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Encyclopedia > Protest song

A protest song is a song which protests perceived problems in society. These songs cover a wide variety of topics, and deal with issues and concerns ranging from personal and interpersonal to local and global matters. Every major movement in Western history has been accompanied by its own collection of protest songs, from slave emancipation to women's suffrage, the labor movement, civil rights, the anti-war movement, the feminist movement, the environmental movement, and many others. Over time, songs have come to protest more abstract, ethical issues, such as injustice, racial discrimination, the morality of war in general (as opposed to purely protesting individual wars), globalization, inflation, social inequalities, and incarceration. Such songs tend to become more popular during times of disruption among social groups. The oldest European protest song on record is "The Cutty Wren" from the English peasants' revolt of 1381 against feudal oppression.[1] This article is about the musical composition. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... Feminists redirects here. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Justice is a concept involving the fair and moral treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... -1... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... Social inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of material wealth in a society. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Social disruption is a term used in sociology to describe the alteration or breakdown of social life, often in a community setting. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler (also spelt Tighler) killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ...


Some of the most internationally famous examples of protest songs come from the United States. They include "We Shall Overcome" (a song popular in the labor movement and later the Civil rights movement), Bob Dylan's "Blowin' in the Wind and Marvin Gaye's "What's Going On". Many key figures world-wide have contributed to their own nations' traditions of protest music, such as Victor Jara in Latin America, Silvio Rodríguez in Cuba and Vuyisile Mini in anti-apartheid South Africa. Protest songs are generally associated with folk music, but more recently they have been produced in all genres of music. We Shall Overcome is a protest song that became a key anthem of the US civil rights movement. ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Blowin in the Wind is a song written by Bob Dylan, and released on his 1963 album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... Marvin Gaye (born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr. ... For other uses, see Whats Going On (disambiguation). ... Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (September 23, 1932 – September 16, 1973) was a Chilean folk singer and activist. ... Silvio Rodríguez Silvio Rodríguez Domínguez (born November 29, 1946 in San Antonio de los Baños) is a Cuban musician, and a leader of the nueva trova movement. ... Anti-Apartheid Movement, originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organization that was at the center of the international movement opposing South Africas system of apartheid and supporting South Africas Blacks. ... Folk song redirects here. ...

Contents

North American songs of protest

Eighteenth century

Prior to the American Revolutionary War, political songs appeared in the mid 1700s America in response to social injustices (such as the struggle between classes) and political issues (such as the opposing ideologies of the Whigs and Tories, and issues such as the stamp act). "American Taxation" written by Peter St. John and sung to the tune of "The British Grenadiers" was one such song which protested against "the cruel lords of Britain" who were "striving after our rights to take away, and rob us of our charter, in North America".[2] "Come On, Brave Boys" (1734), "The American Hero" by Andrew Law, "Free America" by Dr. Joseph Warren, and "Liberty Song" by John Dickinson (1768) all equally protested against the British rule in America, and called for freedom.[3] The earliest known American election campaign song was "God Save George Washington", issued in 1780 and sung to the tune of "God Save the King", a common practice as the majority of political songs at the time were based on already well known music and were often published with only the lyrics in newspapers and broadsides, and a "sung to the tune of" direction.[4] This article is about military actions only. ... This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolutionary War. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... The British Grenadiers was a marching song for the grenadier units of the British military from the 17th Century to the 19th Century. ... Andrew Law (b. ... This article is on the British patriotic anthem. ...


"Rights of Woman" (1795), sung to the tune of "God Save the King", written anonymously by "A Lady", and published in the Philadelphia Minerva, October 17, 1795, is one of the earliest American songs pointing out that rights apply equally to both sexes.[3] The song contains many outspoken declarations of protest, and slogans such as "God save each Female's right", "Woman is free" and "Let woman have a share". This article is on the British patriotic anthem. ...


Nineteenth century

The Hutchinson Family Singers; a 19th-century American family singing group who sang about political causes in four-part harmony

The nineteenth century saw a number of protest songs being written, for the most part, on three key issues: War, and the American Civil War in particular (such as "Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye" from Ireland, and its American variant, "When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again", among others); The abolition of slavery ("Song of the Abolitionist"[5] and "No More Auction Block for Me",[6] among others) and women's suffrage, both for and against in both Britain and the U.S. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (567 × 760 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (567 × 760 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye is an Irish traditional anti-war and anti-recruiting song and the basis for the American popular song When Johnny Comes Marching Home. Although no published version is known to pre-date the 1863 When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again [1], the Irish song is... When Johnny Comes Marching Home (sometimes When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again) is a song of the American Civil War that expressed peoples longing for the return of their friends and relatives who were fighting in the war. ... This article is about slavery. ... Slave redirects here. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...


Perhaps the most famous voices of protest at the time - in America at least - were the Hutchinson Family Singers. From 1839, the Hutchinson Family Singers became well-known for their protest songs, especially songs supporting abolition. They sang at the White House for President John Tyler, and befriended Abraham Lincoln.[7] Their subject matter most often touched on relevant social issues such as abolition, temperance, politics, war and women's suffrage. Much of their music focused on idealism, social reform, equal rights, moral improvement, community activism and patriotism. The Old Granite State sheet music cover, c. ... The Old Granite State sheet music cover, c. ... This article is about slavery. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... John Tyler, Jr. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is about slavery. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... -1... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make a change in certain aspects of the society rather than fundamental changes. ... Equal Rights can be: One of several groups called the Equal Rights Party. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ...


The Hutchinsons' career spanned the major social and political events of the mid-19thcentury, including the Civil War. The Hutchinson Family Singers established an impressive musical legacy and are considered to be the forerunners of the great protest singers-songwriters and folk groups of the 1950s and 60s such as Woody Guthrie and Bob Dylan, and are often referred to as America's first protest band.[8] Woodrow Wilson Woody Guthrie (July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American songwriter and folk musician. ... This article is about the recording artist. ...


A great number of Negro spirituals were sung as forms of protest by the enslaved African-American people both before and after the American Civil War.[9] They called for freedom from oppression and slavery (as in, for example, "Oh, Freedom), and employed religious imagery to draw comparisons between their plight and the plight of the downtrodden in the bible (as in "Go Down Moses"). While these protest songs originated by enslaved African-Americans in the United States when Slavery was introduced to the European colonies in 1619, it was only after the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution by United States Secretary of State William Henry Seward on December 18, 1865 that the songs started to be collected. The two pioneering collections of Black Spirituals and protest songs were the 1872 book Jubilee Songs as Sung by the Jubilee Singers of Fisk University, by Thomas F. Steward, and a collection of "Black spirituals" which was published by Thomas Wentworth Higginson. The most famous song of protest of African-Americans is "Lift Every Voice and Sing", often referred to by the title "The Negro National Anthem". The song was originally written as a poem by James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) and then set to music by his brother John Rosamond Johnson (1873-1954) in 1900 and performed in Jacksonville, Florida as part of a celebration of Lincoln's Birthday on February 12, 1900 by a choir of 500 schoolchildren at the segregated Stanton School, where James Weldon Johnson was principal. Singing this song quickly became a way for African Americans to demonstrate their patriotism and hope for the future. In calling for earth and heaven to "ring with the harmonies of Liberty," they could speak out subtly against racism and Jim Crow laws — and especially the huge number of lynchings accompanying the rise of the Ku Klux Klan at the turn of the century. In 1919, the NAACP adopted the song as "The Negro National Anthem." By the 1920s, copies of "Lift Every Voice and Sing" could be found in black churches across the country, often pasted into the hymnals. A spiritual is a African-American song, usually with a religious text. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Oh, Freedom is a post Civil War African American freedom song. ... Go Down Moses is an African-American spiritual, that is a retelling of events in the Old Testament of the Bible (Exodus, chapters 3-12), in which God commands Moses to demand the release of the Israelites from bondage in Egypt. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Willam H. Seward William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801–October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Wentworth Higginson (December 22, 1823 - May 9, 1911) was an American author, abolitionist, and soldier. ... African American flag Lift Evry Voice and Sing — often called the Black National Anthem — was written as a poem by James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) and then set to music by his brother John Rosamond Johnson (1873-1954) in 1899. ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 photograph of J. Rosamond Johnson by Carl Van Vechten John Rosamond Johnson (1873–1954), most often referred to as J. Rosamond Johnson, was a composer and singer during the Harlem Renaissance. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Jacksonville redirects here. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Stanton College Preparatory School is an academically renowned high school located in Jacksonville, Florida, whose history dates to the 1860s, when it was begun as an elementary school serving the African-American population under the then-segregated education system. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually when speaking about the United States. ...


The 19th century also boasts one of the first environmental protest songs ever written in the shape of "Woodman Spare That Tree!",[10] which was extremely popular at the time. The words were taken from a poem by George Pope Morris which had been published in the New York Mirror, while the music was composed by Henry Russell. The conservation sentiments of the work can be seen in verses such as the 2nd, which reads:" That old familiar tree,/Whose glory and renown/Are spread o'er land and sea/And wouldst thou hack it down?/Woodman, forbear thy stroke!/Cut not its earth, bound ties;/Oh! spare that ag-ed oak/Now towering to the skies!" This is a list of environmental issues that is due to human activity. ... The New-York Mirror was a newspaper published in New York City under many variant titles, remembered by students of American literature for printing the first editions of poems by Edgar Allan Poe. ... Henry Argue Hank Russell (December 15, 1904 - November, 1986) was an American athlete, winner of gold medal in 4x100 m relay at the 1928 Summer Olympics. ...


Twentieth century

In the 20th century, the union movement, the Great Depression, the Civil Rights movement, and the war in Vietnam (see Vietnam War protests) all spawned protest songs. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The flag of the Union Movement showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity, carried on from the British Union of Fascists The Union Movement was a political party founded in Britain by Oswald Mosley. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article needs to be wikified. ...


1900- 1920; Labor Movement, Class Struggle, and The Great War

Joe Hill, one of the pioneering protest singers of the early 20th Century

The vast majority of American protest music from the first half of the 20th century was based on the struggle for fair wages and working hours for the working class, and on the attempt to unionize the American workforce towards those ends. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was founded in Chicago in June 1905 at a convention of two hundred socialists, anarchists, and radical trade unionists from all over the United States who were opposed to the policies of the American Federation of Labor. From the start they used music as a powerful form of protest. Joe Hill -- Portrait This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Joe Hill -- Portrait This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other persons named Joe Hill, see Joe Hill (disambiguation). ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ...


One of the most famous of these early 20th century "Wobblies" was Joe Hill, an IWW activist who traveled widely, organizing workers and writing and singing political songs. He coined the phrase "pie in the sky", which appeared in his most famous protest song "The Preacher and the Slave" (1911). The song calls for "Workingmen of all countries, unite/ Side by side we for freedom will fight/ When the world and its wealth we have gained/ To the grafters we'll sing this refrain." Other notable protest songs written by Hill include "The Tramp", "There Is Power in a Union", "Rebel Girl", and "Casey Jones--Union Scab". The IWW Label A Wobbly membership card The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, having much in common with anarcho-syndicalist unions, but also many differences. ... For other persons named Joe Hill, see Joe Hill (disambiguation). ... The Preacher and the Slave is a song written by Joe Hill in 1911. ...


Another one of the best-known songs of this period was "Bread and Roses" by James Oppenheim and Caroline Kolsaat, which was sung in protest en masse at a textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts during January-March 1912 (now often referred to as the "Bread and Roses strike") and has been subsequently taken up by protest movements throughout the 20th century. For the band, see Bread and Roses (band). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ...   Settled: 1655 â€“ Incorporated: 1847 Zip Code(s): 01840 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Massachusetts militiamen with fixed bayonets surround a parade of peaceful strikers Flyer distributed in Lawrence, September 1912 The Lawrence textile strike was a strike of immigrant workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1912 led by the Industrial Workers of the World. ...


The advent of The Great War (1914-1918) resulted in a great number of songs concerning the 20th's most popular recipient of protest: war; songs against the war in general, and specifically in America against the U.S.A.'s decision to enter the European war started to become widespread and popular. One of the most successful of these protest songs to capture the widespread American skepticism about joining in the European war was “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier,” (1915) by lyricist Alfred Bryan and composer Al Piantadosi.[11]. Many of these war-time protest songs took the point of view of the family at home, worried about their father/husband fighting overseas. One such song of the period which dealt with the children who had been orphaned by the war was "War Babies"(1916) by James F. Hanley (music) and Ballard MacDonald (lyrics) which spoke to the need for taking care of orphans of war in an unusually frank and open manner.[12] For a typical song written from a child's point-of-view see Jean Schwartz (music), Sam M. Lewis & Joe Young (lyrics) and their song "Hello Central! Give Me No Man's Land"(1918), in which a young boy tries to call his father in No Man's Land on the telephone (then a recent invention), unaware that he has been killed in combat.[13]. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Alfred Bryan (September 15, 1871 _ April 1, 1958) was a United States songwriter. ... James Franklin Hanly (April 4, 1863 – August 1, 1920) was an United States politician who served as the 26th Governor of Indiana from 1905 to 1909. ... Ballard MacDonald (1882-1935) was a Tin Pan Alley lyricist. ... Jean Schwartz (November 4, 1878 - November 30, 1956) was a songwriter. ... Sam M. Lewis (1885–1959) was an American singer and lyricist, born in New York City, New York on October 25, 1885. ... Joe Young (born July 4, 1889 in New York City, died April 21, 1939 New York City) was a songwriter from the 1920s. ... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


1920s- 1930s;The Great Depression and Racial Discrimination

Leadbelly, a blues singer who sung of the hardship and racial discrimination faced by African-Americans in America

The 1920s and 30s also saw the continuing growth of the union and labor movements (the IWW claimed at its peak in 1923 some 100,000 members), as well as widespread poverty due to the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl, which inspired musicians and singers to decry the harsh realities which they saw all around them. It was against this background that folk singer Aunt Molly Jackson was singing songs with striking Harlan coal miners in Kentucky in 1931, and writing protest songs such as "Hungry Ragged Blues" and "Poor Miner's Farewell", which depicted the struggle for social justice in a Depression-ravaged America. In New York City, Marc Blitzstein's opera/musical The Cradle Will Rock, a pro-union musical directed by Orson Welles, was produced in 1937. However, it proved to be so controversial that it was shut down for fear of social unrest.[14] Undeterred, the IWW increasingly used music to protest working conditions in the United States and to recruit new members to their cause. Image File history File links Leadbelly. ... Image File history File links Leadbelly. ... Leadbelly, also known as Lead Belly (born Huddie William Ledbetter; January 20, 1889 (although this is debatable) - December 6, 1949), was an American folk and blues musician, notable for his clear and forceful singing, his virtuosity on the twelve string guitar, and the rich songbook of folk standards he introduced. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Farmer and two sons during a dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936 The Dust Bowl, or the dirty thirties, was a period of horrible dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940), caused by severe... Aunt Molly Jackson(1880 – 1960) was an influential American folk singer. ... Harlan could be a place: Harlan, Iowa Harlan Township, Warren County, Ohio Harlan, Kentucky Harlan could also be a person: Richard Harlan (1796-1843), American naturalist Harlan Ellison American speculative-fiction writer Harlan was the name of an AI in an episode of Stargate SG-1 Harlan may also refer... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Marc Blitzstein (March 2, 1905 – January 22, 1964) was an American composer. ... The 1937 musical The Cradle Will Rock by Marc Blitzstein was originally a part of the Federal Theatre Project. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 1920s and 30s also saw a marked rise in the number of songs which protested against racial discrimination, such as Louis Armstrong's "(What Did I Do to Be So) Black and Blue" (1929), and the anti-lynching song, "Strange Fruit" by Lewis Allan (which contains the lyrics "Southern trees bear strange fruit / Blood on the leaves and blood at the root / Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze"). It was also during this period that many African American blues singers were beginning to have their voices heard on a larger scale across America through their music, most of which protested the discrimination which they faced on a daily basis. Perhaps the most famous example of these 1930s blues protest songs is Leadbelly's "The Bourgeois Blues", in which he sings "The home of the Brave / The land of the Free / I don't wanna be mistreated by no bourgeoisie". Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... For other uses, see Strange Fruit (disambiguation). ... Abel Meeropol (1903 - 1986) is best known under his pseudonym Lewis Allan, under which he wrote the song Strange Fruit, famously performed by Billie Holiday. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Leadbelly, also known as Lead Belly (born Huddie William Ledbetter; January 20, 1889 (although this is debatable) - December 6, 1949), was an American folk and blues musician, notable for his clear and forceful singing, his virtuosity on the twelve string guitar, and the rich songbook of folk standards he introduced. ... The Bourgeois Blues is a blues song by Huddie Ledbetter, better known as Lead Belly. ...


