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Encyclopedia > Proprioception

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Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: [ˈpɹopɹiːoˌsɛpʃən]); from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own" and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. Unlike the six exteroceptive senses (sight, taste, smell, touch, hearing, and balance) by which we perceive the outside world, proprioception is an interoceptive sense that provides feedback solely on the status of the body internally. It is the sense that indicates whether the body is moving with required effort, as well as where the various parts of the body are located in relation to each other. Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect of flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hearing is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... Equilibrioception or sense of balance is one of the physiological senses. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ...


Kinesthesia is another term that is often used interchangeably with proprioception. Some users differentiate the kinesthetic sense from proprioception by excluding the sense of equilibrium or balance from kinesthesia. An inner ear infection, for example, might degrade the sense of balance. This would degrade the proprioceptive sense, but not the kinesthetic sense. The infected person would be able to walk, but only by using the person's sense of sight to maintain balance; the person would be unable to walk with eyes closed. Bat ears come in different sizes and shapes The ear is the sense organ that detects sound. ...


Kinesthesia is a key component in muscle memory and hand-eye coordination and training can improve this sense (see blind contour drawing). The ability to swing a golf club, or to catch a ball requires a finely-tuned sense of the position of the joints. This sense needs to become automatic through training to enable a person to concentrate on other aspects of performance, such as maintaining motivation or seeing where other people are. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up coordination in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Blind contour drawing is a method of training popularized by Kimon Nicolaides his book The Natural Way to Draw. The method consists in slowly following the contours of a model with the eyes, simultaneously moving the pencil so as to draw the contours in one continuous line without looking at...


Basis

The proprioceptive sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and orientation) and in the stretch receptors located in the muscles and the joint-supporting ligaments (stance). There are specific nerve receptors for this form of perception, just as there are specific receptors for pressure, light, temperature, sound, and other sensory experiences, known as adequate stimuli receptors. The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... See also Labyrinth, an article treating the mythical maze that imprisoned the Minotaur. ... Stretch receptor are mechanoreceptors responsive to distenstion. ... A muscle spindle is a specialized muscle structure innervated by both sensory and motor neuron axons. ...


Although it was known that finger kinesthesia relies on skin sensation, recent research has found (Robles-De-La-Torre & Hayward, 2001) that kinesthesia-based haptic perception strongly relies on the forces experienced during touch. This research allows the creation of "virtual", illusory haptic shapes with different perceived qualities (see the MIT Technology Review article The Cutting Edge of Haptics). Haptic, from the Greek αφή (Haphe), means pertaining to the sense of touch. ...


Applications

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Law enforcement

Proprioception is tested by American police officers using the field sobriety test where the subject is required to touch his or her nose with eyes closed. People with normal proprioception may make an error of no more than 20 millimetres. People suffering from impaired proprioception (a symptom of moderate to severe alcohol poisoning) fail this test due to difficulty locating their limbs in space relative to their noses. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... The effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms. ...


Learning

Proprioception is what allows someone to learn to walk in complete darkness without losing balance. During the learning of any new skill, sport, or art, it is usually necessary to become familiar with some proprioceptive tasks specific to that activity. Without the appropriate integration of proprioceptive input, an artist would not be able to brush paint onto a canvas without looking at the hand as it moved the brush over the canvas; it would be impossible to drive an automobile because a motorist would not be able to steer or use the foot pedals while looking at the road ahead; a person could not touch type or perform ballet; and people would not even be able to walk without watching where they put their feet. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... Touch typing is typing using the sense of touch rather than sight to find the keys. ...


