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Encyclopedia > Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria

Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Stackebrandt et al., 1986
Orders

Alpha Proteobacteria
   Caulobacterales - e.g. Caulobacter
   Parvularculales
   Rhizobiales - e.g. rhizobia
   Rhodobacterales
   Rhodospirillales - e.g. Acetobacter
   Rickettsiales - e.g. Rickettsia
   Sphingomonadales e.g. Sphingomonas
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x861, 165 KB)Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip. ... E. coli redirects here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Genera Asticcacaulis Brevundimonas Caulobacter Phenylobacterium The Caulobacteraceae are a family of proteobacteria, given their own order within the alpha subgroup. ... Binomial name Caulobacter crescentus Poindexter 1964 Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative, oligotrophic bacterium widely distributed in aquatic environments. ... Binomial name Parvularcula bermudensis Cho and Giovannoni, 2003 Parvularcula bermudensis was identified in 2003 in the western Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Families Aurantimonadaceae Bartonellaceae Beijerinckiaceae Bradyrhizobiaceae Brucellaceae Hyphomicrobiaceae Methylobacteriaceae Methylocystaceae Phyllobacteriaceae Rhizobiaceae Rhodobiaceae The Rhizobiales are an order of alpha proteobacteria. ... Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ... Genera Ahrensia Albidovulum Amaricoccus Antarctobacter Catellibacterium Citricella Hyphomonas group Jannaschia Ketogulonicigenium Leisingera Loktanella Marinosulfonomonas Methylarcula Oceanibulbus Oceanicaulis Oceanicola Octadecabacter Pannonibacter Paracoccus Phaeobacter Pseudorhodobacter Pseudovibrio Rhodobaca Rhodobacter Rhodothalassium Rhodovulum Roseibacterium Roseibium Roseinatronobacter Roseisalinus Roseivivax Roseobacter Roseovarius Rubrimonas Ruegeria Sagittula Salipiger Silicibacter Staleya Stappia Sulfitobacter Tetracoccus Thioclava The Rhodobacteraceae are a family... Families Rhodospirillaceae Acetobacteraceae The Rhodospirillales are an order of proteobacteria, with two families. ... Acetobacter is a genus of acetic acid bacteria characterized by the ability to convert alcohol (ethanol) to acetic acid in the presence of air. ... Families Rickettsiaceae Ehrlichiaceae Holosporaceae The Rickettsiales are an order of small proteobacteria. ... Species Rickettsia felis Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia typhi Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia africae etc. ... Genera Blastomonas Citromicrobium Erythrobacter Erythromicrobium Kaistobacter Lutibacterium Novosphingobium Porphyrobacter Sandaracinobacter Sphingobium Sphingomonas Sphingopyxis Zymomonas Sphingomonadaceae are a family of Alpha Proteobacteria that contain all the sphingomonads. ... Species Sphingomonas adhaesiva Sphingomonas aerolata Sphingomonas aquatilis Sphingomonas asaccharolytica Sphingomonas aurantiaca Sphingomonas baekryungensis Sphingomonas chungbukensis Sphingomonas cloacae Sphingomonas echinoides Sphingomonas elodea Sphingomonas faeni Sphingomonas koreensis Sphingomonas mali Sphingomonas melonis Sphingomonas oligophenolica Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis Sphingomonas paucimobilis Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae Sphingomonas pituitosa Sphingomonas pruni Sphingomonas roseiflava Sphingomonas sanguinis Sphingomonas suberifaciens Sphingomonas taejonensis Sphingomonas...


