Some former cathedrals in... Cathedral · This article is about an abbey as a religious building. See also Abbey (bank), Abbey Theatre and Abbey, Saskatchewan An abbey (from the Latin abbatia, which is derived from the Syriac abba, father), is a Christian monastery or convent, under the government of an Abbot or an Abbess, who serve... Abbey
The Basilica of St. Francis Xavier, Dyersville, Iowa. This is one of only a handful a basilicas in the United States, and the only one outside a major metropolitan area. The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek basiliké stoà, royal stoa), was originally used to describe a Roman public building... Basilica
Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. Priests have been known since the earliest times and in the simplest societies (see shaman and oracle). There are priests... Priest · The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. It is sometimes also used by ministers of other religions. It comes from the Latin reverendus meaning that which is to be revered. English usage is for deacons and priests to be the Reverend, deans... Reverend
For other uses, see Bishop (disambiguation). A bishop is an ordained person who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. Contents // 1 Bishops in the New Testament 2 Bishops in civil government 3 Bishops in Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican churches 4 Bishops in... Bishop · For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. The Pope is the Catholic bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches (note that the name within the communion is simply the one Holy Catholic... Pope
The diaconate is one of three ordained offices in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches. The other two offices are those of priest and of bishop. It is also an office in many Protestant denominations. The word deacon ( and deaconess) is derived from the Greek word... Deacon · Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. The term comes from Greek κληρος (fortune, or metaphorically, heritage). Depending on the religion, clergy usually take care of the ritual aspects of the religious life, teach or otherwise... Clergy
Western Christianity refers to Catholicism and Protestantism. As opposed to Eastern Christianity, it dominated mostly and was historically developed in the western part of Europe, hence the name. Some of the principal respects in which Western Christianity differs from Eastern Christianity are: Western Christianitys doctrine of original sin. Some... Western Christianity Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions which developed in Greece, the Near East and Eastern Europe. Its division from Western Christianity is as much to do with culture and politics as theology; a definitive date for the commencement of schism cannot be given. Families of churches Eastern Christians... Eastern Christianity
This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. See Catholicism (disambiguation) for alternative meanings Catholicism has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: a) the whole orthodox christian church, or adherence thereto; and b) the doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence thereto... Western Catholic
Protestantism
Restorationism is not a single religious movement, but a wave of comparably motivated movements that arose in the eastern United States and Canada in the early 19th century in the wake of the Second Great Awakening. These movements attempted to transcend the divisions of Protestant denominationalism, and to restore Christianity... Restorationism
Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Eastern Orthodoxy
The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. Or it may apply to these particular Churches themselves... Eastern Catholic
The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. The Oriental Orthodox churches rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. Thus, despite potentially... Oriental Orthodoxy
Protestant groups Movements
The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. See Protestantism for further discussion. Contents // 1 History of Lutheranism 1.1 Early history 1.2 Other Protestant reformers 1.3 Religious war 1.4 Results of the Lutheran Reformation 2 Lutheran doctrine 2.1... Lutherans · The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. Each of the nations in which the Reformed movement was established had originally its own church government. Several of these local churches have expanded to worldwide denominations... Reformed
The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. Please see its entry on Wikipedia:Templates for deletion for comments and voting. Articles related to Christianity Jesus Teachings of Jesus History of Christianity Bible New Testament Apocrypha Christian denominations Christianity and World Religions Judaism Baptist... Baptists · The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. Anglicans trace these traditions back to the first followers of Jesus, but acknowledge that schisms occurred first with the Orthodox then with the Roman Catholic churches. Like Orthodox and... Anglicans
The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. Contents // 1 The Wesleyan revival 2 Separation from the Church of England 3 Theology and liturgy 4 Methodism in Britain 5 Methodism in the United States 6 Other countries 7 External links The Wesleyan revival The Methodist revival originated... Methodists · The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. Quakers are counted among the historic peace churches, and have congregations scattered across the world. Since its origins in England, Quakerism has spread to other countries, chiefly the... Quakers
Modernism, modernist Christianity, and liberalism are labels applied to proponents of a school of Christian thought which rose as a direct challenge to more conservative traditional Christian orthodoxy. The terminology was coined during the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy, which began near the close of the 19th century in the Evangelical Protestant... Modernism
The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. The term, Fundamentalist, tends to have a variable meaning. Historically, and for those who use the name to describe themselves, a Fundamentalist Christian is... Fundamentalism
Neo-Evangelicalism is the trend that started in the Fundamentalist movement in the middle of the twentieth century, among conservative Protestants, as a rejection of Fundamentalist separatism. Fundamentalism had arisen in reaction to liberal accommodation of the principles of the Enlightenment (in theology, called Modernism; in ethics, referred to as... Neo-evangelicalism
The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Pentecostalism is similar to the Charismatic movement, but developed earlier and separated from the mainstream church. Charismatic Christians, at least in the early days of the movement, tended to remain in their respective denominations... Pentecostalism
The Christian Left encompasses those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing or socialist ideals. Many such people derive their left-wing views derive directly from their Christian faith, and some cite Jesus as the first socialist. Contents // 1 History 1.1 Early Christianity as anti-establishment... Liberalism
Famous Figures Origins
Topics related to Jesus Names and titles New Testament view Miracles His Resurrection Timeline Chronology Religious perspectives on Jesus Historicity Historical view Cultural and historic background Images Dramatic portrayals This article presents a critical reconstruction of the historical Jesus, as based on the four canonical gospels. Other related articles present... Jesus · A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. 1st century AD) is considered by many Christians to be the most important disciple of Jesus, and next to Jesus the most important figure in the development of Christianity... Paul
Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Twelve Apostles
Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. Painting by El Greco (1575) In Christianity and Islam, Mary (Judæo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Arabic: Maryem, مريم) is the... Mary · Mary Magdalene, which probably means Mary of Magdala, a town on the western shore of the Lake of Tiberias, is described in the New Testament as a follower of Jesus both in the canon and in the apocrypha. Nothing is known about her outside of Scripture. Her feast day is... Mary Magdalene
For a discussion of Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  Â· Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  Â· Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  Â· Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel Â· United States Â· Russia/USSR... Judaism
Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇrāhām; Arabic ابراهيم Ibrāhīm) is the patriarch of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. His story... Abraham
This article is about religious concept of Messiah. For the musical work by Handel, see Messiah (Handel). For the BBC television drama series, see Messiah (television). In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Mā... Messiah

Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended... Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid... Roman Catholic Church in the The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Contents // 1 Roots of the Reformation 2 Reformation begins 2... Reformation of the 16th century, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity, along with Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Eastern Orthodoxy. They are broadly sub-divided into The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. Each of the nations in which the Reformed movement was established had originally its own church government. Several of these local churches have expanded to worldwide denominations... reformed and Restorationism is not a single religious movement, but a wave of comparably motivated movements that arose in the eastern United States and Canada in the early 19th century in the wake of the Second Great Awakening. These movements attempted to transcend the divisions of Protestant denominationalism, and to restore Christianity... restorationist.

Contents

Definition

The term Protestant originally applied to the group of princes and imperial cities who protested the decision by the Years: 1526 1527 1528 - 1529 - 1530 1531 1532 Decades: 1490s 1500s 1510s - 1520s - 1530s 1540s 1550s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events April 22 - Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues west of the Moluccas. May 10 - The Turkish army under Suleiman I leaves... 1529 The term Diet of Speyer refers to any of several sessions of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire when it chose to meet in the city of Speyer, Germany. The most famous sessions occurred in 1526 and 1529. Contents // Categories: Stub ... Diet of Speyer to reverse course and enforce the Years: 1518 1519 1520 - 1521 - 1522 1523 1524 Decades: 1490s 1500s 1510s - 1520s - 1530s 1540s 1550s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. January 28 - Diet of Worms begins, lasting until May 25. March 6 - Ferdinand Magellan discovers Guam. March 16... 1521 This article or section should be merged with Diet of Worms The Edict of Worms was issued by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor on May 25, 1521 at Worms, at the end of the Diet of Worms. It contained a condemnation of Martin Luther and declared him to be an... Edict of Worms. The Years: 1518 1519 1520 - 1521 - 1522 1523 1524 Decades: 1490s 1500s 1510s - 1520s - 1530s 1540s 1550s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. January 28 - Diet of Worms begins, lasting until May 25. March 6 - Ferdinand Magellan discovers Guam. March 16... 1521 edict forbade The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. See Protestantism for further discussion. Contents // 1 History of Lutheranism 1.1 Early history 1.2 Other Protestant reformers 1.3 Religious war 1.4 Results of the Lutheran Reformation 2 Lutheran doctrine 2.1... Lutheran teachings within the History of Germany series Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (WWII) Germany since 1945 The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. As a nation-state, Germany did not exist until 1871. Before... Holy Roman Empire. The Years: 1523 1524 1525 - 1526 - 1527 1528 1529 Decades: 1490s 1500s 1510s - 1520s - 1530s 1540s 1550s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. Peace between Francis I of France and Charles V. Francis agrees to cede Burgundy to Charles, and abandons all claims to... 1526 session of the In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. The term is derived from Medieval Latin dietas, and ultimately comes from the Latin dies, day. The word came to be used in this sense because these assemblies met on a daily basis. Historic uses In this sense, it commonly refers... Diet had agreed to toleration of Lutheran teachings (on the basis of Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. The principle was as old as state Christianity, established in Armenia and in the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine. In the Reformation, the old principle gained new life. It was the terminology used... Cuius regio, eius religio) until a In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. The word is from Greek Οικουμένη (oikumene), which literally means inhabited, i.e... General Council could be held to settle the question, but by Years: 1526 1527 1528 - 1529 - 1530 1531 1532 Decades: 1490s 1500s 1510s - 1520s - 1530s 1540s 1550s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events April 22 - Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues west of the Moluccas. May 10 - The Turkish army under Suleiman I leaves... 1529 the Catholic forces felt they had gathered enough power to end the toleration without waiting for a Council.


In German speaking areas the word Protestant still refers to The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. See Protestantism for further discussion. Contents // 1 History of Lutheranism 1.1 Early history 1.2 Other Protestant reformers 1.3 Religious war 1.4 Results of the Lutheran Reformation 2 Lutheran doctrine 2.1... Lutheran churches in contrast to The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. Each of the nations in which the Reformed movement was established had originally its own church government. Several of these local churches have expanded to worldwide denominations... Reformed churches, while the common designation for all churches originating from the Reformation is Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. To be evangelical would then mean to be merely Christian - that is, founded upon, motivated by, acting in agreement with, or in some other way identified with... Evangelical.


