FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Protected cruiser
A schematic section of a protected cruiser illustrating the protection scheme. Red lines are the armoured deck and gun shield and grey areas are the protective coal bunkers. Note the deck is thickest on the slopes, that the upper coal bunker is divided longitudinally to allow the outer layer of coal to be maintained while the inner bunker is emptied and the watertight double-bottom.
A schematic section of a protected cruiser illustrating the protection scheme. Red lines are the armoured deck and gun shield and grey areas are the protective coal bunkers. Note the deck is thickest on the slopes, that the upper coal bunker is divided longitudinally to allow the outer layer of coal to be maintained while the inner bunker is emptied and the watertight double-bottom.

Protected cruisers were a type of naval cruiser of the late 19th century. They were so known because their armour protected their vital machine spaces. They were less well protected than armoured cruisers which also had a belt of armour along the sides. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The armored cruiser was a naval cruiser protected by armor on its sides as well as on the decks and gun positions. ...

Contents

Design features

After the introduction of the explosive shell, warships needed additional protection, and protected cruisers were constructed from about 1880. A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ...


In the protected cruiser, the majority of the armour was arranged on a special deck inside the vessel, protecting the boilers and steam engines. It was angled on either wing, appearing trapezoid in cross-section, which gave the best protection for the least amount of armour. The armour tended to range from 2 to 3 inches (5 to 7.5 cm) in thickness, and was thickest on the slopes where it afforded most protection. Protected cruisers would also use armour for the guns and conning tower. The coal bunkers were arranged so that they offered the most protective value. A conning tower was an armoured observation post on a warship from where the vessel was controlled during a battle. ...


Typically protected cruisers displaced from 2,500 to 7,000 tons, and were armed with up to a dozen single guns of between 3.9 and 6 inches (100 to 152 mm) in calibre. They were capable of speeds of 18 - 23 knots. The word caliber (American English) or calibre (British English) comes from the Italian calibro, itself from the Arabic quâlib, meaning mould. ...


Around 1910, armour plate began to increase in quality and steam turbine engines, lighter and more powerful than previous reciprocating engines. came into use. Existing protected cruisers became obsolescent as they were slower and less well protected than new ships. Oil firing of boilers was introduced, making side bunkers of coal unnecessary and losing the protection they afforded. Protected cruisers were replaced by "light armoured cruisers" with a side armoured belt and armoured decks instead of the single deck, later developed into heavy cruisers. A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. ... A light cruiser is a warship, in particular a cruiser. ... The term heavy cruiser is used to refer to large cruisers, a form of warship. ...


Protected cruisers in the United States Navy

The first protected cruiser of the United States Navy "New Navy" was the USS Atlanta, launched in October 1884, soon followed by the Boston in December, and Chicago a year later. A numbered series of cruisers began with Newark (Cruiser No. 1), although Charleston (Cruiser No. 2) was the first to be launched, in July 1888, and ending with another Charleston, Cruiser No. 22, launched in 1904. The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The second USS Atlanta was a protected cruiser and one of the first steel warships of the New Navy of the 1880s. ... The fifth USS Boston, a protected cruiser, was launched 4 December 1884 by John Roach and Sons, Chester, Pennsylvania, and commissioned 2 May 1887, Captain F. M. Ramsey in command. ... The first USS Chicago (later CA-14) was a protected cruiser of the United States Navy, the largest of the original three authorized by Congress for the New Navy. She was launched 5 December 1885 by John Roach and Sons, Chester, Pennsylvania, sponsored by Edith Cleborne (daughter of Navy Medical... The first USS Newark (C-1) was a United States Navy protected cruiser, the first modern cruiser in the US fleet. ... The second USS Charleston (C-2) was a United States Navy protected cruiser. ... The third USS Charleston (C-22) (later CA-19) was a United States Navy -class protected cruiser. ...


The reclassification of 17 July 1920 put an end to the US usage of the term "protected cruiser", the existing ships designated as plain "cruisers" with new numbers (so that the armored cruisers could retain their numbers unchanged). July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ...


Protected cruisers in the Royal Navy

The British Royal Navy rated cruisers as first, second and third class between the late 1880's and 1905, and built large numbers of them for their extensive trade protection requirements. For the majority of this period, these cruisers were built with a "protected," rather than armoured scheme of protection for their hull. First class protected cruisers were as large and as well-armed as armoured cruisers, and were built as an alternative to the large first class armoured cruiser from the late 1880's till 1898. Second class protected cruisers were smaller, displacing 3,000-5,500 tons and were of value both in trade protection duties and scouting with the fleet. Third class cruisers were smaller, lacked a watertight double bottom, and were intended primarily for trade protection duties, though a few small cruisers were built for fleet scout roles or as "torpedo" cruisers during the "protected" era. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


The introduction of Krupp armour in six inch thickness rendered the "armoured" protection scheme more effective for the largest first class cruisers, and no large first class protected cruisers were built after 1898. The smaller cruisers, unable to bear the weight of heavy armoured belts retained the "protected" scheme up to 1905, when the last units of the Challenger and Highflyer class were completed. There was a general hiatus in British cruiser production after this time, apart from a few classes of small, fast scout cruisers for fleet duties. When the Royal Navy began building larger cruisers(+4000 tons) again around 1910, they used a mix of armoured decks and/or armoured belts for protection, depending on class. These modern, turbine powered cruisers are properly classified as light cruisers.


Surviving examples

A few protected cruisers have survived as museum ships: USS Wisconsin is one of three Iowa class battleships opened to the public as a museum, and one of two Iowa class battleships maintained in the US Mothball fleet. ...

The Aurora (Russian: Авро́ра; English transliteration: Avrora) is a Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... HNLMS Bonaire was a 4th class screw steamship of the Royal Netherlands Navy, now under restoration as a museum ship. ... Satellite image of the Ems estuary showing the location of Delfzijl (left bank, center) Delfzijl is a municipality and city in the northeast of the Netherlands. ... USS Olympia (C-6) is a protected cruiser in the United States Navy during the Spanish-American War. ... This article is becoming very long. ... La Spezia (Spèsa in the local dialect of Ligurian) is a city in the Liguria region of northern Italy, at the head of La Spezia Gulf, and capital city of the province of La Spezia. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Protected cruiser - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (305 words)
Protected cruisers were a type of naval cruiser of the late 19th century.
Protected cruisers appeared about 1880 and disappeared about 1910, when countries started to build light cruisers, with armored sides and decks instead.
The first protected cruiser of the "New Navy" was the USS Atlanta, launched in October 1884, soon followed by the Boston in December, and Chicago a year later.
Armored cruiser - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (604 words)
The armored cruiser was a naval cruiser protected by armor on its sides as well as on the decks and gun positions.
Armored cruisers were the chief combatants in two naval battles: the Battle of Ulsan in the Russo-Japanese War, and the Battle of Coronel in World War I, and played important supporting roles in other battles of the period.
The last armored cruisers were built around 1910, after technological developments allowed the type to evolve alongside battleships by including a uniform main gun armament and increasing their speeds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m