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Encyclopedia > Propellant

A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. This may or may not involve a chemical reaction. It may be a gas, liquid, plasma, or, before the chemical reaction, a solid. Common chemical propellants consist of a fuel, like gasoline, jet fuel and rocket fuel, and an oxidizer. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ... Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ...

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Aerosol sprays

In aerosol spray cans, the propellant is simply a pressurized vapour in equilibrium with its liquid. As some gas escapes to expel the payload, more liquid evaporates, maintaining an even pressure. (See aerosol spray propellant for more information.) Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ...


Solid propellant rockets and projectiles

In ballistics and pyrotechnics, a propellant is a generic name for explosives used for propelling projectiles from guns and other firearms, in order to distinguish them from the more violent explosives as used in shells and mines to produce a blasting effect. Some explosive substances can be used both as propellants and as bursters, as for example gunpowder, and some of the ingredients of a propellant may be similar, though differently proportioned and combined, to those of a " high explosive." Ballistics (gr. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ...


A propellant burns very rapidly but controllably, to produce thrust by gas pressure and thus accelerate a projectile or rocket. In this sense, common or well known propellants include, for firearms, artillery and solid propellant rockets: Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Law. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v_t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... A Soyuz rocket, at Baikanur launch pad. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ...

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blackpowder. ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... Nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Cordite is a particular family of smokeless propellants made by combining two high explosives: nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, i. ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... Ammonium perchlorate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4ClO4. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), a butadiene, is a stable and easily stored synthetic rubber, often used in tire manufacturing. ... PBAN - Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile copolymer. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... A model rocket. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United... Potassium perchlorate, chemical formula KClO4, is a strong oxidizer. ... Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United...

Liquid propellant rockets

Technically, the word propellants is used for the chemicals combined in a rocket engine to make it move by reactive force. However, amongst the English-speaking lay public, used to having fuels propel vehicles on Earth, the word fuel is inappropriately used. In Germany, the word Treibstoff—literally "drive-stuff"—is used; in France, the word ergols is used; it has the same Greek roots as hypergolic, a term used in English for propellants which combine spontaneously and do not have to be set ablaze by auxiliary ignition system. Hypergolic rocket fuels spontaneously ignite when their two components come into contact with each other. ...


Most common are bipropellant combinations, which use two chemicals, a fuel and an oxidiser. There is the possibility of a tripropellant combination, which takes advantage of the ability of substances with smaller atoms to attain a greater exhaust velocity, and hence propulsive efficiency, at a given temperature. Although not used in practice, the most developed theory involves adding a third propellant tank containing liquid hydrogen to do this. In practice, a hydrogen-oxygen engine can take advantage of this by simply adding more hydrogen than would obtain at the stoichiometric ratio.


Common propellant combinations used for liquid propellant rockets include: F-1 rocket engine (The kind used by the Saturn V.) A bipropellant rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses two fluid propellants stored in separate tanks that are injected into, and undergo a strong exothermic reaction, in a rockets combustion chamber. ...

RFNA is a rocket fuel (a storeable oxidiser): red fuming nitric acid. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... RP-1 (refined petroleum) is a highly refined form of kerosene similar to jet fuel, used in the United States as a rocket fuel. ... RFNA is a rocket fuel (a storeable oxidiser): red fuming nitric acid. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser nitrogen tetroxide. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser nitrogen tetroxide. ... Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine with the chemical formula CH3N2H2. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Liquid Oxygen In Test Tube Liquid oxygen (also LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace and submarine industry) is the liquid form of oxygen. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... RP-1 (refined petroleum) is a highly refined form of kerosene similar to jet fuel, used in the United States as a rocket fuel. ... Liquid Oxygen In Test Tube Liquid oxygen (also LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace and submarine industry) is the liquid form of oxygen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... RP-1 (refined petroleum) is a highly refined form of kerosene similar to jet fuel, used in the United States as a rocket fuel. ... Chlorine pentafluoride has formula ClF5. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ...

Sources and references

(incomplete)

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Propeller Propulsion (546 words)
The engine takes air from the surroundings, mixes it with fuel, burns the fuel to release the energy in the fuel, and uses the heated gas exhaust to move a piston which is attached to a crankshaft.
The details are complex because the propeller acts like a rotating wing creating a lift force by moving through the air.
Propellers are not used on high speed aircraft.
Propeller Solutions (353 words)
Propeller Solutions, Inc. is a technology-based company specializing in custom performing propellers for pleasure yachts, sport-fishing vessels, high-speed vessels, and for those concerned with smoothness, efficiency, and performance.
Propeller Solutions is called on by Naval Architects, Builders, Owners, and Captains for assistance in the design process with problem-solving or for performance and efficiency solutions.
Our propeller designs range from a flat face constant pitch for slow to medium speeds, to a cambered, skewed design with a variable pitch distribution for high load conditions and maximum performance.
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