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Encyclopedia > Protectorate

In international law a protectorate is a political entity (a sovereign state or less developed native polity, such as a tribal chiefstainship or feudal princely state) that formally agrees by treaty to enter into an unequal relationship with another, stronger state, called the protector, which engages to protect it (diplomatically or, if needed, militarily) against third parties, in exchange for which the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ...

Contents

Rationale

In the case of so-called amical protection, mainly extended by the great powers to fellow Christian (generally European) states and tiny ones without significant intrinsic importance, the terms may often be very favorable for the protectorate. The political interest of the protector is often moral (a matter of image, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, dynastic, historical or ethno-cultural ties, etc.), and/or countering a rival or enemy power, e.g. preventing the Ottoman empire from maintaining or obtaining control of areas of strategic importance. Even if this involves the very weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations, this may constitute no real sacrifice, since they would not have been able to get similar use out of them without the muscle which only the protector can field for its interest. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Often the conditions are far less generous in areas of colonial protection. Here the western powers were generally after real control, so eager to obtain terms that reduced the protectorate to a de facto condition rather similar to a colony, but using the pre-existing native state as an ideal agent of indirect rule; sometimes a protectorate was even established by and/or exercised by the other form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which truly becomes a de facto state 'in' its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to conduct its own foreign policy and generally disposing of its own armed forces. Occident redirects here. ... In biochemistry, the native state of a protein is its operative or functional form. ... Indirect rule is a type of European colonial policy as practiced in large parts of British India (see Princely states) and elsewhere in the British Empire (including Malaya), in which the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure. ... The arms of the British South Africa Company A chartered company is an association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration and colonisation. ...


In fact, 'protectorates' were even declared which were not even duly entered into by pre-existent traditional states, or only by a party in its internal politics of dubious authority, while colonial 'protectors' frequently decided on their own to 'reshuffle' several protectorates into a new, artificial unit, a logic not quite respectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain the protectorate's status and integrity. The Berlin agreemeent of February 26, 1895 actually stipulated that the colonial powers could declare in Black Africa (the last continent to be further carved up between them) protectorates that could be established by diplomatical notification, even without actual possession on the ground. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as 'colony' and 'protectorate' for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer/protector, of geographically proximious territories over which it held (de facto) sway by protective or 'raw' colonial logic. A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south...


In practice, a protectorate often has direct foreign relations only with the protecting power, so other states must deal with it by approaching the protector. Similarly, the protectorate rarely takes military action on its own, but relies on the protector for its defence. This is distinct from annexation, in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate. This article is about negotiations. ... In diplomatic usage, the term protecting power refers to a relationship that may occur when two countries do not have diplomatic relations. ...


Protectorates differ from League of Nations Mandates, and similar United Nations Trust Territories, which gave in practice similar authority to "responsible" Western powers or Japan in various areas of the non-European world over former colonial possessions (including protectorates) of the losers in World Wars I and II, since a protectorate formally enters into the protection itself, while the international mandates are imposed upon them by the 'world community-representing body'. Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... United Nations Trust Territories were the successors of the League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ...

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

British & Commonwealth protectorates

Protection is a long-established term in English law for the duty of a sovereign to keep the subject safe from harm, including harm done by the sovereign; the subject has a corresponding duty of allegiance and obedience. Thus, in 1775, George III declared the thirteen colonies "out of his protection" for their disobedience — almost equivalent to a declaration of war. English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed by a subject or a citizen to his state or sovereign. ... Look up Obedience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... “George III” redirects here. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


When the British took over Cephallenia in 1809, they proclaimed that "We present ourselves to you, Inhabitants of Cephalonia, not as Invaders, with views of conquest, but as Allies who hold forth to you the advantages of British protection." When the British continued to occupy the Ionian Islands after the Napoleonic wars, they did not formally annex the islands, but described them as a protectorate. The islands were constituted by the Treaty of Paris in 1815 as the independent United States of the Ionian Islands under British protection. Kefalonia also known as Cephalonia, Kefallinia, or Cefalonia (Ancient Greek: Κεφαλλήνια Modern Greek: Κεφαλλονιά), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi NÄ“soi) are a group of islands in Greece. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... The Treaty of Paris of 1815 was signed on November 20, 1815, following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, 18 June. ... Capital Corfù[1] Largest city  - 1856 (est. ...