In a broader sense of the word, Protestantism is the collective name for numerous denominations, of Western European origin, that broke with the Roman Catholic Church as a result of the influence of For other people named Martin Luther see: Martin Luther (disambiguation), or here for Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) Born November 10, 1483 Eisleben, Germany Died 18 February 1546 Eisleben, Germany Martin Luther (originally Martin Luder or Martinus Luther) (November 10... Martin Luther, founder of the The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. See Protestantism for further discussion. Contents // 1 History of Lutheranism 1.1 Early history 1.2 Other Protestant reformers 1.3 Religious war 1.4 Results of the Lutheran Reformation 2 Lutheran doctrine 2.1... Lutheran churches, and John Calvin John Calvin (July 10, 1509–May 27, 1564) founded Calvinism, a form of Protestant Christianity, during the Protestant Reformation. He was born Jean Chauvin or Cauvin in Noyon, Picardie, France, and French was his mother tongue; Calvin derives from the latin version of his name, Calvinus. Martin... John Calvin, founder of the In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. Painting by Emmanuel de Witte Calvinism is a Protestant Christian doctrine named after John Calvin. The term Calvinism has two common uses: As regards the doctrine of grace, Calvinism refers to the soteriological system set out by... Calvinist movement. A third major branch of the Reformation, which encountered conflict with both the Catholics and other Protestants, is sometimes called the Radical Reformation. Some Western, non-Catholic, groups are labeled as Protestant, even if the sect acknowledges no historical connection to Luther, Calvin or the Roman Catholic Church.


Protestants are often considered to be another people 'of the book,' in that they adhere to the text of the Bible, that they grew out of the Renaissance and universities, that they attracted learned intellectuals, professionals, and skilled tradesmen and silversmiths, that their belief is more abstracted than ritualized, and that the great dissemination of protestant beliefs occurred with the translation of the A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 AD, for reading aloud in a monastery. The Bible (From Greek (Ελληνικά) Spoken in: Greece, Cyprus, Albania and surrounding countries Region: The Balkans... Bible by Protestants into native tongues from Latin, Greek and Hebrew and their quick spread with the help of the new technology of the printing press. Protestants are also less fond of hierarchy, having relentlessly attacked the priestly caste and the Holy See's authority, and thus are closely associated with the local control and political democratization during the 16th and 17th century.


Origins of Protestantism

Protestants generally trace their separation from the Roman Catholic Church to the (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age... 1500's, which is sometimes called the magisterial Reformation because the movement received support from the magistrates, the ruling authorities (as opposed to the radical Reformation, which had no state sponsorship). The protest erupted suddenly, in many places at once but particularly in Germany, during a time of threatened This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem... Islamic invasion¹ which distracted German princes in particular. To some degree, the protest can be explained by the events of the previous two centuries in Western Europe.


Unrest in the Western Church and Empire, which culminated in the The Avignon papacy refers to a period in the history of the Roman Catholic Church from 1305 to 1378 when the seat of the pope was moved from Rome to Avignon. The period has been called the Babylonian captivity (or Babylonish captivity) of the popes, particularly by Martin Luther but... Avignon Papacy ( Years: 1305 1306 1307 - 1308 - 1309 1310 1311 Decades: 1270s 1280s 1290s - 1300s - 1310s 1320s 1330s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Hanazono ascends to the throne of Japan Beginning of reign of Hungary by Capet... 1308 - Years: 1375 1376 1377 - 1378 - 1379 1380 1381 Decades: 1340s 1350s 1360s - 1370s - 1380s 1390s 1400s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. He appeared before Simon... 1378), and then the The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church in 1378. Lacking any real theological or doctrinal underpinnings, being rather driven by politics, it was resolved after 40 years by the Council of Constance. It is occasionally called the Great Schism, though this term is more... papal schism ( Years: 1375 1376 1377 - 1378 - 1379 1380 1381 Decades: 1340s 1350s 1360s - 1370s - 1380s 1390s 1400s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. He appeared before Simon... 1378- Years: 1413 1414 1415 - 1416 - 1417 1418 1419 Decades: 1380s 1390s 1400s - 1410s - 1420s 1430s 1440s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events May 30 - The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic. Births Deaths Categories: 1416 ... 1416), excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the monastic system. It also introduced a new element of Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. According to the theory of nationalism, the preservation of identity features, the independence in all subjects, the wellbeing, and the glory of ones own nation are fundamental values... nationalism into the relatively internationalist medieval world. In addition, the humanistic For other uses, see Renaissance (disambiguation). Renaissance By topic: Architecture Dance Literature Music Painting Philosophy Science Warfare By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was a great cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn... Renaissance was stimulating an unprecedented academic ferment, with a concomitant concern for Academic freedom is a widely used and championed phrase, but an often poorly defined concept with different meanings in different cultures and different contexts. It can refer to the alleged right of students, teachers or academic institutions to do or be protected from a number of different things. The idea... academic freedom. Earnest theoretical debates were ongoing in the universities concerning the nature of the church, and the proper source and extent of the authority of the papacy, of councils, and of princes. One of the most disruptive and radical of the new perspectives came first from Wycliffe may also refer to Wycliffe Bible Translators History of the English Bible Overview Old English translations Lindisfarne Gospels Middle English translations Wyclifs Bible Early Modern English translations Tyndales Bible Coverdales Bible Matthews Bible Taverners Bible Great Bible Geneva Bible Bishops Bible Douay-Rheims Bible... John Wyclif at Oxford and then from Jan Hus (1369 Husinec, Southern Bohemia – July 6, 1415 Constance) was a religious thinker and reformer. He initiated a religious movement based on the ideas of John Wyclif. His followers became known as Hussites. The Catholic Church did not condone such uprisings, and Hus was excommunicated in 1411, condemned... Jan Hus at the Charles University of Prague Univerzita Karlova v Praze Latin name Universitas Carolina Pragensis Motto -- Established 1347 or 1348 School type Public Rector magnificus Professor Ivan Wilhelm Location Prague, Czech Republic (EU) Enrollment ca 42,500 students (--) Staff -- (--) Member Coimbra Group, EUA, Europaeum Homepage www.cuni.cz The Charles University of... University of Prague. Within the Roman Catholic Church, this debate was officially concluded by the Council of Constance Date 1414-1418 Accepted by Catholicism Previous Council Council of Vienne Next Council Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence (the Council of Siena is generally not considered ecumenical by Catholics) Convoked by Antipope John XXIII, confirmed by Pope Gregory XII Presided by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Attendance 600... Council of Constance ( Years: 1411 1412 1413 - 1414 - 1415 1416 1417 Decades: 1380s 1390s 1400s - 1410s - 1420s 1430s 1440s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events Council of Constance begins. The Habsburg Duke Ernest the Iron (1377-1424) thrones according to the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes on the Dukes... 1414- Years: 1415 1416 1417 - 1418 - 1419 1420 1421 Decades: 1380s 1390s 1400s - 1410s - 1420s 1430s 1440s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by Duke John the Fearless of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies... 1418), which executed Jan Hus, and posthumously burned Wyclif as a heretic. However, while Constance confirmed and strengthened the medieval conception of church and empire, it could not entirely resolve the national tensions, nor the theological tensions which had been stirred up during the previous century. Among other things, the council could not prevent schism and the The Hussite Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. The Hussite Wars were arguably the first European war in which hand-held gunpowder weapons such as muskets made a decisive contribution. Contents // 1 Origins 2... Hussite Wars in Bohemia is also a place in the State of United States of America: see Bohemia, New York. Bohemia (Čechy in Czech, Böhmen in German) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. With an area of 52,750 sq... Bohemia.