1940s- 1950s; The labor movement vs McCarthyism; Anti-Nuclear songs

1940s protest singer Woody Guthrie
Josh White, the leading proponent or political blues and anti-segregation songs among 1940s African American artists

The 1940s and 1950s saw the rise of music that continued to protest labor, race, and class issues. Protest songs continued to increase their profile over this period, and an increasing number of artists appeared who were to have an enduring influence on the protest music genre. However, the movement and its protest singers faced increasing opposition from McCarthyism. One of the most notable pro-union protest singers of the period was Woody Guthrie ("This Land Is Your Land", "Deportee", "Dust Bowl Blues", "Tom Joad"), whose guitar bore a sticker which read: "This Machine Kills Fascists". Guthrie had also been a member or the hugely influential labor-movement band The Almanac Singers, along with Millard Lampell, Lee Hays, and Pete Seeger.[15] Politics and music were closely intertwined with the members' political beliefs, which were far-left and occasionally led to controversial associations with the Communist Party USA. Their first release, an album called Songs For John Doe,[16] urged non-intervention in World War II. In fact, an article written in 2006 by an official of the American libertarian Cato Institute reported that in the early years of World War II, political opponents had referred to Seeger as "Stalin's Songbird".[17] Their second album "Talking Union", was a collection of labor songs, many of which were intensely anti-Roosevelt owing to what Seeger considered the President's weak support of workers' rights. Download high resolution version (733x930, 53 KB)Woody Guthrie This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (733x930, 53 KB)Woody Guthrie This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Joshua Daniel White (February 11, 1914–-September 5, 1969),[1] best known as Josh White, was a legendary American singer, guitarist, songwriter, actor, and civil rights activist. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... Woodrow Wilson Woody Guthrie (July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American songwriter and folk musician. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: This Land Is Your Land This Land Is Your Land is one of the United States most famous folk songs. ... Deportee (1976) is a dramatic short film written, produced and directed by Sharron Miller. ... The Almanac Singers were a group of folk musicians who achieved brief popularity in the early 1940s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lee Hays (March 14, 1914 - August 26, 1981), was an American folk-singer and songwriter, who sang bass for the Weavers. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), better known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival. ... Songs For John Doe is the 1941 debut album and first released product of influential folk musicians, The Almanac Singers. ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


A similarly influential folk music band who sang protest songs were The Weavers, of which future protest music leader Pete Seeger was a member. The Weavers were the first American band to court mainstream success while singing protest songs, and they were eventually to pay the price for it. While they specifically avoided recording the more controversial songs in their repertoire, and refrained from performing at controversial venues and events (for which the leftwing press derided them as having sold out their beliefs in exchange for popular success), they nevertheless came under political pressure as a result of their history of singing protest songs and folk songs favoring labor unions, as well as for the leftist political beliefs of the individuals in the group. Despite their caution they were placed under FBI surveillance and blacklisted by parts of the entertainment industry during the McCarthy era, from 1950. Right-wing and anti-Communist groups protested at their performances and harassed promoters. As a result of the blacklisting, the Weavers lost radio airplay and the group's popularity diminished rapidly. Decca Records eventually terminated their recording contract. The Weavers were an immensely popular and influential folk music quartet from Greenwich Village, New York, United States. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), better known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival. ... The Weavers were an immensely popular and influential folk music quartet from Greenwich Village, New York, United States. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ...


In the 1940s the strongest musical voice of protest from the African American community in America was Josh White, one of the first musicians to make a name for himself singing political blues. [18]. White enjoyed a position of political privilege, especially as a black musician, as he established a long and close relationship with the family of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, and would become the closest African American confidant to the President of the United States. He made his first foray into protest music and political blues with his highly controversial Columbia Records album Joshua White & His Carolinians: Chain Gang, produced by John H. Hammond, which included the song "Trouble," which summarised the plight of many African Americans in its opening line of "Well, I always been in trouble, ‘cause I’m a black-skinned man." The album was the first race record ever forced upon the white radio stations and record stores in America's South and caused such a furor that it reached the desk of President Franklin Roosevelt. On December 20, 1940, White and the Golden Gate Quartet, sponsored by Eleanor Roosevelt, performed in a historic Washington, D.C. concert at the Library of Congress's Coolidge Auditorium to celebrate the 75th Anniversary of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which abolished slavery. In January 1941, Josh performed at the President's Inauguration, and two months later he released another highly controversial record album, Southern Exposure, which included six anti-segregationist songs with liner notes written by the celebrated and equally controversial African American writer Richard Wright, and whose sub-title was "An Album of Jim Crow Blues". Like the Chain Gang album, and with revelatory yet inflammatory songs such as "Uncle Sam Says", "Jim Crown Train", "Bad Housing Blues", Defense Factory Blues", "Southern Exposure", and "Hard Time Blues", it also was forced upon the southern white radio stations and record stores, caused outrage in the South and also was brought to the attention of President Roosevelt. However, instead of making White persona-non-grata in segregated America, it resulted in President Roosevelt asking White to become the first African American artist to give a White House Command Performance, in 1941. Joshua Daniel White (February 11, 1914–-September 5, 1969),[1] best known as Josh White, was a legendary American singer, guitarist, songwriter, actor, and civil rights activist. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... John Henry Hammond (December 15, 1910–July 10, 1987) was a record producer, musician and music critic from the 1930s to the early 1980s. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Golden Gate Quartet is the most successful of all of the African-American gospel music groups who sang in the jubilee quartet style. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution states: Section 1 Section 2 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ... For other persons named Richard Wright, see Richard Wright (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


After the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and 9th 1945, many people the world over feared Nuclear warfare, and many protest songs were written against this new danger to planet. The most immediately successful of these post-war anti-nuclear protest songs was Vern Partlow's "Old Man Atom" (1945) (also known by the alternate titles "Atomic Talking Blues" and "Talking Atom"). The song treats its subject in comic-serious fashion, with a combination of black humour puns (such as "We hold these truths to be self-evident/All men may be cremated equal" or "I don't mean the Adam that Mother Eve mated/I mean that thing that science liberated") on serious statements on the choices to be made in the nuclear age ("The people of the world must pick out a thesis/"Peace in the world, or the world in pieces!""). Folk singer Sam Hinton recorded "Old Man Atom" in 1950 for ABC Eagle, a small California independent label. Influential New York disc jockey Martin Block played Hinton's record on his 'Make Believe Ballroom.' Overwhelming listener response prompted Columbia Records to acquire the rights for national distribution. From all indications, it promised to be one of the year's biggest novelty records. RCA Victor rush-released a cover version by the Sons of the Pioneers. Country singer Ozzie Waters recorded the song for Decca's Coral subsidiary. Fred Hellerman - then contracted to Decca as a member of the Weavers - recorded it for Jubilee under the pseudonym 'Bob Hill.' Bing Crosby was reportedly ready to record "Old Man Atom" for Decca when right-wing organizations began attacking Columbia and RCA Victor for releasing a song that reflected a Communist ideology. According to a New York Times report on September 1, 1950. The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... Sam Hinton (born 1917) is an American folk singer and marine biologist. ... Martin Block (1901-1967) was the first radio disc jockey to become a star in his own right. ... Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... The Sons of the Pioneers was a cowboy singing group founded in 1933 by Leonard Slye (better known by his later screen name Roy Rogers), with Tim Spencer and Bob Nolan. ... Harry Lillis “Bing” Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American popular singer and Academy Award-winning actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ...

Those who protested against the song's issuance on records insisted that it parroted the Communist line on peace and reflected the propaganda for the Stockholm 'peace petition.' Mr. Partlow said yesterday, according to an Associated Press dispatch from Los Angeles, that his song was 'not part of the Stockholm or any other so-called peace offensive.' He added, 'It was written five years ago long before any of these peace offensives.'[19]

Buckling under pressure, both Columbia and RCA Victor withdrew "Old Man Atom" from distribution.


Other anti-nuclear protest songs of the period include "Atom and Evil" (1946) by Golden Gate Quartet ("if Atom and Evil should ever be wed/Lord, then darn if all of us are going to be dead") [20] and "Atomic Sermon" (1953) by Billy Hughes and his Rhythm Buckeroos [21] The Golden Gate Quartet is the most successful of all of the African-American gospel music groups who sang in the jubilee quartet style. ...


1960s; the Civil Rights Movement, The Vietnam War, and Peace and Revolution

Civil Rights March on Washington, leaders marching from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, August 28, 1963.
Bob Dylan with Joan Baez during the Civil Rights March in Washington, D.C., 1963

The 1960s was a fertile era for the genre, especially with the rise of the Civil Rights movement, the ascendency of counterculture groups such as Hippies and the New Left, and the escalation of the War in Vietnam. The protest songs of the period differed from those of earlier leftist movements; which had been more oriented towards labor activism; adopting instead a broader definition of political activism commonly called social activism, which incorporated notions of equal rights and of promoting the concept of 'peace'. The music often included relatively simple instrumental accompaniment including acoustic guitar and harmonica. Image File history File links 1963_march_on_washington. ... Image File history File links 1963_march_on_washington. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the monument in Washington, D.C. For other monuments dedicated to George Washington, see Washington Monuments (world). ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Entertainment: closeup view of vocalists Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, 08/28/1963 Source: NARA - ARC Identifier: 542021 File links The following pages link to this file: Joan Baez ... Image File history File links Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Entertainment: closeup view of vocalists Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, 08/28/1963 Source: NARA - ARC Identifier: 542021 File links The following pages link to this file: Joan Baez ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... For the Roy Harper album Counter Culture, see Counter Culture. ... Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ... The New Left were the left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that, unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism, instead adopted a broader definition of political activism commonly called social activism. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Social activists are people who act as the conscience and voice of many individuals within a society. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A harmonica is a free reed wind instrument. ...


One of the key figures of the 1960s protest movement was Bob Dylan, who produced a number of landmark protest songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" (1962), "Masters of War" (1963), "Talking World War III Blues" (1963), and "The Times They Are A-Changin'" (1964). While Dylan is often thought of as a 'protest singer', most of his protest songs spring from a relatively short time-period in his career; Mike Marqusee writes: This article is about the recording artist. ... Blowin in the Wind is a song written by Bob Dylan, and released on his 1963 album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... Masters of War is a song by Bob Dylan, written in 1963 and released on the album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... Talking World War III Blues is a song by Bob Dylan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The protest songs that made Dylan famous and with which he continues to be associated were written in a brief period of some 20 months – from January 1962 to November 1963. Influenced by American radical traditions (the Wobblies, the Popular Front of the thirties and forties, the Beat anarchists of the fifties) and above all by the political ferment touched off among young people by the civil rights and ban the bomb movements, he engaged in his songs with the terror of the nuclear arms race, with poverty, racism and prison, jingoism and war.[22]

Dylan often sang against injustice, such as the murder of African American civil rights activist Medgar Evers in ‘Only A Pawn In their Game’ (1964), or the killing of the 51-year-old African American barmaid Hattie Carroll by the wealthy young tobacco farmer from Charles County, William Devereux "Billy" Zantzinger in 'The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll" (1964) (Zantzinger was only sentenced to six months in a county jail for the murder). Many of the injustices about which Dylan sang were not even based on race or civil rights issues, but rather everyday injustices and tragedies, such as the death of boxer Davey Moore in the ring ("Who Killed Davey Moore?" (1964)[23] ), or the breakdown of farming and mining communities ("Ballad of Hollis Brown" (1963), "North Country Blues" (1963)). By 1963, Dylan and then-singing partner Joan Baez had become prominent in the civil rights movement, singing together at rallies including the March on Washington where Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous "I have a dream" speech.[24], however Dylan is reported to have said: "“Think they’re listening?” Dylan asked, glancing towards the Capitol. “No, they ain’t listening at all.” [25] Many of Dylan's songs of the period were to be adapted and appropriated by the 60s Civil Rights and counter-culture 'movements' rather than being specifically written for them, and by 1964 Dylan was attempting to extract himself from the movement, much to the chagrin of many of those who saw him as a voice of a generation. Indeed, many of Dylan's songs have been retrospectively aligned with issues which they in fact pre-date; while "Masters of War" (1963) clearly protests against governments who orchestrate war, it is often misconstrued as dealing directly with the Vietnam War. However the song was written at the beginning of 1963, when only a few hundred Green Berets were stationed in South Vietnam. The song only came to be re-appropriated as a comment on Vietnam in 1965, when US planes bombed North Vietnam for the first time, with lines such as “you that build the death planes” seeming particularly prophetic (in fact, unlike many of his contemporary 'protest singers', Dylan never mentioned Vietnam by name in any of his songs). Dylan is quoted as saying that the song "is supposed to be a pacifistic song against war. It's not an anti-war song. It's speaking against what Eisenhower was calling a military-industrial complex as he was making his exit from the presidency. That spirit was in the air, and I picked it up."[26] Similarly ‘A Hard Rain’s A-Gonna Fall’ (1963) is often perceived to deal with the Cuban missile crisis, however Dylan performed the song more than a month before John F. Kennedy's TV address to the nation (October 22, 1962) initiated the Cuban missile crisis. After this brief, but extremely fruitful, 20 month period of 'protest songs', Dylan decided to extract himself from the movement, changing his musical style from folk to a more rock-orientated sound, and writing increasingly abstract lyrics, which had more in common with poetry and biblical references than social injustices. As he explained to critic Nat Hentoff in mid-1964: “Me, I don’t want to write for people anymore - you know, be a spokesman. From now on, I want to write from inside me …I’m not part of no movement… I just can’t make it with any organisation…”.[22] His next acknowledged 'protest song' would be "The Hurricane", written twelve years later in 1976. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist from Mississippi. ... Only a Pawn in their Game is a song written by Bob Dylan about the assassins of civil rights activist Medgar Evers. ... The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll is the title of a topical song by Bob Dylan. ... The name Davey Moore will probably forever be linked to fame, fortune and death in the sport of boxing. ... North Country Blues is the fifth track on Bob Dylans The Times They Are A-Changin. Its apparently simple format ( 10 verses of ABCB rhyming scheme) and subject-matter (the run down of a mining community) appears influenced by Woody Guthrie. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Masters of War is a song by Bob Dylan, written in 1963 and released on the album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Hurricane is a protest song by Bob Dylan about the imprisonment of Rubin Hurricane Carter. ...