Other British protectorates followed. In 1894 Prime Minister William Gladstone's government officially announced that Uganda was to become a British Protectorate, where Muslim and Christian strife had attracted international attention. The British administration installed carefully selected local kings under a program of indirect rule through the local oligarchy, creating a network of British-controlled civil service. Most British protectorates were overseen by a Commissioner or a High Commissioner, rather than a Governor. 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886 and 1892–94). ... The Roman civil service in action. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ...


British law made a distinction between a protectorate and protected state. Constitutionally the two were of similar status: The Middlesex Guildhall will be home to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom has three distinct legal systems. ...

  • Britain controlled defence and external relations in both cases
  • however in protectorates Britain established an internal government, while in protected states a form of local internal self-government was already in existence.

Persons connected with former British protectorates, protected states, mandated or trust territories may still be British protected persons if they did not acquire the nationality of their country at independence. (See British nationality law) British Protected Person (BPP) is a form of British nationality under the British Nationality Act 1981. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ...

Other cases include:

Americas

The article is about the Central American area. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ...

Middle East

Aden Protectorate (Arabic: عدن حماية []) (ca. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Regional map showing the word Bahr Fars, (Persian Sea) in Arabic, from the 9th century text Al-aqalim by Persian geographer Istakhri. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ...

South and South East Asia

Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... North Borneo was a British Protectorate and later Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in what is now the province of Sabah Malaysia. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Unfederated Malay States were five Malay states, namely Johore Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Perlis Together the states were not a single entity but merely a category to describe those states which were not Federated Malay States or Straits Settlements. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku Capital Kuching Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin  - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - Brooke dynasty 1841   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 124,450... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Subsaharan Africa

The mountainous and largely arid land that came to be Basutoland was populated by San (bushmen, Qhuaique) until the end of the 16th century. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of British Central Africa The British Central Africa Protectorate existed in the area of present-day Malawi between 1891 and 1907. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The East Africa Protectorate was a British dependency extending from the Indian Ocean inland to Uganda. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An 1887 map showing the Crown Colony of Bechuanaland (shaded pink) and the Bechuanaland Protectorate (pink border) The Bechuanaland Protectorate (BP) was a protectorate established on March 31, 1885 by the United Kingdom in southern Africa. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Modern-day The Gambia was once part of the Ghana and Songhai Empires. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ghana (disambiguation). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Motto Harambee(Swahili) Let us all pull together Anthem Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu O God of All Creation Capital (and largest city) Nairobi Official languages Swahili (since 1963), English[1] Demonym Kenyan Government Republic  -  President Mwai Kibaki  -  Vice President Moody Awori Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Date December 12, 1963... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Republic of Malawi is a land-locked nation in east Africa. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Map of the Gulf of Guinea showing the Bight of Bonny. ... The Bight of Benin is a bay on the western African coast that extends eastward for about 400 miles (640 km) from Cape St. ... The Niger Coast Protectorate was a British protectorate in the Oil Rivers area of present-day Nigeria, originally established as the Oil Rivers Protectorate in 1891, renamed on 12 May 1893, and merged with the chartered territories of the Royal Niger Company on 1 January 1900 to form the colony... Northern Nigeria was a British colony formed in 1900 from the interior territories of the Royal Niger Company, north from about where the Niger River and Benin River joined at Lokoja. ... Southern Nigeria was a British protectorate in the coastal areas of modern-day Nigeria, formed in 1900 from union of the Niger Coast Protectorate with territories chartered by the Royal Niger Company below Lokoja on the Niger River. ... The Niger Coast Protectorate was a British protectorate in the Oil Rivers area of present-day Nigeria, originally established as the Oil Rivers Protectorate in 1884, renamed on 12 May 1893, and merged with the chartered territories of the Royal Niger Company on 1 January 1900 to form the colony... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bais may refer to: Bais City, a city located in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines Bais, a commune of the Ille-et-Vilaine département, in France Bais, a commune of the Mayenne département, in France Bais Rajput, Rajputs/kshatriya living in Unnao/Raibarely dist of UP India... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Although momentous change occurred during the colonial era in Uganda, some characteristics of late-nineteenth century African society survived to reemerge at the time of independence. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walvis Bay, Namibia Walvis Bay, (Dutch/Afrikaans Walvisbaai, German Walfischbucht or Walfischbai, meaning Whale Bay), is a port in Namibia and the bay on which it lies. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Oceania