To some extent, the protest began in earnest when For other people named Martin Luther see: Martin Luther (disambiguation), or here for Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) Born November 10, 1483 Eisleben, Germany Died 18 February 1546 Eisleben, Germany Martin Luther (originally Martin Luder or Martinus Luther) (November 10... Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg, called for reopening of debate on the sale of In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. The Roman Catholic Church grants these indulgences after the guilt of sin and its punishment of eternal damnation have been remitted by the sacrament of reconciliation, also... indulgences. (Tradition holds that he nailed his 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle's Church, which served as a pinboard for university-related announcements). Luther's dissent marked a sudden outbreak with new and irresistible force of discontent which had been pushed underground but not resolved.


Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). He did not replace Zwingli as the political head man of the canton... Huldreich Zwingli. These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, as the recently introduced The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. First invented in China in 1041, the printing press as we know it today was invented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg in the 1450s... printing press spread ideas rapidly from place to place but some unsolved differences kept them separate. Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. The term was coined by critics, who objected to the practice of performing baptism for adults whose previous baptism, as infants, the Anabaptists claimed was not... Anabaptists. Other Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or humanism ( cf. is an abbreviation for the Latin word confer, meaning compare. It is sometimes used to offer insight into the preceding words etymology - i.e., to suggest how one term obtained its particular naming convention (perhaps from another phrase). For example, the phrase Big Whack (cf. Big Bang) suggests... cf. This article deals with the Erasmus, the theologian. For other meanings, see Erasmus (disambiguation). Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 - July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. Contents // 1 Biography 2 Writings 3 Legacy 4 Representations of Erasmus 5 See also... Erasmus), sometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches.


After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin John Calvin (July 10, 1509–May 27, 1564) founded Calvinism, a form of Protestant Christianity, during the Protestant Reformation. He was born Jean Chauvin or Cauvin in Noyon, Picardie, France, and French was his mother tongue; Calvin derives from the latin version of his name, Calvinus. Martin... John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. The separation of the The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and is the mother branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. Christianity was planted in Britain in the first or second centuries and existed independent of the Church of... Church of England from Rome under Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. He was the second monarch of the... Henry VIII, beginning in Years: 1526 1527 1528 - 1529 - 1530 1531 1532 Decades: 1490s 1500s 1510s - 1520s - 1530s 1540s 1550s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events April 22 - Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues west of the Moluccas. May 10 - The Turkish army under Suleiman I leaves... 1529 and completed in Years: 1533 1534 1535 - 1536 - 1537 1538 1539 Decades: 1500s 1510s 1520s - 1530s - 1540s 1550s 1560s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 3 Marriages 4 Deaths Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Argentina. February 25 - Jacob Hutter burned in a stake for... 1536, brought England alongside the Reformation. However, change in England proceeded more conservatively than elsewhere in Europe and alternated between traditional and Protestant sympathies for centuries, progressively forging a stable compromise. (Today many Anglicans consider themselves to be Reformed Catholics rather than Protestants in the theological sense.) Thus, the West was permanently divided into Roman Catholic and Protestant.


Basic theological tenets

Four Latin slogans of the Reformation express some principal theological concerns of Protestantism, though they are not shared by all Protestants. See also The Five Solas are a summation of the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation. They are: Sola scriptura (Scripture Alone)  The Bible is the only authoritative Word of God, not traditions. This is in opposition to the teaching of the Catholic Church, that scripture is interpreted through Holy Tradition. It... five solas.