Beta Proteobacteria
   Burkholderiales - e.g. Bordetella
   Hydrogenophilales
   Methylophilales
   Neisseriales - e.g. Neisseria
   Nitrosomonadales
   Rhodocyclales
   Procabacteriales
Families Alcaligenaceae Burkholderiaceae Comamonadaceae Oxalobacteraceae Ralstoniaceae The Burkholderiales are an order of proteobacteria. ... Species B. bronchiseptica etc. ... Genera Hydrogenophilus Thiobacillus The Hydrogenophilaceae are a small family of Proteobacteria, with two genera. ... Genera Methylophilus Methylobacillus Methylovorax The Methylophilaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Genera Alysiella Aquaspirillum Catenococcus Chromobacterium Eikenella Formivibrio Iodobacter Kingella Microvirgula Neisseria Prolinoborus Simonsiella Vitreoscilla Vogesella The Neisseriaceae are a family of gram-negative, parasitic Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Neisseria is a genus of bacteria, included among the proteobacteria, a large group of gram-negative forms. ... Families & Genera Nitrosomonadaceae    Nitrosomonas    Nitrosospira Gallionellaceae    Gallionella Spirillaceae    Spirillum The Nitrosomonadales are a small order of Proteobacteria. ... The Rhodocyclaceae are a family of gram-negative bacteria. ...


Gamma Proteobacteria
   Acidithiobacillales
   Aeromonadales - e.g. Aeromonas
   Alteromonadales - e.g. Pseudoalteromonas
   Cardiobacteriales
   Chromatiales - purple sulfur bacteria
   Enterobacteriales - e.g. Escherichia
   Legionellales - e.g. Legionella
   Methylococcales
   Oceanospirillales
   Pasteurellales - e.g. Haemophilus
   Pseudomonadales - e.g. Pseudomonas
   Thiotrichales - e.g. Thiomargarita
   Vibrionales - e.g. Vibrio
   Xanthomonadales - e.g. Xanthomonas
Families & Genera Acidithiobacillaceae    Acidithiobacillus Thermithiobacillaceae    Thermithiobacillus The Acidithiobacillales are a recently recognized order of Proteobacteria with only two genera, placed in separate families. ... Families & Genera Aeromonadaceae    Aeromonas    Tolumonas Succinivibrionaceae    Anerobiospirillum    Ruminobacter    Succinimonas    Succinivibrio The Aeromonadales are an order of Proteobacteria, with six genera in two families. ... Families & Genera Aeromonadaceae    Aeromonas    Tolumonas Succinivibrionaceae    Anerobiospirillum    Ruminobacter    Succinimonas    Succinivibrio The Aeromonadales are an order of Proteobacteria, with six genera in two families. ... Families Alteromonadaceae Pseudoalteromonadaceae Colwelliaceae Shewanellaceae Moritellaceae Ferrimonadaceae Idiomarinaceae Psychromonadaceae The Alteromonadales are an order of Proteobacteria. ... Species see text Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of marine bacterium. ... Genera Cardiobacterium Dichelobacter Suttonella The Cardiobacteriaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Families Chromatiaceae Ectothiorhodospiraceae Halothiobacillaceae The purple sulfur bacteria are a group of Proteobacteria capable of photosynthesis, collectively referred to as purple bacteria. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Families & Genera Legionellaceae    Fluoribacter    Legionella    Sarcobium    Tatlockia Coxiellaceae    Coxiella    Rickettsiella The Legionellales are an order of proteobacteria. ... Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella bozemanii Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella... Genera Methylomonas Methylobacter Methylococcus Methylomicrobium Methylosphaera Methylocaldum The Methylococcaceae are a family of bacteria that obtain their carbon and energy from methane, called methanotrophs. ... Families Oceanospirillacae Halomonadaceae The Oceanospirillales are an order of Proteobacteria, with two families. ... Genera Actinobacillus Haemophilus Lonepinella Pasteurella Phocoenobacter The Pasteurellaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... Families Pseudomonadaceae Moraxellaceae Branhamaceae The Pseudomonadales are an order of Proteobacteria. ... Type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans... Families Thiotrichaceae Piscirickettsiaceae Francisellaceae The Thiotrichales are an order of proteobacteria, including most notably Thiomargarita namibiensis, the largest known bacterium. ... Binomial name Thiomargarita namibiensis Schulz , 1999 Thiomargarita namibiensis (Sulfur pearl of Namibia) is the largest bacterium ever discovered, with a width up to 750 μm (0. ... Genera Allomonas Beneckea Enhydrobacter Listionella Lucibacterium Photobacterium Salinivibrio Vibrio The Vibrionaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Vibrio is a genus of bacteria, included in the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria. ... Genera Frateuria Luteimonas Lysobacter Nevskia Pseudoxanthomonas Rhodanobacter Stenotrophomonas Xanthomonas Xylella The Xanthomonadaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Species X. albilineans X. ampelina X. arboricola X. axonopodis X. bromi X. campestris X. cassavae X. citri X. codiaei X. cucurbitae X. cynarae X. euvesicatoria X. frageriae X. gardneri X. hortorum X. hyacinthi X. melonis X. oryzae X. perforans X. phaseoli X. pisi X. populi X. sacchari X. theicola X...