Oliver Sacks once reported the case of a young woman who lost her proprioception due to a viral infection of her spinal cord. At first she was not able to move properly at all or even control her tone of voice (as voice modulation is primarily proprioceptive). Later she relearned by using her sight (watching her feet) and vestibulum (or inner ear) only for movement while using hearing to judge voice modulation. She eventually acquired a stiff and slow movement and nearly normal speech, which is believed to be the best possible in the absence of this sense. She could not judge effort involved in picking up objects and would grip them painfully to be sure she didn't drop them. Oliver Sacks Oliver Wolf Sacks (born July 9, 1933, London) is a neurologist who has written popular books about his patients. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Vestibule can have the following meanings: A large entrance, reception area, antechamber, or room A small room or passage that connects the outer door of a building to the interior of the building An area in a train where people get on and off. ... The inner ear comprises both: the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and the labyrinth or vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance located in the inner ear that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ...


Training

The proprioceptive sense can be sharpened through study of many disciplines. The Alexander Technique uses the study of movement to enhance kinesthetic judgment of effort and location. Juggling trains reaction time, spatial location, and efficient movement. Standing on a wobble board is often used to retrain or increase proprioception abilities, particularly as physical therapy for ankle or knee injuries. Standing on one leg (stork standing) and various other body-position challenges are also used in such disciplines as Yoga. In addition, the slow, focused movements of Tai Chi practice provide an environment whereby the proprioceptive information being fed back to the brain stimulates an intense, dynamic "listening environment" to further enhance mind / body integration. Several studies have shown that the efficacy of these types of training is challenged by closing the eyes, because the eyes give invaluable feedback to establishing the moment-to-moment information of balance. The Alexander Technique teaches how to recognize and overcome habituated limitations within a persons intentions and manner of movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A wobble board is a piece of training equipment used to develop physical balance. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ...


Alternative models

David Bohm introduced the concept of "proprioception of thought." His ideas suggest that other people's points of view are needed, to be able to compensate for the inevitable self-deceptive assumptions of thinking. He wrote about proprioception in Thought As a System and his theories of "Dialogue." David Bohm. ...


A large part of what is called the Fourth Way, developed by G. I. Gurdjieff, involves a substantial number of proprioceptive exercises which are said to assist in spiritual development. Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (Георгий Иванович Гюрджиев, Georgiy Ivanovich Gyurdzhiev (or Gurdjiev); January 13, 1872? – October 29, 1949), was a Greek-Armenian mystic and spiritual teacher who initially gained public recognition as a teacher of dancing. ...


Impairment

Apparently, temporary loss or impairment of proprioception may happen periodically during growth, mostly during adolescence. Growth that might also influence this would be large increases or drops in bodyweight/size due to fluctuations of fat (liposuction, rapid fat loss, rapid fat gain) and muscle content (bodybuilding, anabolic steroids, catabolisis/starvation). It can also occur to those who gain new levels of flexibility, stretching, and contortion. A limb's being in a new range of motion never experienced (or at least, not for a long time since youth perhaps) can disrupt one's sense of location of that limb. Possible experiences include these: suddenly feeling that feet or legs are missing from one's mental self-image; needing to look down at one's limbs to be sure they are still there; and falling down while walking, especially when attention is focused upon something other than the act of walking. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... German professional bodybuilder Markus Rühl posing in Biberach an der Riß. Bodybuilding is the process of developing muscle fibres through the combination of weight training, specific caloric intake, and rest. ... Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into starvation. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... For other uses, see Flexibility (disambiguation). ... An actively stretching Siberian tiger Cat stretching in utterly relaxed rest Stretching is the activity of gradually applying tensile force to lengthen, strengthen, and lubricate muscles, often performed in anticipation of physical exertion and to increase the range of motion within a joint. ... Contortionist performing Contortion (sometimes contortionism) is an unusual form of physical display which involves the dramatic bending and flexing of the human body. ...


Proprioception is occasionally impaired spontaneously, especially when one is tired. One's body may appear too large or too small, or parts of the body may appear distorted in size. Similar effects can sometimes occur during epilepsy or migraine auras. These effects are presumed to arise from abnormal stimulation of the part of the parietal cortex of the brain involved with integrating information from different parts of the body (e.g, Ehrsson, Kito, Sadato, Passingham, & Naito, 2005). For other meanings, see Aura (disambiguation). ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ...