Pete Seeger, formerly of the Almanac Singers and The Weavers, was a major influence on Dylan and his contemporaries, and continued to be a strong voice of protest in the 1960s, when he produced "Where Have All the Flowers Gone", and "Turn, Turn, Turn" (written during the 1950s but released on Seeger's 1962 album The Bitter and The Sweet). Seeger's song "If I Had a Hammer" had been written in 1949 in support of the progressive movement, but rose to Top Ten popularity in 1962 when covered by Peter, Paul and Mary), going on to become one of the major Civil Rights anthems of the American Civil Rights movement. "We Shall Overcome", Seeger's adaptation of an American gospel song, continues to be used to support issues from labor rights to peace movements. Seeger was one of the leading singers to protest against then-President Lyndon Johnson through song. Seeger first satirically attacked the president with his 1966 recording of Len Chandler's children's song, "Beans in My Ears". In addition to Chandler's original lyrics, Seeger sang that "Mrs. Jay's little son Alby" had "beans in his ears", which, as the lyrics imply,[27] ensures that a person does not hear what is said to them. To those opposed to continuing the Vietnam War the phrase suggested that "Alby Jay", a loose pronunciation of Johnson's nickname "LBJ", did not listen to anti-war protests as he too had "beans in his ears". Seeger attracted wider attention in 1967 with his song "Waist Deep in the Big Muddy", about a captain — referred to in the lyrics as "the big fool" — who drowned while leading a platoon on maneuvers in Louisiana during World War II. In the face of arguments with the management of CBS about whether the song's political weight was in keeping with the usually light-hearted entertainment of the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, the final lines were "Every time I read the paper/those old feelings come on/We are waist deep in the Big Muddy and the big fool says to push on." And it was not seriously contested[citation needed] that much of the audience would grasp Seeger's allegorical casting of Johnson as the "big fool" and the Vietnam War the foreseeable danger. Although the performance was cut from the September 1967 show, after wide publicity,[28] it was broadcast when Seeger appeared again on the Smothers' Brothers show in the following January. Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), better known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival. ... The Almanac Singers were a group of folk musicians who achieved brief popularity in the early 1940s. ... The Weavers were an immensely popular and influential folk music quartet from Greenwich Village, New York, United States. ... Where Have All the Flowers Gone? is a folk song of the 1960s written by Pete Seeger and Joe Henderson. ... Turn, Turn, Turn is a song written by Pete Seeger and popularized circa 1965 in a 45 rpm single by The Byrds(It was also the title and first track of their second LP). ... If I Had a Hammer is a song written by Pete Seeger and Lee Hays. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... The trio Peter, Paul and Mary (often PP&M) is a musical group from the United States; they were one of the most successful folk-singing groups of the 1960s. ... Civil Rights anthems is a relational concept to protest song, but one that is specifically linked to the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... We Shall Overcome is a protest song that became a key anthem of the US civil rights movement. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... An Australian anti-conscription poster from World War One A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Len Chandler (b. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Deep in the Big Muddy. ... Please see Captain (military) for other versions of this rank Captain is a rank in the United States armed forces that ranks between a First Lieutenant and Major (O-3 in the United States Army, U.S. Air Force, and United States Marines), or a rank between a Commander and... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the broadcast network. ... The Smothers Brothers are an American musical-comedy team, formed by real-life brothers Tom and Dick Smothers. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Phil Ochs, one of the leading protest singers of the decade (or, as he preferred, a "topical singer"), performed at many political events, including anti-Vietnam War and civil rights rallies, student events, and organized labor events over the course of his career, in addition to many concert appearances at such venues as New York City's The Town Hall and Carnegie Hall. Politically, Ochs described himself as a "left social democrat" who turned into an "early revolutionary" after the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, which had a profound effect on his state of mind.[29] Ochs summarised protest songs thus: "A protest song is a song that's so specific that you cannot mistake it for bullshit" [30] Some of his best known protest songs include "Power and the Glory", "Draft Dodger Rag", "There But for Fortune", "Changes", "Crucifixion, "When I'm Gone", "Love Me I'm a Liberal", "Links on the Chain", "Ringing of Revolution", and "I Ain't Marching Anymore".Other notable voices of protest from the period included Joan Baez, Buffy Sainte-Marie (whose anti-war song "Universal Soldier" was later made famous by Donovan), and Tom Paxton ("Jimmy Newman" - about the story of a dying soldier, and "My Son John" - about a soldier who returns from war unable to describe what he's been through), among others. The first protest song to reach number one in the United States was P.F. Sloan's Eve of Destruction, performed by Barry McGuire in 1965.[31]. Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940–April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... A topical song is a song that comments on current political and social events. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States and had spread to the United Kingdom by May of 1965 [1]. By the end of 1968, as U.S. troop casualties mounted and the... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... The Town Hall is a performance space located at 123 West 43rd Street, between Sixth Avenue and Broadway, in New York City, New York. ... Carnegie Hall (generally pronounced )[3] is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east stretch of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... I Aint Marching Anymore was Phil Ochs second long player, released on Elektra Records in 1965. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... 7 Buffy Sainte-Marie Buffy Sainte-Marie (born February 20, 1941) is a Canadian First Nations musician, composer, visual artist, educator and social activist. ... The 1960s anti-war song Universal Soldier was performed by Buffy Sainte-Marie. ... For other uses, see Donovan (disambiguation). ... Thomas R. Paxton was born October 31, 1937 in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest child of Burton and Esther Paxton. ... P.F. Sloan is an American pop-rock singer and songwriter, born Philip Schlein in New York City in 1945. ... Eve of Destruction is a protest song written by P.F. Sloan in 1965. ... Barry McGuire (born on 15 October 1935) is an American singer-songwriter. ...


The American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s often used Negro spirituals as a source of protest, changing the religious lyrics to suit the political mood of the time. The use of religious music helped to emphasize the peaceful nature of the protest; it also proved easy to adapt, with many improvised call-and-response songs being created during marches and sit-ins. Some imprisoned protesters used their incarceration as an opportunity to write protest songs. These songs were carried across the country by Freedom Riders,[32] and many of these became Civil Rights anthems. Many soul singers of the period, such as Sam Cooke ("A Change Is Gonna Come" (1965)), Otis Redding and Aretha Franklin ("Respect"), James Brown ("Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud"[1968]; "I Don’t Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing (Open Up the Door, I’ll Get It Myself) ” [1969]) and Nina Simone ("Mississippi Goddam" (1964), "To Be Young, Gifted and Black" (1970)) wrote and performed many protest songs which addressed the ever-increasing demand for equal rights for African Americans during the American civil rights movement. The predominantly white music scene of the time also produced a number of songs protesting racial discrimination, including Janis Ian's "Society's Child (Baby I've Been Thinking), (1966)" about an interracial romance forbidden by a girl's mother and frowned upon by her peers and teachers and a culture that classifies citizens by race.[33] Steve Reich's 13-minute long "Come Out" (1966), which consists of manipulated recordings of a single spoken line given by an injured survivor of the Harlem Race Riots of 1964, protested police brutality against African Americans. The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... A spiritual is a African-American song, usually with a religious text. ... Call and response is a form of spontaneous verbal and non-verbal interaction between speaker and listener in which all of the statements (calls) are punctuated by expressions (responses) from the listener, as stated by Smitherman. ... The Freedom Rides were a series of nonviolent, direct demonstrations performed in 1961 as part of the U.S. civil rights movement. ... Civil Rights anthems is a relational concept to protest song, but one that is specifically linked to the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Change Is Gonna Come is a 1965 single by R&B singer-songwriter Sam Cooke, written and first recorded in 1963 and released under the RCA Victor label a month after his late 1964 death. ... Otis Ray Redding, Jr. ... Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... Respect It also could be applied to taking care of oneself, others or the environment. ... For other persons named James Brown, see James Brown (disambiguation). ... Say It Loud - Im Black and Im Proud is a 1968 recording by James Brown. ... Eunice Kathleen Waymon, better known by her stage name Nina Simone (IPA: ninɐ sÊŒmÉžnÉ‘) (February 21, 1933 – April 21, 2003), was a fifteen-time Grammy Award-nominated American singer, songwriter, pianist, arranger and civil rights activist. ... Mississippi Goddam is a song written and performed by United States singer and pianist Nina Simone. ... To Be Young, Gifted and Black is a song by Nina Simone with lyrics by Weldon Irvine. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... Janis Ian (born April 7, 1951[1]) is a Grammy Award-winning American songwriter, singer, multi-instrumental musician, columnist, and science fiction author. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ...


In the 1960s and early 1970s many protest songs were written and recorded condemning the War in Vietnam, most notably "Simple Song of Freedom" by Bobby Darin, "The War Drags On" by Donovan (1965),"I Ain't Marching Anymore" by Phil Ochs (1965), "Lyndon Johnson Told The Nation" by Tom Paxton (1965), "Bring Them Home" by Pete Seeger (1966), "Requiem for the Masses" by The Association (1967), "Saigon Bride" by Joan Baez (1967), "Waist Deep in the Big Muddy" by Pete Seeger (1967), "Suppose They Give a War and No One Comes" by The West Coast Pop Art Experimental Band(1967), "The "Fish" Cheer / I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-To-Die Rag" by Country Joe and the Fish (1968)[34] "One Tin Soldier" by Original Caste (1969), "Volunteers" by Jefferson Airplane (1969), and "Fortunate Son" by Creedence Clearwater Revival (1969). Woody Guthrie's son Arlo Guthrie also wrote one of the decade's most famous protest songs in the form of the 18 minute long talking blues song "Alice's Restaurant Massacree", a bitingly satirical protest against the Vietnam War draft. As an extension of these concerns, artists started to protest the ever-increasing escalation of Nuclear weapons and threat of Nuclear warfare; as for example on Tom Lehrer's ""So Long, Mom (A Song for World War III)", "Who's Next?" (about Nuclear proliferation) and "Wernher von Braun"[35] from his 1965 collection of political satire songs That Was the Year That Was. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Vietnam War was a war fought between 1957 and 1975 on the ground in South Vietnam and bordering areas of Cambodia and Laos (See Secret War) and in bombing runs (Rolling Thunder) over North Vietnam. ... Bobby Darin (born Walden Robert Bobby Cassotto, May 14, 1936 – December 20, 1973) was one of the most popular American big band performers and rock and roll teen idols of the late 1950s. ... For other uses, see Donovan (disambiguation). ... I Aint Marching Anymore was Phil Ochs second long player, released on Elektra Records in 1965. ... Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940–April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... Thomas R. Paxton was born October 31, 1937 in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest child of Burton and Esther Paxton. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), better known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival. ... Cover from 1966s And Then. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Deep in the Big Muddy. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), better known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival. ... The West Coast Pop Art Experimental Band was an American psychedelic rock band of the late 1960s, based in Los Angeles, California. ... The Fish Cheer / I-Feel-Like-Im-Fixin-To-Die Rag is a popular protest song from the band Country Joe and the Fish from their 1967 album of the same name. ... Country Joe and the Fish, from the cover of Feel Like Im Fixin to Die Country Joe and the Fish was a rock music/folk music band known for musical protests against the Vietnam War, from 1965 to 1970. ... One Tin Soldier is a ‘60s era anti-war song written by Dennis Lambert and Brian Potter. ... Original Caste was a Canadian rock band. ... Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the psychedelic rock movement. ... Fortunate Son is an episode of Star Trek: Enterprise Fortunate Son is a song originally performed by Creedence Clearwater Revival on their Album Willy and the Poor Boys Fortunate Son was a Pulitzer Prize-winning autobiography by Lewis Puller Fortunate Son was a controversial biography of George W. Bush by... Creedence Clearwater Revival (CCR) was an American roots rock band who gained popularity in the late 1960s and early 70s with a string of successful songs from multiple albums released in 1968, 1969 and 1970. ... Woodrow Wilson Woody Guthrie (July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American songwriter and folk musician. ... Arlo Davy Guthrie (born July 10, 1947) is an American folk singer. ... The former church where Alice and Ray lived and where the story begins; the restaurant itself is roughly six miles north in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States and had spread to the United Kingdom by May of 1965 [1]. By the end of 1968, as U.S. troop casualties mounted and the... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... Thomas Andrew Tom Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... That Was The Year That Was (1965) is an album made up of a collection of songs performed by Tom Lehrer for the NBC version of the BBC series That Was The Week That Was. ...


The 1960s also saw a number of successful protest songs from the opposite end of the spectrum; the political right which supported the war. Perhaps the most successful and famous of these was "Ballad of the Green Berets" (1966) by Barry Sadler, which was one of the very few songs of the era to cast the military in a positive light and yet become a major hit. Merle Haggard & the Strangers' “Okie from Muskogee” (1969), despite being strongly patriotic, was listed in PopMatters' July 2007 list of the top 65 protest songs because it is, as the webzine puts it, Ballad of the Green Berets is a patriotic song in the ballad style about the Green Berets, an elite special force in the U.S. Army. ... Ballad of the Green Berets LP Barry Sadler (November 1, 1940 – September 8, 1989) was an American author and musician. ... Merle Ronald Haggard (born April 6, 1937) is an American country music singer, guitarist and songwriter. ... Okie from Muskogee is an American country music song performed by its co-writer, Merle Haggard. ... PopMatters is an international magazine of cultural criticism. ... A Webzine is an ezine hosted on the World Wide Web rather than in print. ...

in fact a protest against changing social mores, alternative lifestyles, and, well, protests[...] In a time when protest songs filled the airwaves, it is ironic that Haggard scored his biggest hit protesting the rise of a discontented culture.[33]

1970s; The Vietnam War, Soul Music

Edwin Starr, writer of 1970's protest songs "War" and "Stop the War"

The Kent State shootings of May 4 1970 amplified sentiment against the United States' invasion of Cambodia and the Vietnam War in general, and protest songs about The Vietnam War continued to grow in popularity and frequency. Anti-war songs such as Chicago's "It Better End Soon" (1970), "War" (1970) by Edwin Starr, "Ohio" (1970) by Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young (about the May 4th Kent State shootings), and "Imagine" (1971) by John Lennon captured the spirit of the time. Another great influence on the anti-Vietnam war protest songs of the early seventies was the fact that this was the first generation where combat veterans were returning prior to the end of the war, and that even the veterans were protesting the war, as with the formation of the 'Vietnam Veterans Against the War' (VVAW). Graham Nash wrote his "Oh! Camil (The Winter Soldier)" (1973) to tell the story of one member of VVAW, Scott Camil. Other notable anti-war songs of the time included "Peace Train" by Cat Stevens (1971), "War Pigs" by Black Sabbath (1971), and Stevie Wonder's frank condemnation of Richard Nixon 's Vietnam policies in his 1974 song "You Haven't Done Nothin'." Protest singer and activist Joan Baez dedicated the entire B side of her album Where Are You Now, My Son? (1973) to recordings she had made of bombings while in Hanoi. Edwin Starr (January 21, 1942 – April 3, 2003) was a soul music singer. ... War is a soul song written by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong for the Motown label in 1969. ... The Kent State shootings, also known as the May 4 massacre or Kent State massacre,[2][3][4] occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of students by members of the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. ... The Vietnam War was a war fought between 1957 and 1975 on the ground in South Vietnam and bordering areas of Cambodia and Laos (See Secret War) and in bombing runs (Rolling Thunder) over North Vietnam. ... This article is about the American pop-rock-jazz band. ... War is a soul song written by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong for the Motown label in 1969. ... Edwin Starr (January 21, 1942 – April 3, 2003) was a soul music singer. ... Ohio is a protest song performed by Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, and written by Neil Young in reaction to the Kent State shootings of May 4, 1970. ... Crosby, Stills & Nash, also Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young when including occasional fourth member Neil Young, are a folk rock/rock supergroup. ... Imagine is a utopian-themed song performed by John Lennon, which appears on his 1971 album, Imagine. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ... Graham Nash on cover of his recording, Wild Tales, 1973 Graham William Nash (born February 2, 1942) is an English-born singer-songwriter known for his light tenor vocals and songwriting contributions in pop group The Hollies and folk-rock band Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, and as a photography collector... Peace Train is Track 10 on Cat Stevens album Teaser and the Firecat. ... Yusuf Islam[1], formerly known by his stage name Cat Stevens (born Steven Demetre Georgiou on 21 July 1948 in London, UK), is an English musician, singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, educator, philanthropist and prominent convert to Islam. ... War Pigs is an anti-war song by British heavy metal band Black Sabbath from their 1970 album, Paranoid. ... For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris)[1] is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and record producer. ... Nixon redirects here. ... You Havent Done Nothin is a 1974 funk single by Motown legend Stevie Wonder featuring background vocals from The Jackson 5 and featured on the album Fulfillingness First Finale. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Where Are You Now, My Son? was an album Joan Baez released in early 1973. ... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ...


While war continued to dominate the protest songs of the early 70s, there were other issues addressed by bands of the time, such as Helen Reddy's feminist hit "I Am Woman" (1972), which became an anthem for the women’s liberation movement. Bob Dylan also made a brief return to protest music after some twelve years with "Hurricane" (1976), which protested the imprisonment of Rubin "Hurricane" Carter as a result of alleged acts of racism and profiling against Carter, which Dylan describes as leading to a false trial and conviction. 2003 Greatest Hits compilation Helen Reddy (born October 25, 1941 in Melbourne, Australia) is an Australian pop singer and actor. ... I Am Woman is a song cowritten by Helen Reddy and singer/songwriter/guitarist Ray Burton and performed by Reddy. ... Feminists redirects here. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Hurricane is a protest song by Bob Dylan about the imprisonment of Rubin Hurricane Carter. ... Rubin Hurricane Carter (born May 6, 1937), middleweight boxer from 1961 - 1966, is better known for his controversial convictions (1967, 1976) for the murder of three people at the Lafayette Grill in June, 1966, and his subsequent release from prison (1985). ...


Soul music carried over into the early part of the 70s, in many ways taking over from folk music as one of the strongest voices of protest in American music, the most important of which being Marvin Gaye's seminal 1971 protest album "What's Going On", which included "Inner City Blues", "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)", and the title track. Another hugely influential protest album of the time was poet and musician Gil Scott-Heron's "Small Talk at 125th and Lenox", which contained the oft-referenced protest song "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised". The album's 15 tracks dealt with myriad themes, protesting the superficiality of television and mass consumerism, the hypocrisy of some would-be Black revolutionaries, white middle-class ignorance of the difficulties faced by inner-city residents, and fear of homosexuals. Marvin Gaye (born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr. ... For other uses, see Whats Going On (disambiguation). ... Winbush in the Inner City Blues music video Inner City Blues was the final and second single from Angela Winbushs third album, Angela Winbush. ... Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology) was the second single off Marvin Gayes legendary 1971 album, Whats Going On. ... Whats Going On is a song written by Renaldo Obie Benson, Al Cleveland, and Marvin Gaye. ... Photo of Gil Scott-Heron. ... For other uses, see The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (disambiguation). ...