Delta Proteobacteria
   Bdellovibrionales - e.g. Bdellovibrio
   Desulfobacterales
   Desulfovibrionales
   Desulfurellales
   Desulfarcales
   Desulfuromonadales - e.g. Geobacter
   Myxococcales - Myxobacteria
   Syntrophobacterales
Genera Bdellovibrio Bacteriovorax Vampirovibrio Micavibrio The Bdellovibrionaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Bdellovibrio is a genus of Gram_negative, obligate aerobic bacteria. ... Families Desulfobacteraceae Desulfobulbaceae Desulfoarculaceae The Desulfobacterales are an order of sulfate-reducing bacteria, included among the Proteobacteria. ... Families & Genera Desulfovibrionaceae    Desulfovibrio    Bilophila    Lawsonia Desulfohalobiaceae    Desulfohalobium    Desulfomonas    Desulfonatronovibrio Desulfomicrobiaceae    Desulfomicrobium Desulfonatronumaceae    Desulfonatronum The Desulfovibrionales are an order of Proteobacteria, with four families. ... Genera Desulfurella Hippea The Desulfurellaceae are a small family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Families & Genera Desulfuromonadaceae    Desulfuromonas    Desulfuromusa Pelobacteraceae    Malonomonas    Pelobacter Geobacteraceae    Geobacter    Trichlorobacter The Desulfomonadales are an order of Proteobacteria, with three families. ... Geobacter is a genus of proteobacteria. ... Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Families & Genera Syntrophobacteraceae    Desulfacinum    Desulforhabdus    Syntrophobacter    Syntrophothermus    Thermaerobacter    Thermodesulforhabdus Syntrophaceae    Syntrophus    Smithella The Syntrophobacterales are an order of Proteobacteria, with two families. ...


Epsilon Proteobacteria
   Campylobacterales - e.g. Helicobacter
   Nautiliales
Families & Genera Campylobacteraceae    Campylobacter    Arcobacter    Sulfurospirillum    Thiovulvum Helicobacteraceae    Helicobacter    Wolinella The Campylobacterales are an order of proteobacteria. ... Binomial name Helicobacter pylori ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) Helicobacter pylori is a helical shaped Gram-negative bacterium that colonises the mucus layer of gastric epithelium in the stomach, and also the duodenum when it has undergone gastric metaplasia. ...

The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera.[1] Others are free-living, and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. The group is defined primarily in terms of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, and is named for the Greek god Proteus (also the name of a bacterial genus within the Proteobacteria), who could change his shape, because of the great diversity of forms found in this group.[2] In biological taxonomy, a phylum (Greek plural: phyla) is a taxon in the rank below kingdom and above class. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Escherichia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness. ... Vibrio is a genus of bacteria, included in the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria. ... Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that infects the mucus lining of the human stomach. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a type of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus by RNA Pol I, is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. ... This article is about Proteus in Greek mythology. ... In biology, Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative Proteobacteria, which includes pathogens responsible for many human urinary tract infections. ...


