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Encyclopedia > Protein Z

Protein Z is a member of the Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. This article is about a specific medical usage of the term with reference to human bloods mechanisms for forming scabs over wounds. The coagulation of human blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots... coagulation cascade, the group of blood proteins that leads to the formation of A thrombus is the final product of blood coagulation, through the aggregation of platelets and the activation of the humoral coagulation system. Thrombus is physiologic in cases of injury, but pathologic in case of thrombosis. Synonym: Blood clot. See also: thrombolytic drug Categories: Stub | Hematology ... blood clots. It is This article describes the biomolecule known as Vitamin K. For the unrelated drug sometimes referred to in slang as Vitamin K, see Ketamine. Vitamin K is a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquinone derivatives. It is a human vitamin, lipophilic (i.e. soluble in lipids) and therefore hydrophobic (i.e. insoluble... vitamin K-dependent, and its functionality is therefore impaired in Warfarin (also known under the brand name Coumadin®) is an anticoagulant medication that can be administered orally. It is used for the prophylaxis of thrombosis and embolism in many disorders. Its activity has to be monitored by frequent blood testing for the international normalized ratio (INR). In addition to its... warfarin therapy. It is a A glycoprotein is a macromolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (a sugar). The carbohydrate is usually attached to the protein in a posttranslational modification, at either asparagine, hydroxylysine, hydroxyproline, serine, or threonine. Possible carbohydrates include glucose, glucosamine, galactose, galactosamine, mannose, fructose, and sialic acid. The sugar group can... glycoprotein.

Contents

Physiology

Although it is not enzymatically active, it is structurally related to several In biochemistry, a serine proteases or serine endopeptidases (newer name) are a class of peptidases which are characterised by the presence of a serine residue in the active center of the enzyme. Serine proteases participate in a wide range of functions in the body, including blood clotting, inflammation as well... serine proteases of the coagulation cascase: Factor VII (old name proconvertin) is one of the central proteins in the coagulation cascade. It is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.21) of the serine protease class. Physiology The main role of factor VII (FVII) is to initiate the process of coagulation in conjunction with tissue factor (TF... factors VII, Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC 3.4.21.22) of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1. Deficiency of this protein causes hemophilia B. Physiology Factor IX is inactive unless activated by factor XIa (of the contact... IX and Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an enzyme ( EC 3.4.21.6) of the coagulation cascade. It is a serine endopeptidase (protease group S1). Physiology Factor X is synthetised in the liver and requires vitamin K for its synthesis. Factor X... X. The carboxyglutamate residues (which require vitamin K) bind protein Z to Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. A phospholipid is a lipid that is a primary component of cell membranes. Most phospholipids consist of a three-carbon alcohol, glycerol (propan-1,2,3-triol), two fatty acids usually between 14 and 24 carbon atoms in length, a negatively charged phosphate group... phospholipid surfaces.


The main role of protein Z appears to be the degradation of Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an enzyme ( EC 3.4.21.6) of the coagulation cascade. It is a serine endopeptidase (protease group S1). Physiology Factor X is synthetised in the liver and requires vitamin K for its synthesis. Factor X... factor Xa. This is done by protein Z-related protease inhibitor (ZPI), but the reaction is accellerated 1000-fold by the presence of protein Z. Oddly, ZPI also degrades Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecent is one of the enzymes ( EC 3.4.21.27) of the coagulation cascade. Like many other coagulation factors, it is a serine protease. Genetics The gene for factor XI is located on the fourth chromosome (4q35). Physiology Factor XI is produced by the... factor XI, but this reaction does not require the presence of protein Z.


In some studies, deficiency states have been associated with a propensity to Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. Thromboembolism is a general term describing both thrombosis and its main complication: dislodgement of a clot and embolisation. Causes Classically, thrombosis is caused by abnormalities in one or... thrombosis. Others, however, link it to bleeding tendency; there is no clear explanation for this, as it acts physiologically as an inhibitor, and deficiency would logically have led to a predisposition for Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. Thromboembolism is a general term describing both thrombosis and its main complication: dislodgement of a clot and embolisation. Causes Classically, thrombosis is caused by abnormalities in one or... thrombosis.


Genetics

It is 62 The Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse (German: Combat Groups of the Working Class) was a paramilitary organisation in East Germany, founded in 1953 and abolished in 1990. The KdA was similar to a National Guard; however, unlike a National Guard, it was strictly controlled by the governing Socialist Unity Party of Germany... kDa large and 396 In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. In biochemistry, this shorter and more general term is frequently used to refer to alpha amino acids: those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same carbon... amino acids long. The PROZ This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). Introns are regions often found in eukaryote genes which are removed in the splicing process: only the exons encode the protein. This diagram labels a region of only 40... gene has been linked to the thirteenth This article is about the biological chromosome. For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see Chromosome (genetic algorithm). Figure 1: Chromosome. (1) Chromatid. One of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2) Centromere. The point where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3... chromosome (13q34).