1980s; Anti-Reagan protest songs, and The Birth of Rap

The Reagan administration was also coming in for its fair share of criticism, with many mainstream protest songs attacking his policies, such as Bruce Springsteen's "Born in the U.S.A." (1984), and "Bonzo goes to Bitberg" by The Ramones. This sentiment was countered by songs like "God Bless The USA" by Lee Greenwood which was seen by many as a protest against protests against the Reagan Administration. Billy Joel's "Allentown" protested the development of the rust belt, and represented those coping with the demise of the American manufacturing industry. Reagan came under significant criticism for the Iran-Contra Affair, in which it was discovered that his administration was selling arms to the radical Islamic regime in Iran and using proceeds from the sales to illegally fund the Contras, a guerrilla/terrorist group in Nicaragua. A number of songs were written in protest of this scandal. "All She Wants to Do Is Dance," (1984) by Don Henley, protested against the U.S. involvement with the Contras in Nicaragua, while chastising Americans for only wanting to dance, while molotov cocktails, and sales of guns and drugs are going on around them, and while "the boys" (the CIA, NSA, etc.) are "makin' a buck or two".[36] Other songs to protest America's role in the Iran-Contra affair include "The Big Stick," by Minutemen, "Nicaragua," by Bruce Cockburn, and "Please Forgive Us," by 10,000 Maniacs. Springsteen redirects here. ... Born in the U.S.A. is a 1984 song written and performed by Bruce Springsteen. ... The Ramones (L-R, Johnny, Tommy, Joey, Dee Dee) on the cover of their debut self-titled album (1976), cementing their place at the dawn of the punk movement. ... Lee Greenwood (born October 27, 1942 in South Gate, California) is an American country pop singer and songwriter. ... William Joseph Martin Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ... This article is about the song by Billy Joel. ... Manufacturing Belt, highlighted in red The Rust Belt, a term coined from Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States of America. ... The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration. ... For other uses, see Contra. ... All She Wants To Do Is Dance is a 1984 rock song. ... Donald Hugh Don Henley (born July 22, 1947 in Gilmer, Texas) is an American rock musician who is the drummer and one of the lead singers and songwriters of the band Eagles. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... For other uses, see Minutemen (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 10,000 Maniacs is a United States-based alternative rock band, formed in 1981 and active with various line-ups since that time. ...


The 1980s also saw the rise of rap and hip-hop, and with it bands such as Grandmaster Flash ("The Message [1982]"), Boogie Down Productions ("Stop the Violence" [1988]),"N.W.A ("Fuck tha Police" [1988]) and Public Enemy ("Fight the Power" [1989], "911 (Is a Joke)" etc.) who vehemently protested the discrimination and poverty which the black community faced in America, in particular focusing on police discrimination. In 1988 The Stop the Violence Movement was formed by rapper KRS-One in response to violence in the hip hop and black communities. Comprised of some of the biggest stars in contemporary East Coast hip hop (including Public Enemy), the movement released a single, "Self Destruction", in 1989, with all proceeds going to the National Urban League. Joseph Biggie Grand Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... For Nas song, see The Message (Nas song). ... Boogie Down Productions (1989) Boogie Down Productions was originally composed of KRS One, D Nice, and DJ Scott La Rock. ... This article is about the hip-hop group. ... This article is about the N.W.A. song. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... For the Isley Brothers song, see Fight the Power, Pt. ... The Stop the Violence Movement was formed by rapper KRS-One. ... KRS-One (born Lawrence Krisna Parker on August 20, 1965 in Brooklyn, New York. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ...

 Music Sample:

"People Have the Power"

Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Punk music continued to be a strong voice of protest in the 1980s, however it had for the most part, developed a heavier and more aggressive sound, as typified by Black Flag (whose debut album Damaged (1981) was described by the BBC as "essentially an album of electric protest songs[..., which] takes a swing at the insularities and shortcomings of the ‘me’ generation."[37]), Dead Kennedys (whose sweeping criticism of America, "Stars and Stripes of Corruption" (1985), contains the lyric "Rednecks and bombs don't make us strong/ We loot the world, yet we can't even feed ourselves"), and Bad Religion; a tradition carried on in the following decades by punk revivalists like Anti-Flag and Rise Against. Of the few remaining old-school punks still recording in the late 80s, the most notable protest song is Patti Smith's 1988 recording "People Have the Power." Dream of Life was the first album by Patti Smith after the dissolution the Patti Smith Group, released in 1988 (see 1988 in music). ... For the lead singer of the band Scandal, see Patty Smyth. ... Black Flag was a hardcore punk band formed in 1976 in southern California, largely as the brainchild of Greg Ginn: the guitarist, primary songwriter and sole continuous member through multiple personnel changes. ... This page is about the Black Flag album. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Dead Kennedys are a hardcore punk band from San Francisco, California. ... Bad Religion is a seminal American punk rock band, formed in Southern California in 1980 by Jay Bentley (bass), Greg Graffin (vocals), Brett Gurewitz (guitars) and Jay Ziskrout (drums). ... Anti-Flag is a political punk band from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America consisting of four members: Justin Sane (lead guitar, lead vocals), Chris #2 (bass, vocals), Chris Head (rhythm guitar, backing vocals), and Pat Thetic (drums). ... Rise Against is a American Hardcore punk band from Chicago, Illinois that was formed in 1999. ... For the lead singer of the band Scandal, see Patty Smyth. ...


1990s; Hard-Rock Protest Bands, Women's Rights, and Protest Parodies

In 1990, singer Melba Moore released a modern rendition of the 1900 song "Lift Every Voice and Sing" - which had long been considered "The Negro National Anthem" and one of the 20th Centry's most powerful civil rights anthems - which she recorded along with others including R&B artists Anita Baker, Stephanie Mills, Dionne Warwick, Bobby Brown, Stevie Wonder, Jeffrey Osborne, and Howard Hewett; and gospel artists BeBe and CeCe Winans, Take 6, and The Clark Sisters. Partly because of the success of this recording, Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing was entered into the Congressional Record as the official African American National Hymn. Melba Moore (born Melba Hill, 29 October 1945, in New York City) is an American R&B singer and actress. ... African American flag Lift Evry Voice and Sing — often called the Black National Anthem — was written as a poem by James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) and then set to music by his brother John Rosamond Johnson (1873-1954) in 1899. ... Anita Baker (born January 26, 1958) is a eight-time Grammy Award-winning, multi-Platinum rhythm and blues and soul singer and songwriter, renowned for her soaring alto vocal range. ... Stephanie Mills (born March 22, 1957 in Harlem, New York) is an African American R&B and soul singer and former Broadway star. ... Marie Dionne Warrick (born December 12, 1940), known professionally as Dionne Warwick, is an acclaimed five-time Grammy Award-winning African American singer best known for her work with Hal David and Burt Bacharach as songwriters and producers. ... This article is about the R&B singer. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris)[1] is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and record producer. ... Jeffrey Osborne (born March 9, 1948 in Providence, Rhode Island) is an American funk and R&B musician, and former lead singer of the band L.T.D. Osborne is the youngest of 12 children and is part of a musical family. ... Howard Hewett (Born: October 1st, 1955 in Akron, Ohio) is the former lead vocalist of the R&B group, Shalamar, from 1979 to 1985. ... BeBe Winans (born Benjamin Winans, 17 September 1962, in Detroit, Michigan) is a Grammy Award winning gospel and R&B singer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Take 6 is an influential American a cappella gospel music sextet formed in 1985 on the campus of Oakwood College in Huntsville, Alabama. ... The Clark Sisters are an American gospel vocal group consisting of four sisters: Elbernita Twinkie Clark, Jacky Clark Chisholm, Dorinda Clark Cole, and Karen Clark Sheard. ... The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. ...

Rage Against the Machine, formed in 1991, has been one of the most popular 'social-commentary' bands of the last 20 years. A fusion of the musical styles and lyrical themes of punk, hip-hop, and thrash, Rage Against the Machine railed against corporate America ("No Shelter", "Bullet in the Head"), government oppression ("Killing in the Name"), and Imperialism ("Sleep Now in the Fire", "Bulls on Parade"). The band used its music as a vehicle for social activism, as lead singer Zack de la Rocha espoused: "Music has the power to cross borders, to break military sieges and to establish real dialogue".[38] Image File history File links RATM_-_Burningamp. ... Image File history File links RATM_-_Burningamp. ... Flag desecration is a term applied to various acts that intentionally deface a flag, most often a national flag (though other flags can be defaced as well). ... Union Jack. ... Woodstock 1999, held July 23-25, 1999 was the second music festival, after Woodstock 94, that attempted to emulate the success of the original Woodstock Festival of 1969. ... Rage Against the Machine, is an American rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1991. ... No Shelter is a song released by Rage Against the Machine in 1998. ... Tracklist Bullet In The Head [Album Version] Bullet In The Head [Remix] Bullet In The Head [Live-version] Settle For Nothing [Live-version] ... Killing in the Name was the first single released by Rage Against the Machine from their self-titled album, and is arguably the bands signature song. ... Sleep Now in the Fire is a rapcore song by Rage Against the Machine, released on their album The Battle of Los Angeles in 1999 and as a single in 2000. ... Bulls on Parade is a song released by Rage Against the Machine in 1996, and can be found on their second album Evil Empire. ... Social activists are people who act as the conscience and voice of many individuals within a society. ... Zacarías Manuel de la Rocha (born January 12, 1970 in Long Beach, California) is a rapper, musician, poet, and activist best known as the vocalist and lyricist of Rage Against the Machine. ...


The 90s also saw a huge movement of pro-women's rights protest songs from most musical genres. Ani DiFranco was at the forefront of this movement, protesting sexism, sexual abuse, homophobia, reproductive rights as well as racism, poverty, and war. Her "Lost Woman Song" (1990) concerns itself with the hot topic of abortion, and with DiFranco's assertion that a woman has a right to choose without being judged. Sonic Youth's "Swimsuit Issue" (1992) protested the way in which women are objectified and turned into a commodity by the media. The song, in which Kim Gordon lists off the names of every model featured in the 1992 Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, was selected as one of PopMatters' 65 greatest protest songs of all time with the praise that "Sonic Youth reminds us that protest songs don’t have to include acoustic guitars and twee harmonica melodies stuck in 1965. They don’t even have to be about war."[39] Ani DiFranco (IPA: ) (born Angela Maria Difranco on September 23, 1970) is a singer, guitarist, and songwriter. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Bad Touch redirects here. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... -1... Sonic Youth is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981. ... Gordon in 2005 Kim Althea Gordon (born April 28, 1953, in Rochester, New York), is a musician, vocalist, and artist. ... Veronica Varekova, Elle Macpherson, Rebecca Romijn, Rachel Hunter, Daniela Pestova, Elsa Benitez, Carolyn Murphy and Yamila Diaz, 2006; Heidi Klum and Maria Sharapova are in the insets. ... PopMatters is an international magazine of cultural criticism. ...


For the most part the 1990s signaled a decline in the popularity of protest songs in the mainstream media and public consciousness - even resulting in some parodies of the genre. The 1992 film Bob Roberts is an example of protest music parody, in which the title character - played by American actor Tim Robbins - is a guitar-playing U.S. Senatorial candidate who writes and performs songs with a heavily reactionary tone. Bob Roberts is a 1992 film written and directed by Tim Robbins. ... Timothy Francis Robbins (born October 16, 1958) is an Academy Award-winning American actor, screenwriter, director, producer, activist, and musician. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...


Twenty-first century

The Iraq War and the Revival of the Protest Song

Neil Young, pictured here on the CSNY "Freedom Of Speech Tour '06", has returned to the front of the protest music scene with his album Living With War

After the 90s the protest song found renewed popularity in the Western World after the turn of the century as a result of 9/11 in America, and the Afghanistan and Iraq wars in the Middle East, with America's president George W. Bush facing the majority of the criticism. Many famous protest singers of yesteryear, such as Neil Young, Patti Smith, Tom Waits, and Bruce Springsteen, have returned to the public eye with new protest songs for the new war. Young approached the theme with his song, "Let's Impeach the President" - a stinging rebuke against President George W. Bush and the War in Iraq - as well as Living With War, an album of anti-Bush and anti-War protest songs. Smith has written two new songs indicting American and Israeli foreign policy - "Qana", about the Israeli airstrike on the Lebanese village of Qana, and "Without Chains", about the U.S. detention center at Guantanamo Bay. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1904x3176, 4751 KB) Summary Picture Taken at Crosby Stills Nash and Young Concert Near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada July 8th 2006 by me Adrian M. Buss http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1904x3176, 4751 KB) Summary Picture Taken at Crosby Stills Nash and Young Concert Near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada July 8th 2006 by me Adrian M. Buss http://www. ... Living With War is Neil Youngs musical attack on the policies of the George W. Bush administration. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the musician. ... For the lead singer of the band Scandal, see Patty Smyth. ... Thomas Alan Waits (born December 7, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, composer, and actor. ... Springsteen redirects here. ... Lets Impeach the President is a protest song by Neil Young. ... Some have called for the impeachment of U.S. President George W. Bush. ... There have been three conflicts in the late 20th century and early 21st century called Gulf War, all of which refer to conflicts in the Persian Gulf region: Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) (aka First Gulf War). ... Living With War is Neil Youngs musical attack on the policies of the George W. Bush administration. ... For the lead singer of the band Scandal, see Patty Smyth. ... Qana Qana is a village located southeast of Tyre, Lebanon. ... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ...


R.E.M., who had been known for their politically charged material in the 1980s, also returned to increasingly political subject matter since the advent of the Iraq War. For example "Final Straw" (2003) is a politically-charged song, reminiscent in tone of "World Leader Pretend" on Green. The version on their Around the Sun album is a remix of the original , which was made available as a free download on March 25, 2003 from the band's website. The song was written as a protest of the U.S. government's actions in the Iraq War. REM or R.E.M. is an acronym for: Rapid Eye Movement, a phase during sleep U.S. rock music band R.E.M., formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 Roentgen equivalent man, a unit for measuring levels of exposure to radiation. ... Around the Sun is an album by R.E.M. released in 2004. ...


Tom Waits has also covered increasingly political subject matter since the advent of the Iraq war, with "Hoist That Rag" and "The Day After Tomorrow". In the latter Waits adopts the persona of a soldier writing home that he is disillusioned with war and is thankful to be leaving. The song does not mention the Iraq war specifically, and, as Tom Moon writes, "it could be the voice of a Civil War soldier singing a lonesome late-night dirge." Waits himself does describe the song as something of an "elliptical" protest song about the Iraqi invasion, however.[40] Thom Jurek describes "The Day After Tomorrow" as "one of the most insightful and understated anti-war songs to have been written in decades. It contains not a hint of banality or sentiment in its folksy articulation."[41] Waits' recent output has not only addressed the Iraqi war, as his "Road To Peace" deals explicitly with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Middle East in general. Thomas Alan Waits (born December 7, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, composer, and actor. ... Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ...