All Proteobacteria are Gram-negative, with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella, but some are non-motile or rely on bacterial gliding. The last include the myxobacteria, a unique group of bacteria that can aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies. There is also a wide variety in the types of metabolism. Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic and heterotrophic, but there are numerous exceptions. A variety of genera, which are not closely related to each other, convert energy from light through photosynthesis. These are called purple bacteria, referring to their mostly reddish pigmentation. Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Mitochondria structure : 1) Inner membrane 2) Outer membrane 3) Crista 4) Matrix The outer membrane refers to the outside membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, the chloroplast, or the mitochondria. ... Lipopolysaccharide (captions are in French) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide (carbohydrate) joined by a covalent bond. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... Bacterial gliding is a process whereby a bacterium can move under its own power. ... Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... A heterotroph (Greek heteron = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, i. ...


Cavalier-Smith has postulated that Proteobacteria is part of the bacterial clade Gracilicutes. Professor Thomas (Tom) Cavalier-Smith (born October 21, 1942), FRS, FRSC, NERC Professorial Fellow, is a Professor of Evolutionary Biology in the Department of Zoology, at the University of Oxford. ... Kingdoms/Phyla Proteobacteria Planctobacteria Sphingobacteria Spirochaetae Gracilicutes is a taxon created by Cavalier-Smith, which he believes to be a clade comprising the Proteobacteria, the Planctobacteria (comprising Chlamydiae and Planctomycetes), the Sphingobacteria (comprising the green sulfur bacteria and Bacteroidetes), and Spirochaetae. ...

Contents

Sections/Classes

The proteobacteria are divided into five sections, referred to by the Greek letters alpha through epsilon, again based on rRNA sequences. These are often treated as classes. Note the Gamma Proteobacteria are paraphyletic to the Beta Proteobacteria. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ...


Alphaproteobacteria

The Alphaproteobacteria comprise most phototrophic genera, but also several genera metabolising C1-compounds (e.g. Methylobacterium), symbionts of plants (e.g. Rhizobia) and animals, and a group of dangerous pathogens, the Rickettsiaceae. Moreover the precursors of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells are thought to have originated in this bacterial group. (See endosymbiotic theory.) Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ... Genera Rickettsia Orientia Wolbachia The Rickettsiaceae are a family of bacteria, including most notably the genus Rickettsia. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... It has been suggested that Proto-mitochondrion be merged into this article or section. ...


Betaproteobacteria

The Betaproteobacteria consist of several groups of aerobic or facultative bacteria which are often highly versatile in their degradation capacities, but also contain chemolithotrophic genera (e.g. the ammonia-oxidising genus Nitrosomonas) and some phototrophs (genera Rhodocyclus and Rubrivivax). Beta Proteobacteria play an important role in nitrogen fixation in various types of plants, oxidizing ammonium to produce nitrite- an important chemical for plant function. Many of them are found in environmental samples, such as waste water or soil. Pathogenic species within this class are the Neisseriaceae (gonorrhea and meningoencephalitis) and species of the genus Burkholderia. Genera Alysiella Aquaspirillum Catenococcus Chromobacterium Eikenella Formivibrio Iodobacter Kingella Microvirgula Neisseria Prolinoborus Simonsiella Vitreoscilla Vogesella The Neisseriaceae are a family of gram-negative, parasitic Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Gonorrhea (gonorrhoea in British English) is amongst the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world and is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae. ... Species Burkholderia ambifaria Burkholderia andropogonis Burkholderia anthina Burkholderia brasilensis Burkholderia caledonica Burkholderia caribensis Burkholderia caryophylli Burkholderia cenocepacia Burkholderia cepacia Burkholderia cepacia complex Burkholderia dolosa Burkholderia fungorum Burkholderia gladioli Burkholderia glathei Burkholderia glumae Burkholderia graminis Burkholderia hospita Burkholderia kururiensis Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia multivorans Burkholderia phenazinium Burkholderia phymatum Burkholderia phytofirmans Burkholderia plantarii...