It has four domains: a gla-rich (carboxyglutamate) region, two EGF-like domains and a trypsin-like domain. It lacks the Serine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. As a constituent (residue) of proteins, its side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation. This might be important in explaining some of the devastating consequences of diabetes. It is one of three amino acids residues that is... serine residue that would make it catalytically active as a In biochemistry, a serine proteases or serine endopeptidases (newer name) are a class of peptidases which are characterised by the presence of a serine residue in the active center of the enzyme. Serine proteases participate in a wide range of functions in the body, including blood clotting, inflammation as well... serine protease.


History

Protein Z was first isolated in Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. They are raised as livestock for meat (called beef and veal), dairy products (milk), leather and as draught animals (pulling carts, plows and the like). In some countries they are... cattle blood by Prowse and Esnouf in 1977, and Broze & Miletich determined it in human plasma in 1984.


References

  • Broze GJ Jr, Miletich JP. Human Protein Z. J Clin Invest 1984;73:933-8. PMID 6707212.
  • Prowse CV, Esnouf MP. The isolation of a new warfarin-sensitive protein from bovine plasma. Biochem Soc Trans 1977;5:255-256. PMID 892175.

External link

  • The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. It is available as a book titled Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM), which is currently in its 12th... OMIM 176895  (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=176895)
  • Human Protein Reference Database (http://www.hprd.org/protein/07182)