Bruce Springsteen has also been vocal in his condemnation of the Bush government, among other issues of social commentary. In 2000 he released "American Skin (41 Shots)" about tensions between immigrants in America and the police force, and of the police shooting of Amadou Diallo in particular. For singing about this event, albeit without mentioning Diallo's name, Springsteen was denounced by the Patrolmen's Benevolent Association in New York who called for the song to be blacklisted and by Mayor Rudolph Giuliani amongst others.[42] In the aftermath of 9/11 Springsteen released The Rising, which exhibited his reflections on the tragedy and America's reaction to it. In 2006 he released We Shall Overcome: The Seeger Sessions, a collection of 13 covers of protest songs made popular by Pete Seeger, which highlighted how these older protest songs remained relevant to the troubles of the modern America. An extended version of the album included the track "How Can a Poor Man Stand Such Times and Live?" in which Springsteen actually rewrote the lyrics of the original to directly address the issue of Hurricane Katrina. His 2007 long-player, Magic, continues Springsteen's tradition of protest song-writing, with a number of songs which continue to question and attack America's role in the Iraqi war. "Last to Die", with its chorus of "Who'll be the last to die for a mistake.... Whose blood will spill, whose heart will break," is believed to have been inspired by Senator-to-be John Kerry's 1971 testimony to the US Senate, in which he asked "How do you ask a man to be the last man to die in Vietnam? How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?"[43][44] "Gypsy Biker" deals with the homecoming of a US Soldier killed in action in Iraq, and Springsteen has said that "Livin' in the Future" references extraordinary rendition and illegal wiretapping.[44] "Long Walk Home" is an account of the narrator's sense that those people living at home "he thought he knew, whose ideals he had something in common with, are like strangers." The recurring lyric "it’s gonna be a long walk home" is a response to the violation of "certain things", such as "what we'll do and what we won't", in spite of these codes having been (in the words of the narrator's father) "set in stone" by the characters' "flag flyin' over the courthouse." Springsteen redirects here. ... American Skin (41 Shots) is a song written by Bruce Springsteen. ... Amadou Diallo Amadou Bailo Diallo (September 2, 1975 – February 4, 1999) was a 23-year-old immigrant to the United States from Guinea, who was shot and killed on February 4, 1999, by four New York City Police Department plain-clothed officers; Sean Carroll, Richard Murphy, Edward McMellon and Kenneth... Patrolmens Benevolent Association or PBA is the name of several labor unions representing police officers. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III, KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... The Rising is the 12th studio album by Bruce Springsteen, released in 2002. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), better known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band chronology Singles from Magic Released: August 28, 2007 Released: January 2008 Magic is the 15th studio album by Bruce Springsteen, released in 2007. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Long Walk Home will be the second single released from the 2007 Bruce Springsteen album Magic. ...


Contemporary Protest Songs

Conor Oberst, lead singer/songwriter of the band Bright Eyes, writer of the anti-Bush protest song "When the President Talks to God"

Modern-day mainstream artists to have written protest songs on this subject include Pink with her appeal to Bush in "Dear Mr. President" (2006), Bright Eyes with "When the President Talks to God" (2005) (which was hailed by the influential Portland, Oregon, alternative paper Willamette Week as "this young century's most powerful protest song."[45]), Dispatch's anti-war underground hit "The General", and Devendra Banhart's "Heard somebody Say" (2005) in which he sings "it's simple, we don't want to kill". In 2003 Lenny Kravitz recorded the protest song "We Want Peace" with Iraqi pop star Kadim Al Sahir, Palestinian strings musician Simon Shaheen and Lebanese percussionist Jamey Hadded. According to Kravitz the song "is about more than Iraq. It is about our role as people in the world and that we all should cherish freedom and peace." [46] The Decemberists, while not normally known for writing political songs, contributed to the genre in 2005 with their understated but scathing song "16 Military Wives," which singer Colin Meloy described thus: "It's kind of a protest song, [...] My objective is to make sense of foreign policy decisions taken by the current Bush administration and showing how they resemble solipsistic bullying." [47] Pearl Jam also included two anti-Bush songs ("World Wide Suicide", "Marker In The Sand") in their 2006 album Pearl Jam. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Conor Mullen Oberst (born February 15, 1980) is an American songwriter, singer and poet best known for his work in Bright Eyes. ... Bright Eyes is a band consisting of singer-songwriter/guitarist Conor Oberst, multi-instrumentalist/producer Mike Mogis, Nate Walcott, and a rotating lineup of collaborators drawn primarily from Omahas indie music scene. ... When the President Talks to God is a song written by Conor Oberst of the indie band Bright Eyes. ... Alecia Beth Moore (pronounced [1]) (born on September 8, 1979), known professionally as Pink (often stylized as ), is a two-time Grammy-winning American singer-songwriter who gained prominence in 2000. ... Dear Mr. ... Bright Eyes is a band consisting of singer-songwriter/guitarist Conor Oberst, multi-instrumentalist/producer Mike Mogis, Nate Walcott, and a rotating lineup of collaborators drawn primarily from Omahas indie music scene. ... When the President Talks to God is a song written by Conor Oberst of the indie band Bright Eyes. ... The Willamette Week is an alternative newsweekly published in Portland, Oregon. ... Dispatch was an American indie/roots folk band formed at Middlebury College in Middlebury, Vermont. ... Devendra Banhart was born May 30, 1981, in Houston, Texas, U.S. but was raised in Caracas, Venezuela from 2 to 13 years old. ... Leonard Albert Lenny Kravitz (born May 26, 1964) is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, and arranger whose retro style incorporates elements of rock, soul, funk, reggae, hard rock, psychedelic, folk, and ballads. ... Simon Shaheen (b. ... The Decemberists are a five-piece indie pop band from Portland, Oregon, fronted by singer/songwriter Colin Meloy . ... 16 Military Wives is a single released by The Decemberists from their third album, Picaresque. ... Colin Meloy in Atlanta, Georgia Colin Meloy in Brussels (2006) Colin Patrick Henry Meloy (born October 5, 1974) is the lead singer and songwriter for the Portland, Oregon, folk-rock band The Decemberists. ... George W. Bush with Vice President Dick Cheney addressing the media at the U.S. State Department after a series of meetings discussing Americas foreign policy, August 14, 2006. ... This article is about the rock group. ... World Wide Suicide is the first single by the grunge band Pearl Jam from their self-titled album, which will be released on May 2, 2006. ...


American avant-garde singer Bobby Conn wrote an album of anti-Bush songs with his 2001 collection The Homeland. Conn said of his art that "All the records that I've done are a critique of what's going on in contemporary America" [48], and he is an outspoken critic of the Bush regime. Conn has admitted that while he actively protests what he sees as the evils of American society, he is not always at ease with such a label for himself. "I’ve always done lots of social commentary that I believe in pretty strongly but I am very uncomfortable with the role of the artist as a meaningful social critic...my whole generation [is] a confused group of people with an ambivalent way of dealing with protest." [49] . Discussing his most recent album King For a Day (2007), Conn said "it's political, but just in a contemporary culture kind of way[...] Two of the songs are about Tom Cruise, and I don't know if there's a more political statement than Tom Cruise. He kind of symbolizes a lot of what's going on in this country right now and how people are responding to it." [50] Bobby Conn is a musician from Chicago, known for his pop-rock. ... The Homeland is an album by Chicago-based rocker Bobby Conn and his backing band, the Glass Gypsies released on January 20th 2004 on Thrill Jockey records. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ...


Bobb Conn on being a 'protest singer':

It’s great when Curtis Mayfield does it, but when Mick Jagger writes about being a street-fighting man, it just kind of makes you sick. Or the Beatles singing about revolution. They’re entertainers—it’s a pose, it’s bullshit. I’m more of a vaudevillian than I am a political commentator. I don’t think people should turn to music for their serious information. People should read the newspaper.[51]

Arcade Fire's 2007 Neon Bible contains many oblique protests against the paranoia of a contemporary America 'under attack by terrorism'. The album also contains two more overtly political protest songs in the form of "Windowsill", in which Win Butler sings "I don't want to live in America no more", and "Intervention", which contains the line "Don't want to fight, don't want to die", and criticizes religious fanaticism in general. However the protest album to achieve the most mainstream success in the first decade of the 21st century has been Green Day's "American Idiot, which was awarded a Grammy for "Best Rock Album" in 2005, despite its strong criticism of current American foreign policy and George Bush. The title track from the album has been described by the band as their public statement in reaction to the confusing and warped scene that is American pop culture since 9/11. Curtis Mayfield (June 3, 1942 – December 26, 1999) was an American soul, funk and R&B singer, songwriter and guitarist best known for his anthemic music with The Impressions and composing the soundtrack to the blaxploitation film Superfly. ... Sir Michael Phillip Mick Jagger (born July 26, 1943) is a English rock musician, actor, songwriter, record and film producer and businessman. ... Arcade Fire is an indie rock band based in Montreal, Quebec which is based around the husband and wife duo of Win Butler and Régine Chassagne. ... John Kennedy Tooles first novel, The Neon Bible, was written at the age of only 16. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Intervention is a song by Canadian indie rock band Arcade Fire. ... This article is about the band Green Day. ... Singles from American Idiot Released: 2004 Released: 2004 Released: 2005 Released: 2005 Released: 2005 This article is about Green Day album. ... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music... American Idiot track listing American Idiot (1) Jesus of Suburbia (2) American Idiot is a song by American Rock band Green Day, and is the first single from their seventh album, American Idiot. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ...


In particular, rapper Eminem has encountered controversy over protest songs directed towards George W. Bush. Songs such as Mosh, White America, and We As Americans have either targeted Bush or the U.S. government in general. Eminem, in fact, registered to vote for the first time in 2004, just for the sake of voting Bush out of office, which would ultimately prove unsuccessful. Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... A wall of news clippings in the first scene of Mosh Mosh is a song and video clip by the controversial rapper Eminem and Guerrilla News Network, released on October 26, 2004, just prior to the 2004 presidential election. ... White America is a song by the rapper Eminem released in 2002 on his album The Eminem Show. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. ...


Outside of pop music, folk, punk and country music continue to follow their strong traditions of protest. Utah Philips, and David Rovics, among many other singers have continued the folk tradition of protest. In John Mayer's 2006 release CONTINUUM, the lead single " Waiting on the World to Change", Mayer is critical of the desensitizing of politics in youths. He goes on to say in "Belief", "What puts a hundred thousand children in the sand? Belief can. What puts the folded flag inside his mother's hand? Belief can." Folk singer Dar Williams's song "Empire" from her 2005 album My Better Self accuses the Bush administration of building a new empire based on the fear of terror, as well as protesting the administration's policy on torture: "We'll kill the terrorizers and a million of their races, but when our people torture you that's a few random cases." Lucy Kaplansky, who has also performed protest songs with Dar Williams in their side project Cry Cry Cry, has written many songs of protest since 9/11, including her tribute to that day - "Land of the Living" - however her most recognised protest song to date is "Line in the Sand", which includes the line : "Another bomb lights up the night of someone's vision of paradise but it's just a wasted sacrifice that fuels the hate on the other side." Tracy Grammer's song "Hey ho", from her 2005 album Flower of Avalon addresses how children are taught from a young age to play at war as soldiers with plastic guns, perpetuating the war machine: "Wave the flag and watch the news, tell us we can count on you. Mom and dad are marching too; children, step in line." Bruce Utah Phillips (b. ... David Rovics sings at the A16 rally in Washington DC in early 2005. ... Dar Williams (full name Dorothy Snowden Williams, born 1967) is an American singer-songwriter specializing in what can be described as folk-pop. She frequents folk festivals across the nation, such as the Falcon Ridge Folk Festival in Hillsdale, New York. ... My Better Self is a Dar Williams album which was released on September 13, 2005 by Razor & Tie. ... Lucy Kaplansky (born February 2, 1960) is a New York City-based folk musician. ... Cry Cry Cry was a folk supergroup, consisting of Richard Shindell, Dar Williams, and Lucy Kaplansky. ... Tracy Grammer is an American folk singer best known for her work as half of the folk duo Dave Carter and Tracy Grammer. ...


Punk rock still is a formidable force and constitutes a majority of the protest songs written today. Artists such as Anti-Flag, Bad Religion, NOFX, Rise Against, Authority Zero, to name just a few, are noted for their political activism in denouncing the Bush administration and the policies of the American government in general. The political campaign Punkvoter, which started the project Rock Against Bush, was kicked off with a collection of punk rock songs critical of President Bush called "Rock Against Bush, Vol. 1", and a sequel was released in 2004. Representatives from the punk community such as Fat Mike of NOFX, Henry Rollins (formerly of Black Flag), and Jello Biafra of The Dead Kennedys are noted for their continuing political activism. Anti-Flag is a political punk band from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America consisting of four members: Justin Sane (lead guitar, lead vocals), Chris #2 (bass, vocals), Chris Head (rhythm guitar, backing vocals), and Pat Thetic (drums). ... Bad Religion is a seminal American punk rock band, formed in Southern California in 1980 by Jay Bentley (bass), Greg Graffin (vocals), Brett Gurewitz (guitars) and Jay Ziskrout (drums). ... NOFX is an American punk rock band formed in Los Angeles, California (now based in San Francisco), in 1983. ... Rise Against is a American Hardcore punk band from Chicago, Illinois that was formed in 1999. ... Authority Zero is a punk rock band from Mesa, Arizona. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rock Against Bush is a project mobilizing skate punk and pop punk musicians against the 2004 U.S. Presidential campaign of George W. Bush. ... Rock Against Bush, Vol. ... Rock Against Bush, Vol. ... For other persons named Michael Burkett, see Michael Burkett (disambiguation). ... NOFX is an American punk rock band formed in Los Angeles, California (now based in San Francisco), in 1983. ... Henry Rollins (born February 13, 1961 as Henry Lawrence Garfield) is an American singer and songwriter, spoken word artist, author, and actor. ... Black Flag was a hardcore punk band formed in 1976 in southern California, largely as the brainchild of Greg Ginn: the guitarist, primary songwriter and sole continuous member through multiple personnel changes. ... Eric Reed Boucher (born June 17, 1958) is more widely known by the stage name Jello Biafra. ... This page is about the band; see Kennedy family for the political dynasty, or The Kennedy Curse, which inspired the name Dead Kennedys The Dead Kennedys, from San Francisco, California are widely considered to be one of the greatest punk rock bands of all time. ...


While country music has offered the loudest voice in support of the war through artists such as Toby Keith's "Courtesy of the Red, White, & Blue (The Angry American)" (which Natalie Maines publicly criticized as "ignorant, and it makes country music sound ignorant."[52]), Darryl Worley's "Have You Forgotten" and Charlie Daniels, many established country artists have released strongly critical anti-war songs. These include Willie Nelson, Merle Haggard, Emmylou Harris, the Dixie Chicks ("Not Ready to Make Nice" (2006)) and Nanci Griffith. Toby Keith Covel (born July 8, 1961) is an American country music singer-songwriter who has enjoyed commercial success throughout the 1990s and 2000s. ... Courtesy of the Red, White, & Blue (The Angry American) is a song written and performed by American country music singer Toby Keith. ... Natalie Louise Maines Pasdar (born October 14, 1974) is an American singer and songwriter who achieved success as the lead vocalist for the female country music band Dixie Chicks. ... Darryl Worley (born October 31, 1964 in Pyburn, Tennessee) is an American country music singer-songwriter. ... Have You Forgotten? is a country song by Darryl Worley. ... Charles Edward Charlie Daniels (born October 28, 1936 in Wilmington, North Carolina) is an American musician famous for his contributions to country and southern rock music. ... Willie Hugh Nelson (born April 30, 1933) is an American singer-songwriter and actor. ... Merle Ronald Haggard (born April 6, 1937) is an American country music singer, guitarist and songwriter. ... Emmylou Harris (born April 2, 1947, Birmingham, Alabama) is a country, folk, alternative rock, and alternative country musician. ... The Dixie Chicks are a multiple Grammy-award winning alternative country band and are the highest-selling female band in any musical genre, having sold over 36 million albums as of March 2008. ... Taking the Long Way track listing Alternative single cover Not Ready to Make Nice is a country-pop song written and performed by the American all-female band Dixie Chicks for their seventh studio album Taking the Long Way (2006). ... Depiction of Nanci Griffith on the cover of her album Flyer Nanci Caroline Griffith, (born July 6, 1953 in Seguin, Texas) is an American singer, guitarist and songwriter from Austin, Texas. ...


Criticism

Some artists who are not traditionally right-leaning have questioned the validity of the recent spate of anti-war protest songs. Florida-based punk-folk band Against Me! released a song called White People For Peace that questions the effectiveness of people singing "protest songs in response to military aggression" when their governments simply ignore them. This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Against Me! is a punk rock band formed in 1997 in Gainesville, Florida. ... White People For Peace is a 7 single by punk band Against Me! released in 2007, containing two previously unreleased songs: the title track, and Full Sesh. ...


More recently, Naomi Klein, the poster girl of the anti-globalisation movement, has attacked the replacement of grass-roots protest by celebrity-endorsed festivals or events, such as the Make Poverty History campaign; a trend which she calls the “Bono-isation” of protests against world poverty. She is quoted in The Times newspaper as attesting that "The Bono-isation of protest, particularly in the UK, has reduced discussion to a much safer terrain [...] there’s celebrities and then there’s spectators waving their bracelets. It’s less dangerous and less powerful [than grass roots street demonstrations].”[53] Naomi Klein (b. ... // The Make Poverty History campaign (which is written as MAKEPOVERTYHISTORY) was a British and Irish coalition of charities, religious groups, trade unions, campaigning groups and celebrities who mobilized around the UKs prominence in world politics in 2005 to increase awareness and pressure governments into taking actions towards relieving absolute... For other uses, see Times. ... For other uses, see Bono (disambiguation). ...