Gammaproteobacteria

The Gammaproteobacteria comprise several medically and scientifically important groups of bacteria, such as the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. An exceeding number of important pathogens belongs to this class, e.g. Salmonella (enteritis and typhoid fever), Yersinia pestis (plague), Vibrio (cholera), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (lung infections in hospitalized or cystic fibrosis patients), and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (food posioning). Vibrio cholerae. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Genera Allomonas Beneckea Enhydrobacter Listionella Lucibacterium Photobacterium Salinivibrio Vibrio The Vibrionaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Genera Azomonas Azotobacter Cellvibrio Pseudomonas The Pseudomonadaceae are a family of bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Cellvibrio, together with the Azotobacter group. ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness. ... Enteritis is the inflammation of the small intestine (inflammation of the large intestine is termed colitis). ... For a related disease which is caused by a different bacterium, see Paratyphoid fever. ... Binomial name (Lehmann & Neumann, 1896) van Loghem 1944 Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bipolar-staining (giving it a safety pin appearance) bacillus bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... Vibrio is a genus of bacteria, included in the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884 Bacillus aeruginosus (Schroeter 1872) Trevisan 1885 Bacillus pyocyaneus (Zopf 1884) Flügge 1886 Pseudomonas pyocyanea (Zopf 1884) Migula 1895 Bacterium pyocyaneum (Zopf 1884) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 Pseudomonas polycolor... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ...


Deltaproteobacteria

The Deltaproteobacteria comprise a branch of predominantly aerobic genera, the fruiting-body-forming myxobacteria, and a branch of strictly anaerobic genera, which contains most of the known sulfate- (Desulfovibrio, Desulfobacter, Desulfococcus, Desulfonema, etc.) and sulfur-reducing bacteria (e.g. Desulfuromonas) alongside several other anaerobic bacteria with different physiology (e.g. ferric iron-reducing Geobacter and syntrophic Pelobacter and Syntrophus species). Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Sulfate-reducing bacteria comprise several groups of bacteria that use sulfate as an oxidizing agent, reducing it to sulfide. ... Sulfur-reducing bacteria specialize in producing energy by reducing elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide with hydrogen or organic compounds. ... Geobacter is a genus of proteobacteria. ...


Epsilonproteobacteria

The Epsilonproteobacteria consist of only a few genera, mainly the curved to spirilloid Wolinella, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter. Most of the known species inhabit the digestive tract of animals and humans and serve as symbionts (Wolinella in cows) or pathogens (Helicobacter in the stomach, Campylobacter in the duodenum). There have also been numerous environmental sequences of epsilons recovered from hydrothermal vent and cold seep habitats. Helicobacter pylori bacteria, from the NIH (http://consensus. ... Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that infects the mucus lining of the human stomach. ... Species C. fetus C. jejuni Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... Tubeworms, soft corals and chemosynthetic mussels at a seep located 3,000 metres down on the Florida Escarpment. ...


References

  1. ^ Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed., Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131443291. 
  2. ^ Proteobacteria. Discover Life: Tree of Life. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Proteobacteria
  • Proteobacteria information from Palaeos

  Results from FactBites:
 
Proteobacteria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (496 words)
The group is defined mainly in terms of ribosomal RNA sequences, and is named for the Greek god Proteus (also the name of a bacterial genus within the Proteobacteria), who could change his shape, because of the great diversity of forms found in it.
All Proteobacteria are Gram-negative, with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides.
The proteobacteria are divided into five sections, referred to by the Greek letters alpha through epsilon, again based on rRNA sequences.
Proteobacteria (302 words)
Classically, the photosynthetic proteobacteria were placed in two families, the Chromatiaceae and the Ectothiorhodospiraceae.
The purple nonsulfur bacteria are primarily alpha proteobacteria
Delta- and epsilon- proteobacteria are not photosynthetic; all are chemoorganotrophs
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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