The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. Functions Following are some basic functions of the human circulatory system: Delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. Collection of metabolic wastes and delivery to the excretory... Cardiovascular system - Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells ( red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). Medical terms related to blood often begin in hemo- or... Blood
Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. Red blood cells are also known as RBCs or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for red and kytos for... Red blood cells - White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. White blood cells (also called leukocytes or immune cells) are a component of blood. They help to defend the body against infectious disease and foreign materials as part of the immune system. There are normally between 4x109 and... White blood cells - A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. Platelets or thrombocytes are the blood cell fragments that are involved in the cellular mechanisms that lead to the formation of blood clots. Low levels or dysfunction predisposes for bleeding, while high levels - although usually asymptomatic - may increase the risk of thrombosis... Platelets - Blood plasma is a component of blood. It is the liquid in which blood cells are suspended. Blood plasma contains proteins, nutrients, metabolic end products, hormones, and inorganic electrolytes. Serum is the same as blood plasma except that clotting factors (such as fibrin) have been removed. Plasma resembles whey in... Blood plasma
White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. White blood cells (also called leukocytes or immune cells) are a component of blood. They help to defend the body against infectious disease and foreign materials as part of the immune system. There are normally between 4x109 and... White blood cells
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells, characterised by the fact that all types have differently staining granules in their cytoplasm on light microscopy. They are also being referred to as polymorphnuclear leukocytes (PMN or PML), because of the varying shapes of the nucleus, which is usually lobed into... Granulocytes ( Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. Role in blood Neutrophil granulocytes have an average volume of 330 femtoliters (fl) and a diameter of 12-15 micrometers (┬Ám) in peripheral blood smears. They are the most... Neutrophil granulocytes, Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. These cells, transparent in vivo, appear brick-red when stained by the Romanowsky method. The red colour is visible as small granules within the cell. These granules contain histamine and other chemicals that are... Eosinophil granulocytes, Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Biology stubs | Blood and immune system cells ... Basophil granulocytes) - A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. There are two broad categories of lymphocytes, namely T cells and B cells. Lymphocytes play an important and integral part of the bodys defenses. T-cells are responsible for cell mediated immunity... Lymphocytes - A monocyte is a white blood cell, part of the human bodys immune system. It is one of the 5 major types of white blood cell, based on the appearance of white blood cells, in stained smears, as viewed under a light microscope. Monocytes evolve from the bone marrow... Monocytes
Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. This article is about a specific medical usage of the term with reference to human bloods mechanisms for forming scabs over wounds. The coagulation of human blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots... Coagulation
Coagulation factors: - Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. It is a fibrillar protein that is polymerised to form a mesh that forms a haemostatic plug or clot (in conjunction with platelets) over a wound site. Fibrin is made from its zymogen fibrinogen, a soluble plasma glycoprotein that is... Fibrin (I) - Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. It is in fact an enzyme of the serine protease type (EC 3.4.21.5), and therefore acts by cleaving proteins at certain locations. Its main action is to turn fibrinogen into fibrin... Thrombin (II) - Factor V is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor. In contrast to most other coagulation factors, it is not enzymatically active but functions as a cofactor. Deficiency leads to predisposition for hemorrhage, while some mutations (most notably factor V Leiden) predispose for... FV - Factor VII (old name proconvertin) is one of the central proteins in the coagulation cascade. It is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.21) of the serine protease class. Physiology The main role of factor VII (FVII) is to initiate the process of coagulation in conjunction with tissue factor (TF... FVII - Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential clotting factor. The lack of normal FVIII causes Hemophilia A, an inherited bleeding disorder. Genetics The gene for Factor VIII is located on the X chromosome (Xq28). Physiology FVIII is a glycoprotein synthesized and released into the bloodstream by the liver. In the circulating... FVIII - Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC 3.4.21.22) of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1. Deficiency of this protein causes hemophilia B. Physiology Factor IX is inactive unless activated by factor XIa (of the contact... FIX - Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an enzyme ( EC 3.4.21.6) of the coagulation cascade. It is a serine endopeptidase (protease group S1). Physiology Factor X is synthetised in the liver and requires vitamin K for its synthesis. Factor X... FX - Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecent is one of the enzymes ( EC 3.4.21.27) of the coagulation cascade. Like many other coagulation factors, it is a serine protease. Genetics The gene for factor XI is located on the fourth chromosome (4q35). Physiology Factor XI is produced by the... FXI - The Hageman factor, is a plasma protein now usually known as factor XII. It is part of the coagulation cascade and activates factor XI and prekallikrein. It is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.38) of the serine protease (or serine endopeptidase) class. Hageman factor deficiency is a rare hereditary... FXII - Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor is an enzyme (EC 2.3.2.13) of the blood coagulation system that crosslinks fibrin. When thrombin has converted fibrinogen to fibrin, the latter forms a proteinaceous network in which every E-unit is crosslinked to only one D-unit. Factor XIII is... FXIII - High-molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), also known as the Williams-Fitzgerald-Flaujeac factor or the Fitzgerald factor is a protein from the blood coagulation system as well as the kinin-kallikrein system. Nomenclature High-molecular weight kininogen is one of the kininogens, a class of proteins. As with many other... HMWK - Von Willebrand factor (vWF, also called Factor VIII-related antigen) is a blood protein of the coagulation system. It is defective in von Willebrand disease and is involved in a large number of other diseases, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Heydes syndrome, and possibly hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Biochemistry Synthesis vWF... vWF
Inhibitors: Antithrombin is a small molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system. Its affinity for these molecules (i.e. its effectivity) is enhanced by heparin. Function Antithrombin is a serpin (serine protease inhibitor) that inactivates a number of enzymes from the coagulation system, namely Factor X, Factor IX and... Antithrombin - Protein C is a major physiological anticoagulant. It is a vitamin K-dependant serine protease enzyme (EC 3.4.21.69) that is activated by thrombin into activated protein C (APC). The activated form (with protein S as a cofactor) degrades Factor Va and Factor VIIIa, which are themselves cofactors... Protein C - Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver and it functions as a cofactor to Protein C in the inactivation of Factors Va and VIIIa. In the circulation, Protein S exists in two forms: a free form and a complex form bound to complement protein... Protein S - Protein Z - ZPI - TFPI
Fibrinolysis is the process where a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down. Its main enzyme, plasmin, cuts the fibrin mesh at various places, leading to the production of circulating fragments that are cleared by other proteinases or by the kidney and liver. Physiology Plasmin is produced in... Fibrinolysis: Plasmin is an important degrading enzyme (EC 3.4.21.7) of many proteins of blood plasma but specifically of fibrin clots. This process is termed fibrinolysis. It is a serine protease that is released as plasminogen into the circulation and activated by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), thrombin, fibrin and... Plasmin - In blood coagulation, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.68) that activates plasminogen, leading to fibrinolysis. Recombinant tPA is used in diseases which feature blood clots, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. To be effective, tPA must be administered within the first three hours of... tPA/uPA - PAI-1/2 - Alpha 2-antiplasmin (or α2-antiplasmin or plasmin inhibitor) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) responsible for inactivating plasmin, an important enzyme that participates in fibrinolysis and degradation of various other proteins. The gene for A2AP is located on the short arm of the 17th chromosome (17pter-p12). Role... α2-AP

  Results from FactBites:
 
Protein Z - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (339 words)
Protein Z is a member of the coagulation cascade, the group of blood proteins that leads to the formation of blood clots.
The main role of protein Z appears to be the degradation of factor Xa.
Protein Z was first isolated in cattle blood by Prowse and Esnouf in 1977, and Broze and Miletich determined it in human plasma in 1984.
Fertility Neighborhood : Miscarriage May be Linked to Protein Levels (1166 words)
Additionally, tests for anti-clotting protein Z and free protein S antigen were taken during the second and third trimesters in 51 women who had adverse pregnancy outcomes and 51 equally matched women with no pregnancy complications.
Additionally, when analyzing the results of tests on anti-clotting protein levels in women in their second and third trimesters, "there was a significant decrease in the protein Z levels in patients with abnormal pregnancy outcome compared to normal pregnancy outcome," the researchers reported.
Protein Z, protein S levels are lower in patients with thrombophilia and subsequent pregnancy complications.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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