European protest songs

Protest songs from the U.K.

Early protest songs from the U.K.

The oldest European protest song on record is "The Cutty Wren" from the English peasants' revolt of 1381 against feudal oppression.[54] Later examples include the 17th century ballad "Diggers' Song" (known also as "Levellers and Diggers") composed by Gerrard Winstanley. The ballad deals with land rights, inspired by the Diggers movement. The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler (also spelt Tighler) killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe... The Diggers Song (also known as Levellers and Diggers) is a 17th century ballad, in terms of content a protest song concerned with land rights, inspired by the Diggers movement, composed by Gerrard Winstanley. ... Gerrard Winstanley (1609 - September 10, 1676) was an English LEZZ CED religious reformer and political activist during the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. ... Because land is a limited resource and property rights include the right to exclude others, land rights are a form of monopoly. ... For other meanings see Diggers (disambiguation) and Levellers (disambiguation) The Diggers were a group begun by Gerrard Winstanley in 1649 which called for a total destruction of the existing social order and replacement with a communistic and agrarian lifestyle based around the precepts of Christian Nationalism, wishing to rid England...


20th Century U.K. songs of protest

John Lennon rehearsing the anti-Vietnam War anthem Give Peace a Chance

As their fame and critical appreciation increased in the late 1960s, The Beatles- and John Lennon in particular - became increasingly political in their subject matter, writing a number of the era's notable protest songs. Tariq Ali, a socialist and leader of the student movement in Britain, summarised the reason for this as: “The whole culture had been radicalized, [Lennon] was engaged with the world, and the world was changing him." [55] The Beatles' first overtly political song was "Revolution" (1968) Lennon became increasigly determined to use his fame to spread a political message. When he and Yoko Ono married in 1969, they staged a weeklong “bed-in for peace” in the Amsterdam Hilton. The protest attracted world-wide media coverage.[56] At the second "Bed-in" in Montreal, in June 1969, they recorded "Give Peace a Chance" in their hotel room. The song was sung by over half a million demonstrators in Washington, D.C. at the second Vietnam Moratorium Day, on 15 October 1969.[57] In 1972 Lennon released his most politically charged collection of "protest songs" with the album Some Time In New York City. The album's lead single "Woman Is the Nigger of the World" (a phrase Ono had coined in the late 1960s), was intended to protest sexism and was met by a controversial reaction, and – as a consequence – little airplay and much banning. The Lennons went to great lengths (including a press conference attended by staff from Jet and Ebony magazines) to explain that the word "nigger" was being used in an allegorical sense and not as an affront to African-Americans. On he album Lennon also protests police brutality in general - and the Attica Prison riots of 9 September 1971 in particular - in "Attica State", the hardships of war-torn Northern Ireland in "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "The Luck Of The Irish" and pay tribute to Angela Davis with, "Angela". Lennon performed at the "Free John Sinclair" concert in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on 10 December 1971.[58] Sinclair was an antiwar activist and poet who was serving ten years in state prison for selling two joints of marijuana to an undercover cop.[59] Lennon and Ono appeared on stage with Phil Ochs, Stevie Wonder and other musicians, plus antiwar radical Jerry Rubin and Bobby Seale of the Black Panthers. Lennon performed the song, "John Sinclair" (also from Lennon's "Some Time In New York City" album), calling on the authorities to "Let him be, set him free, let him be like you and me". Some 20,000 people attended the rally, and three days after the concert the State of Michigan released Sinclair from prison.[60] Image File history File links Lie_In_15_--_John_rehearses_Give_Peace_A_Chance. ... Image File history File links Lie_In_15_--_John_rehearses_Give_Peace_A_Chance. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Revolution is a song by The Beatles, written primarily by John Lennon and attributed to Lennon-McCartney. ... For the song by Die Ärzte, see Yoko Ono (song). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The Hilton Hotel chain is owned by Hilton Hotels Corporation and is based in Beverly Hills, California. ... Give Peace a Chance is a song written by John Lennon and originally credited to Lennon-McCartney (John Lennon and Paul McCartney). ... For other uses, see Demonstration. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam was a large demonstration against United States involvement in the Vietnam War that took place across the United States on October 15, 1969. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Yoko Ono chronology Some Time in New York City is John Lennons third post-Beatles album, and fifth with Yoko Ono, and was released in 1972. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Jet magazine is a popular African-American publication founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1951 by John H. Johnson of Johnson Publishing Company. ... Academy Award winners Denzel Washington, Halle Berry, and Jamie Foxx on the 60th anniversary cover of Ebony Magazine, November 2005 Ebony, a magazine for the African American market, was founded by John H. Johnson and has been published since the autumn of 1945. ... // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ... The Attica Prison riots were a rebellion by prisoners at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, United States. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American socialist organizer, professor who was associated with the Black Panther Party (BPP) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). ... John Sinclair (born October 2, 1941 in Flint, Michigan) is a Detroit poet, one-time manager of the band MC5, and leader of the White Panther Party from November 1968 to July 1969. ... Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Radical Left can refer to: 18th century Radicalism was a separate ideology, which was absorbed into liberalism and socialism. ... Robert George (Bobby) Seale (born October 22, 1936 in Dallas, Texas), is an American civil rights activist, who along with Dr. Huey P. Newton, co-founded the Black Panther Party For Self Defense in 1966. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a revolutionary Black nationalist organization in the United States that formed in the late 1960s and grew to national prominence before falling apart due to factional rivalries stirred up by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ...


The 1970s also saw a number of U.K. songs protesting areas other than war, such as The Rolling Stones song against police brutality "Doo Doo Doo Doo Doo (Heartbreaker)" (1973) Rolling Stones redirects here. ... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... Doo Doo Doo Doo Doo (Heartbreaker) is a song by The Rolling Stones from their 1973 album Goats Head Soup. ...

The Clash, one of the pioneers of the punk movement, who protested class economics, race issues, and Authoritarianism

As the 1970s progressed, the louder, more aggressive Punk movement became the strongest voice of protest, particularly in the UK, featuring anti-war, anti-state, and anti-capitalist themes. The punk culture, in stark contrast with the 1960s' sense of power through union, concerned itself with individual freedom, often incorporating concepts of individualism, free thought and even anarchism. According to Search and Destroy founder V. Vale, "Punk was a total cultural revolt. It was a hardcore confrontation with the black side of history and culture, right-wing imagery, sexual taboos, a delving into it that had never been done before by any generation in such a thorough way."[61] The most significant protest songs of the movement included "God Save the Queen" (1977) by the Sex Pistols, "If the Kids are United" by Sham 69, "Career Opportunities" (1977) (protesting the political and economic situation in England at the time, especially the lack of jobs available to the youth), and "White Riot" (1977) (about class economics and race issues) by The Clash, and "Right to Work" by Chelsea. See also Punk ideology. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... For articles with similar names and topics, see Individual (disambiguation). ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... V. Vale is the publisher and primary contributor to books and magazines published by his company, RE/Search Publications. ... God Save the Queen (B-side Did You No Wrong) was the second single released by the punk rock band Sex Pistols. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. ... See Career Opportunities (film) for the movie of this same title. ... White Riot was the first single put out by seminal punk band The Clash, in 1977. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... Chelsea was an early punk band, formed in London in 1977. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


War was still the prevalent theme of British protest songs of the 1980s - such as Kate Bush's "Army Dreamers" (1980), which deals with the traumas of a mother whose son dies while away at war. However, as the 1980s progressed, it was British prime minister Margaret Thatcher who came under the greatest degree of criticism from native protest singers, mostly for her strong stance against trade unions, and especially for her handling of the UK miners' strike (1984–1985). The leading voice of protest in Thatcherite Britain in the 1980s was Billy Bragg, whose style of protest song and grass-roots political activism was mostly reminiscent of those of Woody Guthrie, however with themes that were relevant to the contemporary Briton. He summarised his stance in "Between the Wars" (1985) in which he sings "I'll give my consent to any government who will not deny a man a living wage." Kate Bush (born 30 July 1958) is an English singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. ... Army Dreamers was the third and final song to be released from Never For Ever by Kate Bush. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... The miners strike of 1984–1985 was a major industrial action affecting the British coal industry. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Stephen William Bragg (born December 20, 1957 in Essex, England), better known as Billy Bragg, is an English musician who blends elements of folk music, punk rock and protest songs. ... Woodrow Wilson Woody Guthrie (July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American songwriter and folk musician. ...


Britain's current involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan has also garnered criticism from native singers; including George Michael's anti-Tony Blair single "Shoot the Dog" (2002)- which criticised Blair's overly-friendly relationship with George Bush and support for the Iraq War- and the more recent example of Ian Brown and Sinéad O'Connor's "Illegal Attacks" (2007) ("So what the fuck is this UK/Gunning with this US of A/ in Iraq and Iran and in Afghanistan?/These are illegal attacks/So bring the soldiers back"). Ex-Smiths frontman Morrissey has also attacked both sides of the Atlantic with "America is Not the World" and "Irish Blood, English Heart" from his 2004 You Are the Quarry album. For other persons named George Michael, see George Michael (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Shoot the Dog is a single by the Dance Pop singer George Michael released as the second single from his 2002 album Patience. ... This article is about the former member of The Stone Roses . ... Sinéad Marie Bernadette OConnor (pronounced [1]) (born December 8, 1966) is a Grammy Award winning Irish singer and songwriter. ... This article is about the English rock band, for other uses of Smith or Smiths, see Smith The Smiths were a hugely influential British rock group and indie music pioneers. ... For other uses, see Morrissey (disambiguation). ... You Are the Quarry is an album by Morrissey, the former lead singer of the Smiths. ...


Irish Rebel Songs

Irish rebel music is a sub genre of Irish folk music, played on typically Irish instruments (such as the Fiddle, tin whistle, Uilleann pipes, accordion, bodhrán etc.) and acoustic guitars. The lyrics deal with the fight for Irish freedom, people who were involved in liberation movements, Celtic unity, the persecution and violence during Northern Ireland's Troubles and the history of Ireland's numerous rebellions. Irish rebel music is a sub genre of Irish folk music, with much the same instrumentation, but with lyrics predominantly concerned with Irish nationalism, and especially the struggle for independence from British rule. ... “Fiddler” redirects here. ... The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle, or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed woodwind instrument. ... Full set of Uilleann pipes Uilleann pipes (IPA: ) are the characteristic national bagpipe of Ireland. ... For other uses, see Accordion (disambiguation). ... Bodhrán with tipper The bodhrán (IPA or ; plural bodhráns or bodhráin) is an Irish frame drum ranging from 25 to 65cm (10 to 26) in diameter, with most drums measuring 35 to 45cm (14 to 18). The sides of the drum are 9 to 20cm (3... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ...


Among the many examples of the genre, some of the most famous are "A Nation Once Again", "Come out Ye Black and Tans", "Erin go Bragh",[62] "The Fields of Athenry", "The Men Behind the Wire" and the Republic of Ireland's national Anthem "Amhrán na bhFiann" ("The Soldier's Song").Music of this genre has often courted controversy, and some of the more outwardly anti-British songs have been effectively banned from the airwaves in both England and the Republic of Ireland. A Nation Once Again is a song, written sometime in the 1840s by Thomas Osbourne Davis (1814-1845). ... Come Out Ye Black and Tans (sometimes Black and Tan) is an Irish rebel song referring to the Black and Tans, the British paramilitary police auxiliary force in Ireland during the 1920s. ... The Fields of Athenry is a song about the Great Irish Famine (1845-1849), composed in the 1970s by Inchicore songwriter Pete St. ... The Men Behind the Wire is an Irish republican song composed in the aftermath of the imposition of Internment without trial of some Irish republicans associated with Provisional Sinn Féin (now known simply as Sinn Féin), as well as others unconnected with militant republicanism who had been arrested... (pronounced ) is the national anthem of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Paul McCartney also made a contribution to the genre with his 1972 single "Give Ireland Back to the Irish" which he wrote as a reaction to Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland on January 30, 1972. The song also faced an all-out ban in the UK, and has never been re-released or appeared on any Paul McCartney or Wings best-ofs. His former colleague John Lennon wrote a song called Sunday Bloody Sunday in 1972 shortly after the massacre of Irish civil rights activists, this song differs from U2's 1983 version of Bloody Sunday in that it directly supports the Irish Republican cause and does not call for peace. The same year John Lennon also released two protest songs concerning the hardships of war-torn Northern Ireland in the form of "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "The Luck Of The Irish," bothe from his 1972 album Some Time in New York City. Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer-songwriter, composer, multi-instrumentalist, poet, entrepreneur, painter, record producer, film producer, and animal-rights activist. ... Give Ireland Back to the Irish is a Paul and Linda McCartney song written in response to the events of Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland on January 30, 1972. ... Bloody Sunday refers to several historical events (listed in chronological order): Bloody Sunday (1887), a demonstration in London against coercion in Ireland Bloody Sunday (1900), a day of high casualties in the Second Boer War Bloody Sunday (1905), a massacre in Saint Petersburg A violent event during the 1913 Dublin... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wings was a rock music supergroup formed in August 1971, after the breakup of The Beatles, by ex-Beatle Paul McCartney. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Sunday Bloody Sunday is also the title of a song by U2, see War (album). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


The Wolfe Tones have become legendary in Ireland for their contribution to the Irish rebel genre. The band has been recording since 1963 and has attracted worldwide fame and attention through their renditions of traditional Irish songs and originals, dealing with the former conflict in Northern Ireland. In 2002 the Wolfe Tone's version of A Nation Once Again, a nationalist song from the 19th century, was voted the greatest song in the world in a poll conducted by the BBC World Service[63] The Wolfe Tones are an Irish rebel music band deeply rooted in Irish traditional music. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... A Nation Once Again is a song, written sometime in the 1840s by Thomas Osbourne Davis (1814-1845). ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. ...


Christy Moore is another famous figure in Irish rebel music, and together with his original band Planxty he recorded traditional music during the 1970s. Following his departure from the band in 1975 he embarked on a solo career, lending his support to a wide variety of left-wing causes. Until 1987 the Provisional IRA was among the groups he supported, however this came to an end following the Enniskillen bombing. During his career he has sung about human rights in El Salvador, republican volunteers from the Spanish Civil War, South African anti-apartheid activist and martyr Steven Biko, the murdered Chilean singer, songwriter, poet, playwright and activist Victor Jara, the late Palestinian solidarity activist Rachel Corrie, not too mention numerous events of Irish history. Christopher Andrew Christy Moore (born on May 7, 1945, in Newbridge, County Kildare) is a very popular Irish folk singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Planxty was an Irish folk music band formed in the 1970s by Christy Moore, Donal Lunny, Andy Irvine (a founder of the Irish mid-sixties group Sweeneys Men), and Liam OFlynn (piper). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... The Remembrance Day massacre was a Provisional IRA bombing in the County Fermanagh town of Enniskillen, Northern Ireland. ... Stephen Biko Stephen Bantu Biko (December 18, 1946 - September 12, 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s. ... Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (September 23, 1932 – September 16, 1973) was a Chilean folk singer and activist. ... Rachel Corrie Rachel Corrie (April 10, 1979 – March 16, 2003) was an American member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) who traveled to the Gaza Strip during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ...


An Irish pop-rock band from Dublin, U2 broke with the rebel musical tradition when they wrote their song, Sunday Bloody Sunday in 1983. The song makes reference to two separate massacres in Irish history of civilians by British forces (Bloody Sunday (1920) and Bloody Sunday 1972), however unlike other songs dealing with those events, the lyrics call for peace as opposed to revenge. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Sunday Bloody Sunday is also the title of a song by U2, see War (album). ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Bloody Sunday of 1920 was a day of violence in Dublin on November 21, 1920, during the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921), which led to the deaths of more than 30 people. ...


The song Zombie by the Irish band, The Cranberries - written in 1994 in response to the Warrington Bomb Attacks of 1993 - protests the cycle of violence and retribution in Northern Ireland and the pain and suffering it has caused to both communities. Zombie is a protest song by the Irish band The Cranberries from the 1994 album No Need to Argue. ... The Cranberries are an Irish alternative rock band that rose to mainstream popularity in the 1990s. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Warrington Bomb Attacks took place in Warrington, England in 1993. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


French socialist anthems

The Internationale (L'Internationale in French) is a famous socialist, anarchist, communist, and social-democratic anthem and one of the most widely recognized songs in the world. LInternationale in the original French. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ...