Motto: To Lead is to Serve Anthem: God Save Our Solomon Islands Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Honiara Largest city Honiara English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Nathaniel Waena  - Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare Independence from the UK   - Date 7 July 1978  Area  - Total 28,896... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Gilbert and Ellice Islands were a British protectorate from 1892 and colony from 1916 — until 1 January 1976 when the islands were divided into two different colonies which became independent nations shortly after. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Dutch

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

German

The German Empire (Second Reich) used the word Schutzgebiet, literally 'protectorate', for its true colonies as well until they were lost during World War I. Cases involving indirect rule included; For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


In the Pacific:

In Africa: German New Guinea (Ger. ...

Besides these colonial uses, within Europe the Nazi Third Reich established: Wituland (also Witu or Swahililand) was an approximately 3000 km² territory in East Africa centered on the town of Witu just inland from Indian Ocean port of Lamu north of the mouth of the Tana River in what is now Kenya. ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904... Motto: Unité, Travail, Progrès (French: Unity, Work, Progress) Anthem: Burundi bwacu Capital Bujumbura Largest city Bujumbura Official language(s) Kirundi and French Government President Republic Pierre Nkurunziza Independence  - Date From Belgium July 1, 1962 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   27,830 km² (142nd) 7. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The system of diplomatic rank has over time been formalised on an international basis. ...

French protectorates

Most French protectorates were rather colonial: The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of Saarland, was a protectorate under French control between 1947 and 1959. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of the Saarland, was from governed by the League of Nations under the Treaty of Versailles from 1920 until a plebicite in 1935, when it was returned to Germany. ...


Asia

Arcot is a city and metropolitan district in Vellore District of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

North African and Indian Ocean Muslim cultures

  • Comoros 21 April 1886 French protectorate (Anjouan *) till 25 Jul 1912 annexed
  • present Djibouti was originally, since 24 June 1884, the Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura (Territoires Française d'Obock, Tadjoura, Dankils et Somalis), a French protectorate recognized by Britain on 9 February 1888, renamed on 20 May 1896 as French Somaliland (Côte Française des Somalis).
  • Mauritania on 12 May 1903 French protectorate; within Mauritanian several traditional states:
    • Adrar emirate since 9 January 1909 French protectorate (before Spanish)
    • the Taganit confederation's emirate (founded by Idaw `Ish dynasty), since 1905 under French protectorate.
    •  ? Brakna confederation's emirate
    • Trarza confederation's emirate since 15 December 1902 a French protectorate
  • Morocco - most of the sultanate was 30 March 1912 - 2 March 1956 French protectorate *
  • over Madagascar Traditional States
  • Tunisia 12 May 1881 becomes a French protectorate by treaty. ... 20 March 1956 French protectorate terminated.

is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Adrar, a Berber word meaning mountain, is the name of several areas in Northwest Africa: the province of Adrar, Mauritania the Adrar Plateau in Mauritania the city of Adrar, Algeria Adrar Province, Algeria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same... Brakna is a region in south-west Mauritania. ... Trarza is a region in south-west Mauritania. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sub-saharan Africa