  • Solus Christus: Christ alone.
Only Christ is the mediator between This article focuses on the concept of singular, monotheistic God. See deity, gods, or goddesses for details on divine entities in specific religions and mythologies. God is a term referring to the concept of a supreme being, generally believed to be ruler or creator of, and/or immanent within, the... God and man (1 Ti 2:5 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?passage=1TIM+2&language=english&version=ESV&showfn=on&showxref=on)).
  • Sola scriptura (Latin by Scripture alone) is one of five important slogans of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. It meant that Scripture is the Churchs only infallible rule for deciding issues of faith and practices that involve doctrines. The intention of the Reformation was to correct the... Sola scriptura: Scripture alone.
Protestants believe that Apostolic Tradition can only come from Apostles appointed by the incarnate Jesus Christ himself personally, and as such can only be found in Apostolic Scripture (1 Cor 11:2 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?passage=1COR+11&language=english&version=ESV&showfn=on&showxref=on); Gal 1:8 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?passage=GAL+1&language=english&version=ESV&showfn=on&showxref=on); 2 Thess 2:15 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=2+Thess+2)), given that this scripture is the only reliable record of Apostolic teaching. Therefore, Protestants believe that the A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 AD, for reading aloud in a monastery. The Bible (From Greek (Ελληνικά) Spoken in: Greece, Cyprus, Albania and surrounding countries Region: The Balkans... Bible is the only genuinely Apostolic, and legitimate, rule of faith and order. Protestants reject Roman Catholic belief that the Bishop of Rome (i.e. the Pope) is an Apostle of Christ whose Magisterium (from the Latin magister: master) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the authority of the Catholic Church to teach the truths of the faith infallibly. Informally, magisterium refers to the consensus of the faith as it has been historically taught and believed over two millennia. This... Magisterial teachings carry Apostolic authority.
  • Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis... Sola fide: Faith alone.
In contrast to the Roman Catholic concept of meritorious works (cf. Jam 2:24 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=Jam+2); 1 Cor 13:2 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=1+Cor+13)), of penance and indulgences, This article discusses the Mass as part of Christian liturgy, in particular the form it has taken in the Latin rite of the Catholic Church. For the Mass as a genre of classical music composition, see Mass (music). For mass as a concept in physics, see Mass. Mass, in the... masses for the dead, the treasury of the merits of For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). Contents // 1 General definition of saint 1.1 Etymology 1.1.1 Short form 1.2 Historicity 2 Definition specific to religion 2.1 Christianity 2.1.1 Roman Catholicism 2.1.2 Eastern Orthodoxy 2.1.3 Christianity in general 2.2 Islam... saints and martyrs, a ministering priesthood who hears confessions, and In Roman Catholic theology, Purgatory is a process of purification after the particular judgment and before entry into Heaven. One of the first documents to mention purgatorium was a letter from the Benedictine Nicholas of Saint Albans to the Cistercian Peter of Celle in 1176 (Haggh, 1997). The Anima Sola... purgatory (Mt 5:26 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=Mt+5)), the Protestants believe that The priesthood of all believers is a Christian doctrine founded on the First Epistle of Peter, 2:9: But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into... every believer is a priest and obtains In criminal proceedings, a confession is a document in which a suspect admits having committed a crime. See also: testimony, right to silence Contents // 1 Confession of sins 1.1 Roman Catholic Church 1.2 Eastern Orthodoxy 1.3 Protestantism 2 Confession of faith 3 External link 4 See also... reconciliation with God through faith in Jesus Christ, alone (Rom 3:28 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=Rom+3); Eph 2:8-9 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=Eph+2)).
  • Sola gratia: Grace alone.
Against the Roman Catholic view that both faith and works are necessary for justification (Eph 2:8-9 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=Eph+2); Gal 5:6 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=Gal+5)), the Reformers posited that salvation is totally a gift from God (i.e. an act of free grace) dispensed by the Holy Spirit according to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ alone, regardless of merit in the believer - for no one deserves salvation. The very ideas of grace and merit are antithetical to each other (Rom 11:6 (http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?language=english&version=ESV&passage=Rom+11)).

Lord's Supper

From the beginning, Protestantism was in agreement against the Roman Catholic This article is on dogma in religion. Other uses of Dogma are at dogma (disambiguation) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion or any kind of organization to be authoritative or beyond question. Evidence, analysis, or established fact may or may... dogma of According to Roman Catholic dogma, transubstantiation is the change of the substance of the Eucharistic elements — bread and wine — into the body and blood of Jesus (although they retain the physical accidents — i.e. appearance, taste, texture, etc. (anything observable by science) — of bread and wine... transubstantiation, which teaches that the substance of the bread and wine used in the sacrificial rite of the Mass is exchanged for the substance of Christ's body and blood (see The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. The term Eucharist is used mainly in Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Lutheran traditions, and is based upon the Greek word ευχαριστω, eucharisto, meaning to... Eucharist). However, they disagreed with one another concerning the manner in which the believer is united with Christ through the Eucharist. The Lutherans held to an understanding called Real Presence is a term encapsulating belief that Jesus is truly present, body, blood, soul, and divinity, in the Eucharist. This is a doctrine regarding Holy Communion, is maintained in Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran and Methodist traditions of Christianity. According to the Catholic and Orthodox traditions,the bread and wine... Real Presence, which affirms the true presence of Christ in, with, and under the bread. The Reformed according to Zwingli see the Lord's Supper as a memorial ceremony, denying the substantial presence of Christ but affirming that Christ is united to the believer through faith (a view referred to somewhat derisively as memorialism). The Calvinists affirm the real presence of Christ in a manner different from Lutherans, saying that the Church has a new identity from Him in a manner analogous to naming the bread "my body", effecting a spiritual union with the Church, symbolized and given by means of the bread, by the Holy Spirit, through faith, but without changing the bread into Himself.


Major influences on the development of Protestantism

Protestants can be differentiated according to how they have been influenced by important movements since the magisterial Reformation and the Puritan Reformation in England. Some of these movements have a common lineage, sometimes directly spawning later movements in the same groups.