The Internationale became the anthem of international socialism. Its original French refrain is C'est la lutte finale/ Groupons-nous et demain/ L'Internationale/ Sera le genre humain. (Freely translated: "This is the final struggle/ Let us join together and tomorrow/ The Internationale/ Will be the human race.") The Internationale has been translated into most of the world's languages. Traditionally it is sung with the hand raised in a clenched fist salute. The Internationale is sung not only by communists but also (in many countries) by socialists or social democrats. The Chinese version was also a rallying song of the students and workers at the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[64] Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship...


German protest music: The "Deutschpunk" movement

Ton Steine Scherben, one of the first and most influential German language rock bands of the 1970s and early 1980s, were well-known for the highly political lyrics of vocalist Rio Reiser. The band became a musical mouthpiece of new left movements, such as the squatting movement, during that time in Germany and their hometown of West Berlin in particular. Their lyrics were, at the beginning, anti-capitalist and anarchist, and the band had connections to the German Red Army Faction terrorists before the latter turned to violent crime and murder. Later songs were about more complex issues such as unemployment (Mole Hill Rockers) or homosexuality (Mama war so). They also contributed to two full-length concept album about homosexuality which were issued under the name Brühwarm (literally: boiling warm) in cooperation with a gay-revue group. Ton Steine Scherben (Literal English translation: Clay Stones Shards; in German, Ton can mean sound as well, so the bands name may be considered to be an amphibology) were a German anarchist rock band formed in 1970 when the members were all around 20 years of age. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Rio Reiser (January 9, 1950 - August 20, 1996), was a German rock musician and singer of the famous rock group Ton Steine Scherben. ... The term new social movements (NSM) refers to a plethora of social movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i. ... For other uses, see squat. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Red Army Faction Insignia - a Red Star and a Heckler & Koch MP5 The Red Army Faction or RAF (German Rote Armee Fraktion) (in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group [or Gang]), was one of postwar West Germanys most active and prominent militant left-wing groups. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Usually, in popular music, an album of an artist or group simply consists of a number of unconnected songs that the members of the group or the artist have written or have chosen to cover. ...


A dissatisfied German youth in the late 1970s and early 80s resulted in a strand of highly politicized new wave punk known as the "Deutschpunk" movement, which mostly concerned itself with politically radical left-wing lyrics, mostly influenced by the Cold War.Probably the most important Deutschpunk band was Slime from Hamburg, who were the first band whose LP was banned because of political topics. Their songs "Deutschland" ("Germany"), "Bullenschweine", "Polizei SA/SS", and the anti-imperialist "Yankees raus" ("Yankees out") were banned, some of them are still banned today, because they propagated the use of violence against the police or compared the police to the SA and SS of Nazi Germany. A 1983 protest song from Germany which gained considerable attention worldwide was "99 Luftballons" by Nena. The song protested the escalating rhetoric and strategic maneuvering between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Slime was a German punk rock band, founded in 1979 and disbanded in 1994. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 99 Luftballons is a Cold War-era protest song by the German singer Nena. ... Nena (born March 24, 1960 in Hagen, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German singer who became famous with the New German Wave song 99 Luftballons (99 Red Balloons in the English version). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Russian protest music

The most famous source of Russian protest music in the 20th century has come those known locally as bards. The term, (бард in Russian) came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, and continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment. Many of the most famous bards wrote numerous songs about war, particularly The Great Patriotic War (WWII). Bards had various reasons for writing and singing songs about war. Bulat Okudzhava, who actually fought in the war, used his sad and emotional style to illustrate the futility of war in songs such as "The Paper Soldier" ("Бумажный Солдат"). Bulat Okudzhava, a pioneer of the Bard genre For other meanings of the word, see Bard (disambiguation). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... The album of songs from the movies shows an iconic image of Bulat Okudzhava Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (also transliterated as Boulat Okudjava/Okoudjava/Okoudzhava; Russian: , Georgian: ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was one of the founders of the Russian genre called authors song (авторская песня, avtorskaya pesnya). ...


Many political songs were written by bards under Soviet rule, and the genre varied from acutely political, "anti-Soviet" songs - fitting perfectly under the infamous Article 58 - to witty satire in the best traditions of Aesop. Some of Bulat Okudzhava's songs provide examples of political songs written on these themes. Vladimir Vysotsky was perceived as a political song writer, but later he gradually made his way into the more mainstream culture. It was not so with Alexander Galich, who was forced to emigrate—owning a tape with his songs could mean a prison term in the USSR. Before emigration, he suffered from KGB persecution, as did another bard, Yuliy Kim. Others, like Evgeny Kliachkin and Aleksander Dolsky, maintained a balance between outright anti-Soviet and plain romantic material. Since most of the bards' songs were never permitted by Soviet censorship, most of them, however innocent, were considered to be anti-Soviet Anti-Soviet refers to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or the Soviet power within the Soviet Union. ... Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on February 25, 1927 to arrest those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities. ... Nofootnotes|date=February 2008}} Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... The album of songs from the movies shows an iconic image of Bulat Okudzhava Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (also transliterated as Boulat Okudjava/Okoudjava/Okoudzhava; Russian: , Georgian: ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was one of the founders of the Russian genre called authors song (авторская песня, avtorskaya pesnya). ... For other uses, see Vysotsky. ... Alexander Galich Aleksandr Galich (Russian: , October 19, 1918 – December 15, 1977), was a Russian poet, screenwriter, playwright and singer-songwriter. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Yuliy Chersanovich Kim (Юлий Черсанович Ким; born December 23, 1936) is one of Russias foremost bards and playwrights. ... Kliachkin Evgeny Isaakovich Singer, composer, bard. ... Alexander Dolsky (Russian: Александр ДОЛЬСКИЙ) Born on July 7, 1938. ... Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced. ...


South American and Middle American protest songs

Protest Music of Chile and Latin America

While the protest song was enjoying its Golden Age in America in the 1960s, it also saw many detractors overseas who saw it as having been commercialized. Chilean singer-songwriter Victor Jara, who played a pivotal role in the folkloric renaissance that led to the Nueva Cancion Chilena [NCC] (New Chilean Song) movement which created a revolution in the popular music of his country, criticised the "commercialized" American ‘protest song phenomenon’ which had been imported into Chile. He criticized it thus: The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (September 23, 1932 – September 16, 1973) was a Chilean folk singer and activist. ...

The cultural invasion is like a leafy tree which prevents us from seeing our own sun, sky and stars. Therefore in order to be able to see the sky above our heads, our task is to cut this tree off at the roots. US imperialism understands very well the magic of communication through music and persists in filling our young people with all sorts of commercial tripe. With professional expertise they have taken certain measures: first, the commercialization of the so-called ‘protest music’; second, the creation of ‘idols’ of protest music who obey the same rules and suffer from the same constraints as the other idols of the consumer music industry – they last a little while and then disappear. Meanwhile they are useful in neutralizing the innate spirit of rebellion of young people. The term ‘protest song’ is no longer valid because it is ambiguous and has been misused. I prefer the term ‘revolutionary song’

Nueva canción (literally "new song" in Spanish) was a type of protest/social song in Latin American music which took root in South America, especially Chile and other Andean countries, and gained extreme popularity throughout Latin America. It combined traditional Latin American folk music idioms (played on the quena, zampoña, charango or cajón with guitar accompaniment) with some popular (esp. British) rock music, and was characterised by its progressive and often politicized lyrics. It is sometimes considered a precursor to rock en español. The lyrics are typically in Spanish, with some indigenous or local words mixed in. Nueva Canción (Spanish for new song) is a movement in Latin American music that was developed first in the Southern Cone of South America - Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay - during the 1950s and 1960s, but also popularized shortly after in Central America. ... Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music in The United States, includes the music of all countries in Latin America and comes in many varieties. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The word Andean refers to the geographic area in and around the Andes Mountains of South America, and to the indigenous peoples that inhabit the area, such as the Inca. ... The quena is a South American wind instrument, mostly used by Andean musicians The quena (Quechua: , sometimes also written kena in English) is the traditional flute of the Andes. ... Pan pipes (also known as the panflute or the syrinx or quills) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the stopped pipe, consisting usually of ten or more pipes of gradually increasing length. ... Visit the Guitar Portal A Bolivian charango This article is about an instrument. ... A cajón (Spanish for crate, drawer, or box, pronounced ka. ... Rock en español is the latest generation of Spanish language rock and roll. ...


Its lyrics characteristically revolve around about poverty, empowerment, the Unidad Popular, imperialism, democracy, human rights, and religion. There are some hundreds of songs with influences from British and American pop rock that was popular with college youths. The Chilean coup of 1973 impacted the genre's growth, as the musical movement was forced to go underground. During the days of the coup, Victor Jara, a well known singer/song-writer, was kidnapped, jailed, tortured and shot. Other groups, such as Inti-Illimani and Quilapayun found safety outside the country. The military government went as far as to ban many traditional Andean instruments, but as a testament to how far the country has come since then, the stadium where Victor Jara was murdered now bears his name. A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Look up Empowerment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Popular Unity (Spanish: Unidad Popular or UP) was the coalition of Chilean political parties that coalesced behind the successful candidacy of Salvador Allende for the 1970 Chilean presidential election. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (September 23, 1932 – September 16, 1973) was a Chilean folk singer and activist. ...


Nueva trova: The Protest songs of Cuba and Puerto Rico

In the mid-1960s a movement in Cuban music emerged that combined traditional folk music idioms with progressive and often politicized lyrics. This movement of protest music came to be known as Nueva trova, and was somewhat similar to that of Nueva canción, however with the advantage of support from the Cuban government, as it promoted the Cuban Revolution. Though originally and still largely Cuban, nueva trova has become popular across Latin America, especially in Puerto Rico and Venezuela. The movements biggest stars included Cubans Silvio Rodríguez, Vicente Feliu, Noel Nicola and Pablo Milanés, as well as Puerto Ricans such as Roy Brown, Andrés Jiménez, Antonio Caban Vale and the group Haciendo Punto en Otro Son. The Caribbean island of Cuba has been influential in the development of multiple musical styles in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Nueva trova was a movement in Cuban music that emerged in the mid-1960s. ... Nueva Canción (Spanish for new song) is a movement in Latin American music that was developed first in the Southern Cone of South America - Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay - during the 1950s and 1960s, but also popularized shortly after in Central America. ... THE CUBAN REVOLUTION The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Silvio Rodríguez Silvio Rodríguez Domínguez (born November 29, 1946 in San Antonio de los Baños) is a Cuban musician, and a leader of the nueva trova movement. ... Pablo Milanés Arias (born in Bayamo, Cuba on February 24, 1943) is a Cuban singer-songwriter and guitar player. ... Roy Brown Ramírez (born 1950 in San Juan, Puerto Rico) is a composer, singer and a fervent believer in the cause for the independence of Puerto Rico. ... Antonio Caban Vale (aka El Topo) (born November 22, 1942 in Moca, Puerto Rico) - composer and singer. ... We dont have an article called Haciendo Punto En Otro Son Start this article Search for Haciendo Punto En Otro Son in. ...


In both Cuba and Puerto Rico, the politicized lyrics of nueva trova were very often critical of the United States; Puerto Rican singers were especially critical of Vieques' continued use as a United States Navy training ground. The most recent topic of protest songs from the movement has been demanding sovereignty for Puerto Rico and adding their name and signature to the Latin American and Caribbean Congress's Proclamation for the Independence of Puerto Rico.[65] Vieques is an island-municipality of Puerto Rico. ... USN redirects here. ...


African protest songs

Algerian Raï music

Raï (Arabic: رأي), which is the Arabic word for "opinion", is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French, African and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been primarily evolved by women in the culture. Raï has been forbidden music in Algeria, to the point of one popular singer being assassinated, although since the 1980s it has enjoyed some considerable success. The song "Parisien Du Nord" by Cheb Mami is a recent example of how the genre has been used as form of protest, as the song was written as a protest against the racial tensions that sparked the 2005 French riots. According to Memi: Raï (Arabic: راي) is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French, African-American and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been primarily evolved by women in the culture. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Folk song redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Algeria. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... Africa is a large and diverse continent, consisting of dozens of countries, hundreds of languages and thousands of races, tribes and ethnic groups. ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... Cheb Mami, real name Mohamed Kélifati (born July 11, 1966, Saïda, Algeria) is an Algerian-born raï singer. ... French riots and French civil unrest redirect here. ...

It is a song against racism, so I wanted to sing it with a North African who was born in France [...] Because of that and because of his talent, I chose K-Mel. In the song, we say, ‘In your eyes, I feel like foreigner.’ It’s like the kids who were born in France but they have Arab faces. They are French, and they should be considered French.”[66]

South African anti-apartheid protest songs

The majority of South African protest music of the 20th century concerned itself with apartheid, a system of legalized racial segregation in which blacks were stripped of their citizenship and rights from 1948 to 1994. As the apartheid regime forced Africans into townships and industrial centers, people sang about leaving their homes, the horror of the coal mines and the degradation of working as domestic servants. Examples of which include Benedict Wallet Vilakazi's "Meadowlands", the "Toyi-toyi" chant and "Bring Him Back Home" (1987) by Hugh Masekela, which became an anthem for the movement to free Nelson Mandela. Masekela's song "Soweto Blues", sung by his former wife, Miriam Makeba, is a blues/jazz piece that mourns the carnage of the Soweto riots in 1976. Basil Coetzee and Abdullah Ibrahim's "Mannenberg", became an unofficial soundtrack to the anti-apartheid resistance. "Madam, Please," the song of a maid angrily addressing her boss, includes the verse "Madam please/Before you laugh at your servant’s English/Try to speak to him in his Zulu language/Madam please/Before you complain your servant stinks/Try washing your clothes in a Soweto sink." Vuyisile Mini, the executed union organizer who’s considered the father of South African freedom songs, performed music for a militant struggle against the regime in songs such as "Watch Out Verwoerd".[67] The 2002 documentary Amandla!: A Revolution in Four-Part Harmony depicted the struggles of black South Africans against the injustices of Apartheid through the use of music and protest songs.[68] In more recent times protest music of the country has begun to target social issues, such as crime and the impact of AIDS.[69] A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Benedict Wallet Vilakazi (January 6, 1906 - October 26, 1947) was a South African Zulu poet, novelist, and educator. ... Toyi-toyi is a Southern African dance that became famous for its use in political protests in the apartheid-era South Africa. ... Hugh Masekela (born Johannesburg, April 4, 1939) is a South African flugelhorn and cornet player. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Miriam Makeba performing at the Cape Town Jazz Festival in 2006. ... Fatally-wounded Hector Pieterson (13), one of the first fatalities, is carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo on June 16, 1976, with Antoinette Pieterson (17) running alongside. ... Basil Manenberg Coetzee (2 February 1944 _ 11 March 1998) was a South African musician, perhaps best known as a saxophonist. ... Abdullah Ibrahim, born Adolph Johannes Brand, formally known as Dollar Brand (from a popular brand of matches), is a South African pianist and composer who was born in Cape Town in 1934. ... Hendrik Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 – Cape Town, 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


A number of international singers also composed anti-apartheid protest songs, such as Peter Gabriel's "Biko" (1980), about Steve Biko, a noted black South African anti-apartheid activist. The song has also been covered by Cameroonian saxophonist and vibraphone player Manu Dibango. Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Biko is a protest song by British singer Peter Gabriel, about Steve Biko, a South African anti-apartheid campaigner who died in police custody in 1977. ... Stephen Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977)[1] was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... Manu Dibango (born December 12, 1933) is a Cameroonian saxophonist and vibraphone player. ...


Middle eastern protest songs

Palestinian protest music

As might be expected, much Palestinian music (Arabic: موسيقى فلسطينية‎) deals with the struggle with Israel, the longing for peace, and the love of the land of Palestine. A typical example of such a song is "Baladi, Baladi" (My Country, My Country), which has become the unofficial Palestinian national anthem: Palestinian music ;Arabic,موسيقى فلسطينية is one of many regional sub-genres of Arabic music. ... Arabic redirects here. ...

