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Encyclopedia > Proscription

Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. It is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" and is a heavily politically-charged word frequently used to refer to state-approved murder or persecution. Proscription implies the elimination en masse of political rivals or personal enemies, and the term is frequently used in connection with violent revolutions, most especially with the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution. The term is also used to express the political violence in Argentina against Peronists after Peron fled into exile. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Enemy of the State is a 1998 film written by David Marconi, directed by Tony Scott, and starring Will Smith, Gene Hackman, Jon Voight, Lisa Bonet and Regina King. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The Reign of Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period of about ten months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Proscription of 82 BC

The first proscription par excellence took place in 82 BC, when Lucius Cornelius Sulla was appointed dictator rei publicae constituendae ("Dictator for the Constitution of the Republic"). Sulla proceeded to draw up a list of those he considered enemies of the state and published the list in the Roman Forum. Any man whose name appeared on the list was ipso facto stripped of his citizenship and excluded from all protection under law; reward money was given to any informer who gave information leading to the death of a proscribed man and any person who killed a proscribed man was entitled to keep part of his estate (the remainder went to the state). No person could inherit money or property from the proscribed men, nor could any woman married to a proscribed man remarry after his death. Many victims of proscription were decapitated and their heads were displayed on spears in the Forum. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC - 82 BC - 81 BC 80 BC 79... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... For the Estonian political party, see Union for the Republic - Res Publica. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ... Ipso Facto was a Spanish football player, the goalkeeper for the national side in the 1970 World Cup. ... A bounty is often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ...


Sulla used proscription to restore the depleted Roman Treasury (Aerarium), which had been drained by costly civil and foreign wars in the preceding decade, and to eliminate enemies (both real and potential) of his reformed state and constitutions; the plutocratic knights of the Ordo Equester were particularly hard-hit. Giving the procedure a particularly sinister character in the public eye was the fact that many of the proscribed men never appeared again after being quietly taken by a group of men all named "Lucius Cornelius" (these men, the Sullani, were all Sulla's freedmen), giving rise to a general fear of being taken from your home at night, as a consequence of any outwardly seditious behaviour. Aerarium (from Latin aes, in its derived sense of money) was the name (in full, aerarium stabulum - treasure-house) given in Ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense to the public finances. ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ...


Sulla's proscription was bureaucratically overseen and the names of informers and those who profited from killing proscribed men were entered into the public record (because Roman law could criminalise acts ex post facto, many informers and profiteers were later prosecuted). The procedure was overseen by his freedman steward, Lucius Cornelius Chrysogonus, and was rife with corruption. After the orator Marcus Tullius Cicero accused Chrysogonus of gross malfeasance in office, Sulla ordered his freedman thrown from the Tarpeian Rock. An ex post facto law (Latin for from a thing done afterward), also known as a retrospective law, is a law that is retroactive, i. ... poop. ... Lucius Cornelius Chrysogonus (died 80 BC) was a Greek freedman of Lucius Cornelius Sulla whom Sulla put in charge of the proscriptions of 82 BC. Shortly afterwards Sulla had him executed by being thrown from the Tarpeian Rock after he was accused of corruption by Marcus Tullius Cicero during the... For other uses see Cicero (disambiguation) Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC - December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylist. ... The expressions misfeasance and nonfeasance, and occasionally malfeasance, are used in English law with reference to the discharge of public obligations existing by common law, custom or statute. ... The Tarpeian Rock (rupes Tarpeia) was a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill, overlooking the Roman Forum in Ancient Rome. ...


Proscription of 43 BC

Proscription was later revived by the Second Triumvirate in 43 BC, again to eliminate political enemies and to replenish the Treasury. Some of the proscribed enemies of the state were stripped of their property but protected from death by their relatives in the Triumvirate (e.g., Lucius Julius Caesar and Lepidus's brother). Most were not so lucky; the two most prominent men to suffer death were the orator Cicero and his younger brother Quintus Tullius Cicero, one of Julius Caesar's legates. ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... In Ancient Rome, several men of the Julii Caesares family were named Lucius Julius Caesar. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in British English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... Quintus Tullius Cicero was the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Proscription - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (429 words)
Proscription (French: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state.
Proscription implies the elimination en masse of political rivals or personal enemies, and the term is frequently used in connection with violent revolutions, most especially with the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution.
Proscription of 43 BC Proscription was later revived by the Second Triumvirate in 43 BC, again to eliminate political enemies and to replenish the Treasury.
Act of Proscription - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (422 words)
This was part of a series of efforts to assimilate the unruly Scottish Highlands while ending their ability to revolt, and the first of the 'King's laws' which sought to crush the Clan system in the aftermath of the Jacobite Rising of 'Forty-Five.
Claims that other portions of the Act of Proscription prohibited the playing of bagpipes, the gathering of people, and the teaching of Gaelic (the Highlander's native tongue) do not appear to be supported by the text of the Act at the link shown below.
The Act of Proscription was followed by the Heritable Jurisdictions Act which removed the feudal authority the Clan Chieftains had enjoyed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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