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Encyclopedia > Propiska

Propiska (Russian: пропи́ска; the full term is Прописка по месту жительства, "The record of place of residence") was a regulation in the Soviet Union designed to control internal population movement by binding a person to his or her permanent place of residence.


The noun derives from the Russian verb "propisat" ("to write into") — originally meaning to write a passport into a registration book of the given local office. The initial 1930s decree on propiska demanded to register documents, not the people. Later, "propiska" became an official term. Formally, none of the three Soviet Constitutions prohibited citizens from moving across the country. However, the internal militsiya decrees on propiska were practically regarded as the highest legislation. The propiska was to be recorded both in the internal passport of the citizens of the Soviet Union and at the local governmental office. In cities it was a "District office of internal affairs" (Районный отдел внутренних дел, abbreviated РОВД), subordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD). In rural areas it was selsovet, or "rural soviet", a governing body of a rural territory. The propiska played the roles of both residency permit and residential registration of a person. // Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ... The Soviet Union was governed by four versions of its Constitution: 1918 Soviet Constitution 1924 Soviet Constitution 1936 Soviet Constitution 1977 Soviet Constitution The political theory underlying the Soviet Constitution differed from the political theory underlying constitutions in the West. ... A member of a Russian special purpose police team (OMSN), equipped with a 9A91 submachine gun. ... An internal passport is an identification document issued for the purpose of allowing or restricting the movement of citizens within their country. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, late USSR, and still bears the same name in the Russian Federation. ... Selsoviet or selsovet (Russian: сельсове́т, short for се́льский сове́т), literally: rural soviet, was the lowest level administrative subdivision, similar to rural district, in rural areas in Soviet Union. ...


The propiska system was similar to the Tsarist internal passport system, which had been viewed as a tyrannical means of controlling population movements in the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks abolished the internal passport system in 1917, but Joseph Stalin reinstated it in December 1932. Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... A tyrant (from Greek τυραννος) is a usurper of rightful power, possessing absolute power and ruling by tyranny. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...   Joseph Stalin[?] (Russian, in full: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин (Josef Vissarionovich Stalin), real name: Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили (Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvilli), Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი (Ioseb Jughashvili); December 6 (OS)/December 18 (NS), 1878 – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the... December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ...


Under the Soviet regime, a valid propiska was required to apply for jobs, to get married, to receive medical treatment, and in many other situations. At the same time, it was almost impossible to get a local propiska in a major city without having a job, constituting a sort of catch 22. Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Marriage is a legal, social, and religious relationship between individuals which has formed the foundation of the family for most societies. ... Catch 22 has become a term, inspired by Joseph Hellers novel Catch-22, describing a general situation in which A must have been preceded by B, and B must have been preceded by A. Symbolically, (~B => ~A) & (~A => ~B) where either A or B must come into being first. ...


Upon renewal, the MVD would do a check on the person's activities in the five years since the last renewal. Those engaged in activities deemed by the authorities as "anti-Soviet" were under constant risk of losing their propiska. The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, late USSR, and still bears the same name in the Russian Federation. ... Anti-Soviet refers to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or the Soviet power within the Soviet Union. ...


At a certain period of Soviet history residents of rural areas had their passports stored at selsoviets (officially "for safekeeping") which prevented them from unauthorized migration. Selsoviet or selsovet (Russian: сельсове́т, short for се́льский сове́т), literally: rural soviet, was the lowest level administrative subdivision, similar to a rural district, in rural areas in the Soviet Union. ...


Residency permits were extremely difficult for migrants to obtain in large cities, especially Moscow, and were a matter of prestige. Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... Prestige means good reputation or high esteem. ...


Certain "risk groups", such as dissidents, Roma and former Gulag inmates, were often barred from getting permits in Moscow and some other major cities. A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively opposes an established opinion, policy, or structure. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Gulag (Russian: ГУЛАГ   listen?) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей и колонии, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp Administration. ...


However, many people used subterfuge to get Moscow residency permits, including fake marriages and bribery. Another way of obtaining Moscow residency was to become a limitchik, i.e., to enter Moscow to take certain understaffed job positions, e.g., at strategic plants or at construction works, according to a certain workforce quota ("limit"). Subterfuge can be any deceptive strategem or maneuver designed to take advantage of an opponent. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional or an authority person money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics or other rules in a variety of situations. ...


Propiska after 1991

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the propiska system was officially abolished. However, some of the former Soviet republics, such as Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, chose to keep their propiska systems, or at least a scaled down version of them. Most, on the other hand, have done away with residence permits, but still require registration of a person's place of residence. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


Georgia and Moldova have completely outlawed registration and any form of internal passport. Russia replaced propiska with registration primarily used for economic and law enforcement reasons such as accounting social benefits, housing and utility payments, taxes, conscription, etc. In Ukraine, the Constitutional Court ruled that propyska was unconstitutional in 2001 (November 14); a new "informational" registration mechanism was planned by the government. Additionally, access to social benefits such as housing, pensions, medical care, and schooling were still based on propiska. For specific national programs, see Social Security (United States), National insurance (UK), Social Security (Sweden) Social security mainly refers to a field of social welfare concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized needs, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. ...


Even today, the process of obtaining the registration is usually not as simple as just notifying the authorities of one's residence. There is still much corruption and abuse related to getting a propiska. For instance, Moscow authorities are known to demand "fines" from anyone who does not have a passport with Moscow registration, particularly those who do not look Slavic. Reportedly, many people prefer to avoid a time-consuming procedure of getting a temporary registration when they visit Moscow and risk to pay a bribe, which as of mid-2005 was 500 roubles (about $15). Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... 1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ...


In the rest of the country the inhabitants of Moscow are frequently subjected to ridicule because they always have to carry their passports with them, to avoid such "fines". At some point Moscow authorities tried to demand an unreasonable fee (as high as US$5,000) for registration. It was later repealed through court action.


See also

A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... (Redirected from 101st km) Upon the release from the Gulag, the former inmates rights would typically still be restricted for a long period of time. ... A hukou (Chinese: ) is a residency permit issued in the Peoples Republic of China which officially identifies a person as a resident of an area. ...

External links

  • Propiska by Susan Brazier
  • Constitutional Court strikes down internal passport system - article in The Ukrainian Weekly

  Results from FactBites:
 
Propiska - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (764 words)
Propiska (Russian: пропи́ска; the full term is Прописка по месту жительства, "The record of place of residence") was a regulation in the Soviet Union designed to control internal population movement by binding a person to his or her permanent place of residence.
The propiska was to be recorded both in the internal passport of the citizens of the Soviet Union and at the local governmental office.
Russia replaced propiska with registration primarily used for economic and law enforcement reasons such as accounting social benefits, housing and utility payments, taxes, conscription, etc. In Ukraine, the Constitutional Court ruled that propyska was unconstitutional in 2001 (November 14); a new "informational" registration mechanism was planned by the government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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