Methodist movement and Pietism

The Methodist movement in the 17th and the 18th centuries, began after the English The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. Contents // 1 Terminology 2 History 3 Beliefs 4 Orthography 5 Further reading Terminology The word Puritan is now applied unevenly to a number of Protestant churches from the late sixteenth century to the... Puritan Reformation, joined on the continent of Europe the German Pietism was a movement, in the Lutheran Church, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th Century. The name of Pietists was given to the adherents of the movement by its enemies as a term of ridicule, like that of Methodists somewhat later in England. The Lutheran Church... Pietist movement, and returned to Britain in a changed form through John Wesley John Wesley was an 18th century preacher and the founder of the Methodist denomination of Protestant Christianity. He was born at Epworth, England (23 miles north-west of Lincoln) June 28, 1703, and died in London March 2, 1791. Contents // 1 Youth 2 In Oxford and Georgia 3... John Wesley and the The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. In 2004 worldwide membership was about 11 million members: 8.6 million in the United States, 2.4 million in Africa, Asia and Europe. ® Used with permission*. The United Methodist Church... Methodist Church, as well as through smaller, new groups such as the The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. Quakers are counted among the historic peace churches, and have congregations scattered across the world. Since its origins in England, Quakerism has spread to other countries, chiefly the... Quakers. The practice of a spiritual life, typically combined with social engagement, predominates in classical Pietism, which was a protest against the doctrine-centeredness Protestant Orthodoxy of the times, in favor of depth of religious experience. Many of the more conservative Methodists went on to form the The holiness movement is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature/ original sin of the human can be cleansed through faith in the Holy Spirit. This assuming that the person has already had his or her sins forgiven through faith in Jesus. The benefits... Holiness movement, which emphasized a rigorous experience of holiness.


Evangelicalism

Beginning at the end of 18th century, several international revivals of Pietism (such as the Great Awakenings are commonly said to be periods of religious revival in Anglo-American religious history. They have also been described as periodic revolutions in American religious thought. The Great Awakenings appear to form a cycle, with a period of roughly (very roughly) 80 years. This forms a Hegelian dialectic... Great Awakening), took place across denominational lines, which are referred to generally as the Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. To be evangelical would then mean to be merely Christian - that is, founded upon, motivated by, acting in agreement with, or in some other way identified with... Evangelical movement. The chief emphases of this movement were individual conversion, personal piety and Bible study, public morality often including See: temperance (virtue) Temperance movement, a socio-political movement Temperance - album by Astrud Gilberto This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it... Temperance and family values, and This article is about the abolition of slavery. For a page on the general concept of abolition, see abolition. For information regarding the abolition of suffering, see abolitionist society. This poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influencial in mobilizing public opinion against slavery in Great Britain and... Abolitionism, de-emphasis of formalism in worship and in doctrine, a broadened role for laity (including women) in worship, evangelism and teaching, and cooperation in evangelism across denominational lines.


Pentecostalism

The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Pentecostalism is similar to the Charismatic movement, but developed earlier and separated from the mainstream church. Charismatic Christians, at least in the early days of the movement, tended to remain in their respective denominations... Pentecostalism as a movement began in the United States early in the (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century, starting especially within the Holiness movement. Seeking a return to the operation of New Testament gifts of the Holy Spirit, speaking in tongues as evidence of the "baptism of the Holy Ghost" became the leading feature. Divine healing and miracles were also emphasized. Pentecostalism swept through much of the Holiness movement, and eventually spawned hundreds of new denominations in the United States. A later For a description of the personality trait, see This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Charismatic authority is a form of religious or political leadership and authority largely tied to the popularity and charisma of a single leader. This sometimes... "charismatic" movement also stressed the gifts of the Spirit, but often operated within existing denominations rather than coming out of them.


Liberalism

Modernism, modernist Christianity, and liberalism are labels applied to proponents of a school of Christian thought which rose as a direct challenge to more conservative traditional Christian orthodoxy. The terminology was coined during the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy, which began near the close of the 19th century in the Evangelical Protestant... Liberalism is a label for various attempts to accommodate the doctrine and practice, especially of the main branches of the Protestant churches, to the principles of This article is a part of the History of Philosophy series. History of Western philosophy Pre-Socratic philosophy Ancient philosophy Medieval philosophy Renaissance philosophy 17th-century philosophy 18th-century philosophy 19th-century philosophy 20th-century philosophy Postmodern philosophy Contemporary philosophy Eastern philosophy The Age of Enlightenment (or The Enlightenment for... the Enlightenment. These adaptations achieved critical momentum at the end of the 19th century in the Modernist movement and the historical critical Bible exegesis.


Fundamentalism

In reaction to liberal Bible critique, The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. In comparative religion, fundamentalism can refer to anti-modernist movements in various religions. In many ways religious fundamentalism is a... Fundamentalism arose in the 20th century, primarily in the United States and Canada, among those denominations most affected by Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. To be evangelical would then mean to be merely Christian - that is, founded upon, motivated by, acting in agreement with, or in some other way identified with... Evangelicalism. Fundamentalism placed primary emphasis on the authority and sufficiency of the Bible, and typically advised separation from error, and cultural conservatism, as important aspects of the Christian life.


Neo-evangelicalism

Neo-Evangelicalism is the trend that started in the Fundamentalist movement in the middle of the twentieth century, among conservative Protestants, as a rejection of Fundamentalist separatism. Fundamentalism had arisen in reaction to liberal accommodation of the principles of the Enlightenment (in theology, called Modernism; in ethics, referred to as... Neo-evangelicalism is a movement from the middle of the 20th century, that reacted to perceived excesses of Fundamentalism, adding to concern for biblical authority an emphasis on liberal arts, co-operation among churches, Christian Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. Someone who engages in apologetics is called an apologist. The term comes from the Greek word apologia, meaning the defense of a position against an attack, not from the English word apology, which is exclusively understood... Apologetics, and non-denominational evangelization.