Proprioceptive illusions can also be induced, such as the Pinocchio illusion. The Pinocchio illusion is an illusion that ones nose is growing longer, as happened to the literary character, Pinocchio when he told a lie. ...


The proprioceptive sense is often unnoticed because humans will adapt to a continuously-present stimulus; this is called habituation, desensitization, or adaptation. The effect is that proprioceptive sensory impressions disappear, just as a scent can disappear over time. One practical advantage of this is that unnoticed actions or sensation continue in the background while an individual's attention can move to another concern. The Jordan Technique addresses these issues. Habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ... Desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organisms negative reaction to a substance or stimulus. ... A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ...


People who have a limb amputated may still have a confused sense of that limb existence on their body, known as Phantom Limb Syndrome. Phantom sensations can occur as passive proprioceptive sensations of the limb's presence, or more active sensations such as perceived movement, pressure, pain, itching, or temperature. The etiology of the phantom limb phenomenon was disputed in 2006, but some consensus existed in favour of neurological (e.g. neural signal bleed across a preexisting sensory map, as posited by V.S. Ramachandran) over psychological explanations. Phantom sensations and phantom pain may also occur after the removal of body parts other than the limbs, such as after amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain), or removal of an eye (phantom eye syndrome). Partial hand amputation For the song Amputations by Death Cab for Cutie, see You Can Play these Songs with Chords Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma (also referred to as avulsion) or surgery. ... This article is about the syndrome. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Dr. Vilayanur Ramachandran on an episode of PBSs NOVA Television program. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... The phantom eye syndrome refers to phantom phenomena, such as phantom pain in the eye and visual hallucinations, after the removal of an eye (enucleation, evisceration). ...


Temporary impairment of proprioception has also been known to occur from an overdose of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine and pyridoxamine). Most of the impaired function returns to normal shortly after the intake of vitamins returns to normal. Impairment can also be caused by cytotoxic factors such as chemotherapy. Pyridoxine Vitamin B6 pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Cytotoxicity is the quality of being poisonous to cells. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ...


It has been proposed that even common Tinnitus and the attendant hearing frequency-gaps masked by the perceived sounds may cause erroneous proprioceptive information to the balance and comprehension centers of the brain, precipitating mild confusion. Tinnitus (IPA pronunciation: or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ...


Proprioception is permanently impaired in patients who suffer from joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (a genetic condition that results in weak connective tissue throughout the body). It can also be permanently impaired from viral infections as reported by Sacks. The catastrophic effect of major proprioceptive loss is reviewed by (Robles-De-La-Torre 2006). Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare genetic disorders that diminish the bodys ability to make connective tissues. ...


References

The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat is a 1985 book by neurologist Oliver Sacks describing the case histories of some of Dr. Sackss patients. ...

See also

Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiae)—from the Greek syn- meaning union and aesthesis meaning sensation—is a neurological condition in which two or more bodily senses are coupled. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Proprioception Training for Avoidance of ACL Incidence in Soccer Players (2041 words)
Proprioception training can be used by youth soccer coaches and college soccer coaches to reduce the incidence of ACL injuries in soccer players.
At the start of the study, it was known that proprioceptive training had been shown to reduce the incidence of ankle sprains, and to speed rehabilitation from ACL injuries.
Proprioception - sense of joint position, is defined, and the effect of injuries on proprioception is explained.
proprioception: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1743 words)
Proprioception is tested by American police officers using the field sobriety test where the subject is required to touch his or her nose with eyes closed.
David Bohm introduced the concept of "proprioception of thought." His ideas suggest that other people's points of view are needed, to be able to compensate for the inevitable self-deceptive assumptions of thinking.
Proprioception is permanently impaired in patients who suffer from joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (a genetic condition that results in weak connective tissue throughout the body).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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