Dahomey was the name of a country in Africa now called the Republic of Benin. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cotonou is the economic capital of Benin, as well as its largest city. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Porto-Novo, population 179,138 (1992), is the official capital of Benin. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Bangassou is a city in the south eastern Central African Republic, lying on the north bank of the Oubangui River. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Upper Volta (French Haute-Volta) was the name of the African country now called Burkina Faso until August 4, 1984. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Zinder (which is locally called Damagaram) is the second largest city in Niger, with a population of 170,574 (2001 census) now it is about 200,000. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Oceania

  • in French Polynesia, mainly the Society Islands (several other were immediately annexed)
    • 1842 Otaheiti (native king styled Ari`i rahi) becomes a French protectorate known as Tahiti
    • 1880 Ra`iatea and Taha`a (after temporary annexation by Otaheiti; (title Ari`i) a French protectorate
    • 16 Jan 1844 Mangareva (on eof the of Gambier Islands; ruler title `Akariki) a French protectorate.
  • on Wallis and Futuna:
    • 4 November 1842 Wallis declared to be a French protectorate by King of Uvea and Captain Mallet of ...
    • 5 April 1887 `Uvea (Wallis) becomes a French protectorate.

The Society Islands (French: Îles de la Société or offically Archipel de la Société) are a group of islands in the south Pacific, administratively part of French Polynesia. ... Map of French Polynesia Map of Tahiti and Moorea Tahiti is the largest island of French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean at . ... Mangareva is the central, and most important island of the Gambier Islands, in French Polynesia. ... The Gambier Islands (French: Îles Gambier or Archipel des Gambier) are a small group of islands in French Polynesia, located at the southeast terminus of the Tuamotu archipelago. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the Pacific island, see Wallis Island. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ...

Italian

In Europe:

In the colonial empire: is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006...

  • Ethiopia: the 2 May 1889 Treaty of Wuchale, in the Italian language version, stated that Ethiopia was to become an Italian protectorate, while the Ethiopian Amharic language version merely stated that the Emperor could, if he so chose, go through Italy to conduct foreign affairs. When the differences in the versions came to light, Emperor Menelik II abrogated first the article in question (XVII), and later the whole treaty. The event culminated in the First Italo-Ethiopian War, in which Ethiopia was victorious and defended her sovereignty in 1896.
  • in Libya: on 15 October 1912 Italian protectorate declared over Cirenaica (Cyrenaica) until 17 May 1919.
  • in Somalia: 3 August 1889 Benadir Coast Italian Protectorate (in the north east; unoccupied until May 1893), until 16 March 1905 when it changed to the Italian Somalia (Italian Somaliland) colony.
    • Majerteen or Harti sultanate since 7 April 1889 under Italian protectorate (renewed 7 Apr 1895), then in 1927 incorporated into the Italian colony.
    • Sultanate of Hobyo (formerly the Hiraab Imamate until it's conquest by a Majerteen warlord) since Dec 1888 under Italian protectorate (renewed 11 Apr 1895), then in Oct 1925 incorporated into the Italian colony (known as Obbia).

May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Treaty of Wuchale was a treaty signed by King Menelik of Shewa, later the Emperor of Ethiopia with Count Pietro Antonelli of Italy in the town of Wuchale on May 2, 1889. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[2] primarily in Italy. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... Emperor Menelik II (Geez ምኒልክ) baptized as Sahle Maryam (August 17, 1844 – December 12, 1913), was of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. ... Combatants Italy Ethiopia Commanders Oreste Baratieri Menelik II Strength 17,000 100,000 (estimated) Casualties 13,133 17,000 The First Italo–Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia in 1895-1896. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... The Majeerteen or Majerteen(Mohamed bin Harti bin Amaleh bin Abdi bin Mohammed bin Abdirahman al-Jaberti) is a Somali clan, part of the Harti group of the Darod clan. ... Harti (also Herti; In Somali it means Strong man) is a Somali sub-clan of Darood. ... The Sultanate of Hobyo was carved out of the former Hawiye Imamate of Hobyo by a Majerteen pretender to the throne by the name of Yuusuf Ali Keenadid. ...