Protestant denominations

Protestants often refer to specific Protestant churches and groups as denominations to imply that they are differently named parts of the whole church. Some denominations, though, are less accepting of others, and some are so unorthodox as to be questioned by most. But there are also denominations where the theological differences are very small. Other denominations are simply regional expressions of the same beliefs found in other places under other names. The actual number of distinct denominations is hard to calculate, but has been estimated to be in the tens of thousands. Various The word ecumenism is derived from the Greek oikoumene, which means the inhabited world. The term is usually used with regard to movements toward religious unity. In its most broad meaning therefore, ecumenism is the religious initiative towards world-wide unity. As a minimum, ecumenism is the promotion of unity... ecumenical movements have attempted cooperation or reorganization of Protestant churches, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions. Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith, while differing in many secondary doctrines.


Protestant families of denominations

Please note that only general families are listed here (tens of thousands of individual List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. (See also: Christianity; Christian denominations). It should be noted that some denominations are large (eg. Roman Catholic, Lutherans, Anglicans or Baptists) while others are just a few small churches. It should also be noted that modern movements such as Fundamentalist... denominations exist):

  • In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. Painting by Emmanuel de Witte Calvinism is a Protestant Christian doctrine named after John Calvin. The term Calvinism has two common uses: As regards the doctrine of grace, Calvinism refers to the soteriological system set out by... Calvinist/ The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. Each of the nations in which the Reformed movement was established had originally its own church government. Several of these local churches have expanded to worldwide denominations... Reformed/ Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. There are many separate institutional entities that subscribe to Presbyterianism, in different nations around the... Presbyterian
  • The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. See Protestantism for further discussion. Contents // 1 History of Lutheranism 1.1 Early history 1.2 Other Protestant reformers 1.3 Religious war 1.4 Results of the Lutheran Reformation 2 Lutheran doctrine 2.1... Lutheran
  • The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. Contents // 1 The Wesleyan revival 2 Separation from the Church of England 3 Theology and liturgy 4 Methodism in Britain 5 Methodism in the United States 6 Other countries 7 External links The Wesleyan revival The Methodist revival originated... Methodist
  • The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. Please see its entry on Wikipedia:Templates for deletion for comments and voting. Articles related to Christianity Jesus Teachings of Jesus History of Christianity Bible New Testament Apocrypha Christian denominations Christianity and World Religions Judaism Baptist... Baptist
  • The word Episcopal is derived from the Greek επισκοπος epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word however is used in religious terms to mean bishop. Episcopal churches Episcopal churches are the churches with bishops, but generally those whose bishops are in... Episcopal
  • The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Pentecostalism is similar to the Charismatic movement, but developed earlier and separated from the mainstream church. Charismatic Christians, at least in the early days of the movement, tended to remain in their respective denominations... Pentecostal
  • The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. Quakers are counted among the historic peace churches, and have congregations scattered across the world. Since its origins in England, Quakerism has spread to other countries, chiefly the... Quakerism

Number of Protestants

There are about 590 million Protestants worldwide. These include 170 million in North America, 160 million in Africa, 120 million in Europe, 70 million in Latin America, 60 million in Asia, and 10 million in Oceania. 27% of all Christians today are Protestants.