Palestine, Land of the fathers,
To you, I do not doubt, I will return.
Struggle, revolution, do not die,
For the storm is on the land.[70]

Another example is the song "AlKuds (Jerusalem) our Land", with words by Sharif Sabri. The song, sung by Amar Diab from Port Said, Egypt, won first prize in 2003 in a contest in Egypt for video clips produced in the West Bank and Gaza.[70] DAM is an Arabic hip-hop group, rapping in Arabic and Hebrew about the problems faced by Palestinians under occupation and calling for change. This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Rap redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


The Palestinian Arab community in Israel has begun to develop its own rich musical culture. Living as an Arab minority within Israel has made an indelible mark on Israeli Palestinians, a mark that is reflected in their music. "The Arab musicians in Israel are in the forefront of the struggle to define a local national culture," wrote Regev[71]. Lyrics often deal with issues of identity, of peace, and of conflict. For example, Kamilya Joubran's song "Ghareeba", a setting of a poem by Khalil Gibran, deals with a sense of isolation and loneliness felt by the Palestinian woman: The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Khalil Gibran (full name Gibran Khalil Gibran bin Mikhael bin Saâd, Arabic: جبران خليل جبران بن ميخائيل بن سعد, (January 6, 1883 – April 10, 1931) was a Lebanese American artist, poet and writer. ...

Ghareeba, by Kamilya Joubran
Ghareeba, by Kamilya Joubran

A Stranger - female
A stranger in this world..
A stranger..
In estrangement there is cruel loneliness
And painful desolation
But it makes me forever think
Of a magical home I know not[72]

Israeli protest music

Jews singing Hebrew protest songs when Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad spoke at Columbia University in 2007.

Israel is a country deeply riven by political differences, and music has often become associated with different political factions. Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...

"Yerushalayim Shel Zahav" sung by Shuli Natan
"Yerushalayim Shel Zahav" sung by Shuli Natan

After the 1967 war, Israel annexed Arab neighborhoods surrounding Jerusalem, a move widely supported at the time, but which has engendered controversy since. Naomi Shemer's song "Jerusalem of Gold" [73], and other songs by Naomi Shemer, have become associated with those in Israel who believe that Israel has no obligation to return territories occupied in 1967 [74]. Jerusalem of Gold (‎, Yerushalayim Shel Zahav) is a popular Israeli song written by Naomi Shemer in 1967. ...


Gush Emunim supporters have taken a repertoire of old religious songs and invested them with political meaning. An example is the song "Utsu Etsu VeTufar" (They gave counsel but their counsel was violated). The song signifies the ultimate rightness of those steadfast in their beliefs, suggesting the rightness of Gush Emunim's struggle against anti-settlement policy by the government. Gush Emunim גוש אמונים (Hebrew: Block [of the] faithful) was an Israeli political movement. ...


In February 1994, Kach supporter Baruch Goldstein massacred 29 Arab worshipers in the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron. While the act was universally condemned by the Israeli establishment, some extremists praised it [75]. After the massacre, members of the utra-right Kach movement adopted "Barukh HaGever," a song often played at Jewish weddings with its own line dance, because the Hebrew title can be interpreted as "Blessed be the Man" or "Baruch the Hero." Baruch Kappel Goldstein (December 9 or December 12, 1956 – February 25, 1994, ‎) was an American born Israeli physician who perpetrated the 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in the city of Hebron, murdering 29 Muslims at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque (within the Cave of the Patriarchs) and wounding another... The Cave of the Patriarchs is considered to be the spiritual center of the ancient city of Hebron. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... The logo of the Kach party. ...


Minutes before Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was murdered at a political rally in November 1995, Israeli folk singer Miri Aloni sang the Israeli pop song Shir Lashalom (Song for Peace). This song, originally written in 1969 and banned at the time from Army Radio for its alleged subversiveness, has become one of the anthems of the Israeli peace camp. [76] Site of the rally before the assassination: Rabin Square and Tel Aviv City Hall during the day. ... The blood-stained sheet of Shir Lashalom lyrics that Yitzhak Rabin was reading from at the time of his assassination. ... The Israeli peace camp is a self-described collection of movements which claim to strive for peace with the Arab neighbours of Israel (including the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ...


During the Arab uprising known as the First Intifada, Israeli singer Si Heyman sang Yorim VeBokhim (Shoot and Weep), written by Shalom Hanoch, to protest Israeli policy in the territories. This song was also banned from the radio for a certain period of time on charges of subversiveness. Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly...


Pink Floyd's Another Brick in the Wall is used as a protest song by many opponents of Israel's barrier in the West Bank, which is now half finished. The lyrics have been adapted to: "We don't need no occupation. We don't need no racist wall." [77] Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic or space rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... This article is about the three songs by Pink Floyd. ...


Since the onset of the Oslo Process and, more recently, Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, protest songs became a major avenue for opposition activists to express sentiments that were otherwise excluded from the public debate by various mechanisms of censorship[citation needed]. Songs protesting these policies were written and performed by Israeli musicians, such as Ariel Zilber, Shalom Flisser, Aharon Razel, Eli Bar-Yahalom, Yuri Lipmanovich[78], Ari Ben-Yam[79], and many others. The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), finalized in Oslo, Norway by August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993 with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the Palestine... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... Ariel Zilber (אריאל זילבר) (born September 23 1943) is an Israeli singer-songwriter, and composer. ...


Asian Protest music

South Korean protest songs

In 2002 South Korean artist Yoon Min-suk wrote an anti-Bush and anti-US Foreign Policy song, in particular the US policy on his own peninsula, based on the song "Surfin' USA" entitled "Fucking USA" a vitriolic attack indeed. It became popular initially in South Korea but was inevitably released onto the internet and received massive amounts of attention from people sympathetic to his views all over the world. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... A still from the Fucking USA music video Fuckn USA, often called Fucking USA, is a protest song written by South Korean singer and activist Yoon Min-suk. ...


Australian protest music

The main topics for protest music Australia include songs about Land rights, the Stolen Generation and other indigenous issues. Yothu Yindi, an Australian band with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal members which tries to combine aspects of both musical cultures, have written many protest songs on exactly these topics, the most famous of which is "Treaty", found on their 1991 album Tribal Voice. Other Australian bands to have contributed towards their nation's tradition of protest music are Tiddas, Indigenous Australian singer-songwriter Kev Carmody (Australian Rolling Stone described his debut album Pillars of Society as "the best album ever released by an Aboriginal musician and arguably the best protest album ever made in Australia"), Archie Roach, Christine Anu and Neil Murray. Because land is a limited resource and property rights include the right to exclude others, land rights are a form of monopoly. ... Portrayal of The taking of the children on the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney The Stolen Generation (or Stolen Generations) is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent who were removed from their families, under the rationale of... Yothu Yindi (Yolngu for child and mother. ... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... See also: 1991 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1991 Record labels established in 1991 // 1991 was the year that grunge music made its popular breakthrough. ... Tribal Voice is also the name of a company that made one of the first Internet instant message and chat programs for Windows named Pow Wow in the mid 1990s. ... Tiddas are as three-girl folk band from Victoria, Australia. ... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... Kev Carmody is an Indigenous Australian singer-songwriter born in 1946 on the Darling Downs, Queensland, Australia. ... Archie Roach (born 1956, Mooroopna, Victoria) is an Australian musician. ... Christine Anu (born 1970) is an Australian pop singer from Cairns, Queensland. ... Neil Murray (born 1956, Ararat, Victoria) is an Australian musician and writer. ...


In addition to issues of a native interest, many Australian protest singers have sung songs about more universal themes, such as the futility of war. Perhaps the most famous Australian anti-war song is "And The Band Played Waltzing Matilda" (1972) by Eric Bogle, which describes the futility, gruesome reality and the destruction of war, while criticising those who seek to glorify it. The song concerns the account of a young Australian soldier on his maiming during the Battle of Gallipoli during the First World War, and the events described and the songs message have often been interpreted as paralleling the then current Vietnam War. George Lamberts Anzac, the landing 1915, depicting the landing at Anzac Cove. ... Eric Bogle (born 23 September 1944) is a Scottish-born Australian singer and songwriter. ... Belligerents British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal Ottoman Empire German Empire[2] Austria-Hungary[3] Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto Liman von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


References

  • Fowke, Edith and Joe Glazer, Songs of Work and Protest (Dover Publications, Inc., 1973; New York)
  • John Greenway, American Folksongs of Protest (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953; New York: A.S. Barnes, 1960).
  • Ronald D. Cohen & Dave Samuelson, liner notes for Songs for Political Action, Bear Family Records, BCD 15 720 JL, 1996.
  • Scaduto, Anthony. Bob Dylan. Helter Skelter, 2001 reprint of 1972 original. ISBN 1-900924-23-4. 

See also

Civil Rights anthems is a relational concept to protest song, but one that is specifically linked to the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... There is a long history of the connection between music and politics, particularly political expression in music. ... A topical song is a song that comments on current political and social events. ... The IWW Label A Wobbly membership card The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, having much in common with anarcho-syndicalist unions, but also many differences. ... Folk song redirects here. ... The Anarchy Heart, a symbol popular in the young radical community, particularly with Folk Punks and Anarchists. ...

External links

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Cutty Wren. Union Songs. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  2. ^ "American Taxation" lyrics. musicanet.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  3. ^ a b Songs of Freedom. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  4. ^ Political and Campaign Songs In American Popular Music. The Parlor Songs Association, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  5. ^ The African-American Mosaic. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  6. ^ NO MORE AUCTION BLOCK FOR ME Official Site of Negro Spirituals, antique Gospel Music. Spiritual Workshop. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  7. ^ UVa Library: Exhibits: Lift Every Voice. University of Virginia Library. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  8. ^ The Hutchinson Family Singers: America's First Protest Singers. Amaranth Publishing. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  9. ^ Sweet Chariot, the Story of the Spirituals. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  10. ^ Woodman Spare That Tree!. Amaranth Publishing. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  11. ^ "I Didn't Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier": Singing Against the War. History Matters. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  12. ^ America's Music Goes to War Part 2 B., December 2000. The Parlor Songs Association, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  13. ^ "Hello Central! Give Me No Man's Land" audio. Michael Duffy. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  14. ^ STRANGE FRUIT. Protest Music - The Great Depression. Independent Television Service (ITVS).. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  15. ^ THE PROTEST SINGER: Pete Seeger and American folk music.. The New Yorker. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  16. ^ Songs for John Doe (The Almanac Singers) (1941).
  17. ^ David Boaz, Stalin's songbird, Comment is free, Guardian Unlimited. April 14, 2006. Accessed online 16 October 2007.
  18. ^ Josh White and the Protest Blues. elijahwald.com.
  19. ^ "Old Man Atom". Fortune City.
  20. ^ "Atom and Evil" lyrics. The Authentic History Center.
  21. ^ "Atomic Sermon". conelrad.com.
  22. ^ a b The Politics of Bob Dylan. Red Pepper. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  23. ^ "Who Killed Davey Moore?" lyrics. bobdylan.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  24. ^ Dylan performed Only a Pawn in Their Game and When the Ship Comes In
  25. ^ Scaduto, Bob Dylan, p. 151
  26. ^ Dylan is positively on top of his game. USA Today. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  27. ^ Beans in My Ears lyrics.
  28. ^ How "Waist Deep in the Big Muddy" Finally Got on Network Television in 1968.
  29. ^ Schumacher (1996), p. 201
  30. ^ 'Phil Ochs' Quote. UBR, Inc..
  31. ^ Geoffrey Nunberg - the history of "protest". Geoffrey Nunberg. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  32. ^ UVa Library: Exhibits: Lift Every Voice. University of Virginia Library. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  33. ^ a b PopMatters Music 65 Greatest Protest Songs; Part 2: Janis Ian to Jimi Hendrix (1966-1970). PopMatters Media, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  34. ^ which contains the lines: "Come on mothers throughout the land/ Pack your boys off to Vietnam./ Come on fathers, don't hesitate/ Send your sons off before it's too late./ You can be the first one on your block/ To have your boy come home in a box."
  35. ^ "I'll sing you a tale/Of Wernher Von Braun/A man whose allegiance is ruled by expedience/...'Once the rockets are up/Who cares where they come down?/That's not my department,' says Wernher Von Braun"
  36. ^ "All She Wants to Do is Dance" lyrics. lyricsfreak.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
  37. ^ BBC - Rock/Indie Review - Black Flag, Damaged. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  38. ^ Wooldridge, Simon (February 2000), "Fight the Power", Juice Magazine. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
  39. ^ PopMatters 65 Greatest Protest Songs: Part 5: Public Enemy to Dixie Chicks (1989-2006). PopMatters. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  40. ^ http://www.anti.com/press.php?id=1&pid=501
  41. ^ allmusic ((( Real Gone > Review )))
  42. ^ 41 Shots: Bruce Springsteen and freedom of expression. Freedom Forum. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  43. ^ Levine, Stuart (2007-09-25). Springsteen’s ‘Magic’ is a rockin’ good time. MSNBC.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  44. ^ a b Quillen, Shay (2007-10-06). Springsteen's 'Magic' ends with a political wallop. The San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  45. ^ Bright Eyes, Big Ditty. Willamette Week. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  46. ^ Moss, Corey. Lenny Kravitz, R.E.M. Record Anti-War Songs. MTV News.
  47. ^ Colin Meloy quotes. Think Exist.
  48. ^ Kelly, Jennifer. Bobby Conn is completely serious. Splendid Magazine.
  49. ^ Halpern, Ashlea. Bobby Conn. Magnet Magazine.
  50. ^ Bobby Conn: Music: Ben Rubenstein: CenterstageChicago.com. Centrestage Chicago. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  51. ^ MAGNET Interview: Bobby Conn. Magnet. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  52. ^ Natalie Maines (Dixie Chick member) Bashes Toby Keith's Patriotic Anthem. top40-charts.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  53. ^ Ben Hoyle. ‘Forget Bono and bracelets, protest for real’. The Times. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  54. ^ The Cutty Wren. Union Songs. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  55. ^ John Lennon's Revolution. socialistworker.org.
  56. ^ Williams, Precious (2002-05-19). Eternal Flame. scotsman.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  57. ^ 1969: Millions march in US Vietnam Moratorium. bbc.co.uk/onthisday. Retrieved on 2007-12-16.
  58. ^ John Lennon on Television. homepage.ntlworld.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  59. ^ The Life and Times of John Sinclair. movies.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  60. ^ Sinclair, John (2003-05-12). John Sinclair's Bio. John Sinclair. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  61. ^ Savage (1991), p. 440
  62. ^ Erin-Go-Bragh. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  63. ^ The World's Top Ten. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  64. ^ The Internationale. Modern History Sourcebook.
  65. ^ [www.independencia.net/noticias/comp_rbm_promints_adhesionPan25e07.html#ingles Latin American voices demand Puerto Rican independence]. independencia.net. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  66. ^ Raï: Algerian blues and protest music. Uncle Tom's Cabin.
  67. ^ Craig Johnson (2003-05-16). The music that fought racist apartheid. The Socialist Worker. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  68. ^ AMANDLA: A REVOLUTION IN FOUR PART HARMONY. Talking Pictures. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  69. ^ South African Protest Songs Find Different Themes. Reuters NewMedia. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  70. ^ a b (2006) Musical View on the Conflict in the Middle East. Jerusalem: Minerva Instruction and Consultation Group. ISBN 978-965-7397-03-9. Lyrics by Ali Ismayel.
  71. ^ Regev (1993), p. 49
  72. ^ Kamilya Jubran - Ghareeba (English translation). kamilyajubran.com.
  73. ^ Song sample, sung by Shuli Natan, taken from www.songs.co.il
  74. ^ "Questions of Israel's 'Second Anthem'", from All Things Considered, National Public Radio, May 22, 3005, available online at http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=4662107.
  75. ^ See, for example, "HaTevach: Madrih Munahim", in Yediot Aharonot, 6 March 2004, available on-line at http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-2882345,00.html
  76. ^ Shir Lashalom DBpedia.org.
  77. ^ Roger Waters makes mark on Israel's wall. cbca.ca.
  78. ^ Jerusalem Song Club "Zimrat HaAretz".
  79. ^ Ari Ben-Yam. cdbaby.com.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
DO PROTEST SONGS HAVE A FIGHTING CHANCE (1941 words)
Often called protest songs, they are linked to sweeping social movements such as the abolition of slavery, the rise of organized labor, the civil rights struggle and opposition to the Vietnam War, as well as specific topical events-allegedly wrongful executions, mining disasters and the like-that stirred the masses.
The fate of protest songs is a complicated issue for many reasons, not the least of which is the problem of definitions.
That's a far cry from the protest songs of old, which typically appealed to the sense of a common soul, to a conviction of shared struggle and sacrifice.
Protest song - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (433 words)
A protest song is a song intended to protest perceived problems in society such as injustice, racial discrimination, war, globalization, inflation, social inequalities.
Protest songs are generally associated with folk music, but in recent times they have come from all genres of music.
Folk protest songs occur throughout recent history, the oldest protest song on record is The Cutty Wren from the peasants revolt of 1381 against feudal oppression.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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