Japanese

This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Russian

The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

Spanish

  • in Morocco 27 November 1912 - 7 April 1956 the so-called Spanish Zone (de jure joint protectorate but de facto most of the sultanate was under French protection).
  • in Mauritania: Adrar emirate since 1886 under Spanish protectorate till 9 January 1909, then a French protectorate.

is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adrar, a Berber word meaning mountain, is the name of several areas in Northwest Africa: the province of Adrar, Mauritania the Adrar Plateau in Mauritania the city of Adrar, Algeria Adrar Province, Algeria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same...

Joint protectorates

compare condominium

In international law, a condominium is a territory in which two sovereign powers have equal rights. ... Ragusa can refer to: The city of Ragusa in Sicily, Italy. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Capital Corfù[1] Largest city  - 1856 (est. ... A republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under joined Russian-Turkish sovereignity in the Ionian Islands. ... The Italian title provveditore or proveditore (plural -tori), he who sees to things, was the style of various (but not all) local district governors in the extensive, mainly maritime empire of the Venetian dogal republic. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... Geography The capital of the Cephallonia prefecture is Argostoli. ... Zakýnthos (Ζάκυνθος, also known as Zante), the third largest of the Ionian Islands, covers an area of 410 square kilometers and its coastline is roughly 123 kilometers in length. ... Lefkada, or Lefkas (Greek: Modern: Λευκάδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -as) is an Greek island in the Ionian Sea, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge. ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Kythira, also seen as Kythera, Cythera or Tsirigo, is an island, one of the Ionian Islands. ... Paxi (Greek Παξοί) formerly known as Paxos and sometimes spelled Paxoi, is the smallest of the Ionian Islands. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

Contemporary usage by the United States

Some agencies of the United States government, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency, still use the term protectorate to refer to insular areas of the United States such as Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, as were the Philippines and (it can be argued via the Platt Amendment) Cuba at the end of Spanish colonial rule. However, the agency responsible for the administration of those areas, the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) within the United States Department of Interior exclusively uses the term insular area rather than protectorate. The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... EPA redirects here. ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Page one of the Platt Amendment The Platt Amendment was a rider amended to the Army Appropriations Act, a United States federal law passed on March 2, 1901 that stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War, and defined the... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Office of Insular Affairs is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that manages several United States possessions. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ...


See also

A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ... The Chinese Protectorate was an administrative body responsible for the well-being of ethnic Chinese residents of the Straits Settlements during that territorys British colonial period. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ... Protector is historical title with multiple meanings; this article also includes a few litteral equivalents thus rendered // Political & Administrative Heads of State in Europe in Iceland: one Sovereign was styled Beskytter af hele e Island (Protector of Land of Iceland) 25 Jun - 22 Aug 1809 (an intermezzo between Danish Governors... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... British Protected Person (BPP) is a form of British nationality under the British Nationality Act 1981. ... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of...

Sources and references

(incomplete)

  • WorldStatesmen- see each modern state, here grouped by colonial/protecting power
  • Nouveau Larousse Illustré, undated, early 20th century, in French

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oliver Cromwell - The Founding of the Protectorate (754 words)
On the morning of Monday 19 December the Council gathered for what appears to have been quite a brief meeting which decided various procedural matters, including the form of address to be used by petitioners, ambassadors and others, and the appointment of Henry Lawrence as chairman and president of the Council.
The newspapers reported that “this day with sound of Trumpet and great solemnity, his Excellence was proclaimed Protector of the Three Nations…by a Serjeant at Arms at the Exchange in London, the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Common Councel being present, and in several other places of the City of London and in Westminster”.
Oliver, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, considering that whereas the exercise of the chief Magistracy and the administration of Government within the said Commonwealth is invested and established in his Highnesse assisted with a Councel.
The Protectorate Military (1564 words)
Protectorate warships are capable of striking orbital targets from safe jump distance and with a different take on jump technology are capable of more mobility than that of any other fleet.
The dress uniform of the Protectorate Marine Corps is similar to that of the Navy except that the color is dark blue instead of fl.
The dress uniform of the Protectorate Army is a yellow shirt with a necktie, grey trousers, and a peaked hat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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