See the complete article Protestants by country


Well-known Protestant and Anglican religious figures

  • John Wesley John Wesley was an 18th century preacher and the founder of the Methodist denomination of Protestant Christianity. He was born at Epworth, England (23 miles north-west of Lincoln) June 28, 1703, and died in London March 2, 1791. Contents // 1 Youth 2 In Oxford and Georgia 3... John Wesley, founder of the The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. Contents // 1 The Wesleyan revival 2 Separation from the Church of England 3 Theology and liturgy 4 Methodism in Britain 5 Methodism in the United States 6 Other countries 7 External links The Wesleyan revival The Methodist revival originated... Methodist movement, Arminian
  • Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 96 KB)Desmond Tutu, provided by personal assistant Lavinia Browne; 1200 px X 1800 px, stated in public domain User:Alex756 received the following email in this regard: Return-path: <[email protected]> Received: from ms-mta-01 (ms-mta-01-smtp [10... Desmond Tutu, The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. Anglicans trace these traditions back to the first followers of Jesus, but acknowledge that schisms occurred first with the Orthodox then with the Roman Catholic churches. Like Orthodox and... Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town, peace activist
  • Louis Auguste Sabatier (October 22, 1839 _ April 12, 1901), French Protestant theologian, was born at Vallon (Ardèche), in the Cévennes, and was educaled at the Protestant theological faculty of Montauban and the universities of Tübingen and Heidelberg. After holding the pastorate at Aubenas in the Ard... Auguste Sabatier, founder of the French fideo-symbolist tendency and of the Institut de Théologie Protestante [ITP], in Paris (1872)
  • Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 - October 22, 1965) was a German-born American theologian and Christian existentialist philosopher. Born in Starzeddel (Guben county), Germany, Tillich studied at a number of German universities—those of Berlin, Tübingen, Halle, and Breslau—before finally obtaining a degree. Shortly thereafter... Paul Tillich, Lutheran theologian, involved in Process theology (also known as Neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861 - 1947). The concepts of process theology include: God is not omnipotent in the classical sense of a coercive being. Reality is not made up of material substances... Process Theology
  • John B. Cobb, theologian, involved in Process theology (also known as Neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861 - 1947). The concepts of process theology include: God is not omnipotent in the classical sense of a coercive being. Reality is not made up of material substances... Process Theology
  • For other people named Martin Luther see: Martin Luther (disambiguation), or here for Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) Born November 10, 1483 Eisleben, Germany Died 18 February 1546 Eisleben, Germany Martin Luther (originally Martin Luder or Martinus Luther) (November 10... Martin Luther, German religious The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Contents // 1 Roots of the Reformation 2 Reformation begins 2... reformer, theologian, founder of the Lutheran church in Germany, founder of Lutheranism
  • Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). He did not replace Zwingli as the political head man of the canton... Ulrich Zwingli, early Swiss religious The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Contents // 1 Roots of the Reformation 2 Reformation begins 2... reformer,
  • John Calvin John Calvin (July 10, 1509–May 27, 1564) founded Calvinism, a form of Protestant Christianity, during the Protestant Reformation. He was born Jean Chauvin or Cauvin in Noyon, Picardie, France, and French was his mother tongue; Calvin derives from the latin version of his name, Calvinus. Martin... John Calvin, The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Contents // 1 Roots of the Reformation 2 Reformation begins 2... Reformer, theologian, founder of school of thought known as Calvinism
  • Melancthon, in a portrait engraved by Albrecht Dürer, 1526 Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. Contents // 1 Early Life and Education 2 Professor at Wittenberg 3 Theological Disputes 4 Augsburg Confession... Philipp Melanchthon, early Lutheran leader
  • John Knox (1513 or 1514? to 1572) was a Scottish religious reformer who founded the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. He died in Edinburgh on November 24, 1572. Contents // 1 Early life 2 Conversion to Protestantism 3 Ministry at St. Andrews 4 Confinement in the French Galleys 5 On the Continent... John Knox, Scottish Calvinist The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Contents // 1 Roots of the Reformation 2 Reformation begins 2... reformer,
  • William Laud (October 7, 1573–January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of Charles I of England whom he encouraged to believe in the Divine Right of Kings. Laud was born in Reading, Berkshire, of comparatively low origins (a fact he was to remain sensitive... William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles I (19 November 1600 - 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. He famously engaged in a struggle for power with Parliament; he was an advocate of the divine right of kings... Charles I of England
  • 19th-century engraving of George Fox, based on a painting of unknown date. George Fox (July 1624–January 13, 1691) was an English Dissenter and the founder of the Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers. Living in a time of great social upheaval, he rebelled against the... George Fox, Founder of the The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. Quakers are counted among the historic peace churches, and have congregations scattered across the world. Since its origins in England, Quakerism has spread to other countries, chiefly the... Society of Friends
  • George Whitefield was a minister in the Church of England and one of the leaders of the Methodist movement. He was born on December 16, 1714 at the Bell Inn, Gloucester, and died in Newburyport, Connecticut on September 30, 1770. In contemporary accounts, he, not John Wesley, is spoken of... George Whitefield, Great Awakening reformist preacher, Calvinist
  • Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703- March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian. He is known as one of the greatest and most profound American evangelical theologians. His work is very broad in scope, but he is often associated with his defense of Calvinist theology and the... Jonathan Edwards, great American Puritan theologian, Great Awakening reformist preacher, Calvinist
  • Menno Simons (1496-1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from the province of Fryslân (today Netherlands and Germany). His followers became known as Mennonites. Menno Simonszoon (Simons son) was born in Witmarsum, Fryslân, to a man named Simon. Very little is known concerning his parents or his... Menno Simons, founder of The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. They are one of the peace churches, which hold to a doctrine of non-violence, non-resistance and pacifism. They are the modern denominations which present many Anabaptist views. Their core beliefs... Mennonitism
  • Jacob Amman (Jakob Ammann) was born circa 1644 in Erlenbach im Simmental, Switzerland, but later moved to Alsace as part of a wave of Anabaptist emigration from out of the Canton of Berne. His exact date of birth is unknown. Some believe he is the Jakob Ammann who was born... Jacob Amman, founder of the This article currently represents the views of the Amish, and thus may not yet be entirely NPOV. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. The Amish are a denomination of Anabaptists related to the Mennonites, most of whom are noted for their avoidance of modern devices such as... Amish church
  • Andre Lortie aka Andrew Lortie, leading Huguenot theologian and exile
  • Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a Christian televangelist in the United States, and founder of the Christian Coalition. He is the host of the popular TV show The 700 Club, which airs on many religious cable channels. His strongly conservative views have made him the subject... Pat Robertson, American charismatic/fundamentalist leader
  • See also Ian Paisley, Jr. The Reverend Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born April 6, 1926) is a politician and church leader in Northern Ireland. The Rev. Ian Paisley, MP, MLA Leader of the Democratic Unionist Party, Moderator of the Free Presbyterian Church. In the early 1950s Ian Paisley helped to... Ian Paisley Ulster Protestant leader
  • Stanley Hauerwas, American Christian theologian/ethicist

See also

  • The Protestant work ethic is a biblically based teaching on the necessity of hard work, perfection and the goodness of manual labor. Protestant preachers preached on the goodness and the necessity of manual labor and its efficacious effect for humans personally and on Christian society as a whole. Protestant preachers... Protestant work ethic

Footnotes

  • 1 See How the Reformation Happened by Hilaire Belloc, pp. 48 ff. inter alia.

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Protestantism (8407 words)
And in proof he advances the instability of Protestant so-called faith: "They are as children tossed to and fro and carried along by every gale of doctrine.
The Protestant position is that the clergy had originally been representatives of the people, deriving all their power from them, and only doing, for the sake of order and convenience, what laymen might do also.
It should be remarked that the first Protestants, without exception, pretended to be the true Church founded by Christ, and all retained the Apostles' Creed with the article "I believe in the Catholic Church".
Protestant Reformation (3003 words)
Any sustained discussion of the causes of the protestant reformation would have to include the fundamental changes which were made to the institutions of the church in the central Middle Ages during the Gregorian reforms.
Historians readily accept that the protestant reformation in its various manifestations was capable of generating remarkably widespread popular support and lay involvement, but these differed widely in their nature, chronology and extent depending on the particular reformation in question.
While the protestant reformation drew its support from all segments of sixteenth-century society, the conflict between different social groups played a significant role in shaping (and limiting) the support which it was able to mobilise.
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