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Encyclopedia > Propaganda
First Red Scare depiction of a monstrous "European Anarchist" attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty.
Poster for Thirteenth Naval District, United States Navy, showing a rat representing Japan, approaching a mousetrap labeled "Army Navy Civilian," on a background map of the state of Alaska.

Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people. As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audience to further a political agenda. The term propaganda, besides its primary meaning, may refer to the following. ... Political Cartoon, Literary Digest, 7/5/19 (Copyright expired. ... Political Cartoon, Literary Digest, 7/5/19 (Copyright expired. ... Political cartoon of the era depicting an anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to journalistic professionalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ... This article is about untruthfulness. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.

Garth S. Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell, Propaganda and Persuasion

Contents

Etymology

The word originates from the Latin name Congregatio de Propaganda Fide ("Congregation for the Spreading of the Faith") of a congregation founded by Pope Gregory XV in 1622. This department of the pontifical administration was charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in mission territory. The headquarters of the Propaganda fide in Rome, housed by architects Borromini and Bernini: etching by Giuseppe Vasi, 1761 The Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith) is an organ of the Roman Catholic Church responsible for missionary work and related activities. ... A congregation is a type of dicastery of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. ... Pope Gregory XV with his Cardinal Nephew of unprecedented income and authority, Ludovico Ludovisi, known as il cardinale padrone. ...


The Latin adjective propaganda, which is a form of the gerundive of the verb propago (from pro- "forth" + *pag-, root of pangere "to fasten"), means "that which is to be spread" and does not carry a connotation of information, misleading or otherwise. The modern sense dates from World War I, when the term evolved to be mainly associated with politics. Be sure to check the discussion page (and feel free to remove this tag if this article is updated). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Ku Klux Klan sheet music to "We Are All Loyal Klansmen", 1923
Poster of the 19th century Scandinavist movement
The execution of British nurse Edith Cavell by the German Army in 1915 was a major theme of WWI anti-German propaganda

Image File history File links cover of sheet music for the song We All Loyal Klansmen It is copyright 1923 by William Davis, William M. Hart, Charles E. Downey, and E. M. McMahon. ... Image File history File links cover of sheet music for the song We All Loyal Klansmen It is copyright 1923 by William Davis, William M. Hart, Charles E. Downey, and E. M. McMahon. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Download high resolution version (444x640, 86 KB)Scandinavism This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (444x640, 86 KB)Scandinavism This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Scandinavism and Nordism are political ideas that supports cooperation between the Scandinavian and/or Nordic countries. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Edith Cavell Edith Louisa Cavell (December 4, 1865–October 12, 1915) was a British World War I nurse and humanitarian. ... WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Types

A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of "the dangers of a Communist takeover".

Propaganda shares techniques with advertising and public relations. Advertising and public relations can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization, person or brand, though in post-World War II usage the word "propaganda" more typically refers to political or nationalist uses of these techniques or to the promotion of a set of ideas, since the term had gained a pejorative meaning, which commercial and government entities couldn’t accept. The refusal phenomenon was eventually to be seen in politics itself by the substitution of ‘political marketing’ and other designations for ‘political propaganda’. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (698x1010, 290 KB) Cover to the propaganda comic book Is This Tomorrow published in 1947 by the Catechetical Guild This image is of the cover of a single issue of a comic book, and the copyright for it is most likely... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (698x1010, 290 KB) Cover to the propaganda comic book Is This Tomorrow published in 1947 by the Catechetical Guild This image is of the cover of a single issue of a comic book, and the copyright for it is most likely... // Advert redirects here. ... For the Arrested Development episode, see Public Relations (Arrested Development episode). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Propaganda was often used to influence opinions and beliefs on religious issues, particularly during the split between the Catholic Church and the Protestants. Propaganda has become more common in political contexts, in particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored by governments, political groups, but also often covert interests. In the early 20th century the term propaganda was also used by the founders of the nascent public relations industry to describe their activities. This usage died out around the time of World War II, as the industry started to avoid the word, given the pejorative connotation it had acquired. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... For the Arrested Development episode, see Public Relations (Arrested Development episode). ...


Literally translated from the Latin gerundive as "things which must be disseminated", in some cultures the term is neutral or even positive, while in others the term has acquired a strong negative connotation. The connotations of the term "propaganda" can also vary over time. For example, in Portuguese and some Spanish language speaking countries, particularly in the Southern Cone, the word "propaganda" usually refers to the most common manipulative media — "advertising". For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Be sure to check the discussion page (and feel free to remove this tag if this article is updated). ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Map that frames the area named Southern Cone The term Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) refers to a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, below the Tropic of Capricorn. ...


In English, "propaganda" was originally a neutral term used to describe the dissemination of information in favor of any given cause. During the 20th century, however, the term acquired a thoroughly negative meaning in western countries, representing the intentional dissemination of often false, but certainly "compelling" claims to support or justify political actions or ideologies. This redefinition arose because both the Soviet Union and Germany's government under Hitler admitted explicitly to using propaganda favoring, respectively, communism and fascism, in all forms of public expression. As these ideologies were antipathetic to liberal western societies, the negative feelings toward them came to be projected into the word "propaganda" itself. Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ...

"Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideological, political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and direct media channels. A propaganda organization employs propagandists who engage in propagandism—the applied creation and distribution of such forms of persuasion."
Richard Alan Nelson, A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States, 1996

Roderick Hindery argues that propaganda exists on the political left, and right, and in mainstream centrist parties. Hindery further argues that debates about most social issues can be productively revisited in the context of asking "what is or is not propaganda?" Not to be overlooked is the link between propaganda, indoctrination, and terrorism/counterterrorism. She argues that threats to destroy are often as socially disruptive as physical devastation itself.

A series of American propaganda posters during World War II appealed to servicemen's patriotism to protect themselves from venereal disease. The text at the bottom of the poster reads, "You can't beat the Axis if you get VD".

Propaganda also has much in common with public information campaigns by governments, which are intended to encourage or discourage certain forms of behavior (such as wearing seat belts, not smoking, not littering and so forth). Again, the emphasis is more political in propaganda. Propaganda can take the form of leaflets, posters, TV and radio broadcasts and can also extend to any other medium. In the case of the United States, there is also an important legal (imposed by law) distinction between advertising (a type of overt propaganda) and what the Government Accountability Office (GAO), an arm of the United States Congress, refers to as "covert propaganda." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1032x1381, 681 KB) Summary Source URL: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1032x1381, 681 KB) Summary Source URL: http://www. ... A leaflet in botany is a part of a compound leaf. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


Journalistic theory generally holds that news items should be objective, giving the reader an accurate background and analysis of the subject at hand. On the other hand, advertisements evolved from the traditional commercial advertisements to include also a new type in the form of paid articles or broadcasts disguised as news. These generally present an issue in a very subjective and often misleading light, primarily meant to persuade rather than inform. Normally they use only subtle propaganda techniques and not the more obvious ones used in traditional commercial advertisements. If the reader believes that a paid advertisement is in fact a news item, the message the advertiser is trying to communicate will be more easily "believed" or "internalized." Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Propaganda techniques involve an effort at mass persuasion through propaganda using words, gestures, pictures etc. ...


Such advertisements are considered obvious examples of "covert" propaganda because they take on the appearance of objective information rather than the appearance of propaganda, which is misleading. Federal law specifically mandates that any advertisement appearing in the format of a news item must state that the item is in fact a paid advertisement. The Bush Administration has been criticized for allegedly producing and disseminating covert propaganda in the form of television programs, aired in the United States, which appeared to be legitimate news broadcasts and did not include any information signifying that the programs were not generated by a private-sector news source.[1]

US Office for War Information, propaganda message: working less helps our enemies.

Propaganda, in a narrower use of the term, connotes deliberately false or misleading information that supports or furthers a political (but not only) cause or the interests of those with power. The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue or situation for the purpose of changing their actions and expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group. Propaganda, in this sense, serves as a corollary to censorship in which the same purpose is achieved, not by filling people's minds with approved information, but by preventing people from being confronted with opposing points of view. What sets propaganda apart from other forms of advocacy is the willingness of the propagandist to change people's understanding through deception and confusion rather than persuasion and understanding. The leaders of an organization know the information to be one sided or untrue, but this may not be true for the rank and file members who help to disseminate the propaganda. Go Ahead, Please - Take Day Off!, 1941 - 1945. ... Go Ahead, Please - Take Day Off!, 1941 - 1945. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


More in line with the religious roots of the term, it is also used widely in the debates about new religious movements (NRMs), both by people who defend them and by people who oppose them. The latter pejoratively call these NRMs cults. Anti-cult activists and countercult activists accuse the leaders of what they consider cults of using propaganda extensively to recruit followers and keep them. Some social scientists, such as the late Jeffrey Hadden, and CESNUR affiliated scholars accuse ex-members of "cults" who became vocal critics and the anti-cult movement of making these unusual religious movements look bad without sufficient reasons.[2][3] Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ... It has been suggested that Opposition to cults and new religious movements be merged into this article or section. ... The Christian countercult movement, also known as discernment ministries is the collective designation for many mostly unrelated ministries and individual Christians who oppose non-mainstream Christian and non-Christian religious groups, which they often call cults. ... CESNUR is a center for studies on new religions, based in Turin, Italy. ... It has been suggested that Opposition to cults and new religious movements be merged into this article or section. ...


Propaganda is a powerful weapon in war; it is used to dehumanize and create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external, by creating a false image in the mind. This can be done by using derogatory or racist terms, avoiding some words or by making allegations of enemy atrocities. Most propaganda wars require the home population to feel the enemy has inflicted an injustice, which may be fictitious or may be based on facts. The home population must also decide that the cause of their nation is just.

The much-imitated 1914 "Lord Kitchener Wants You!" poster

Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfare, which may also involve false flag operations. The term propaganda may also refer to false information meant to reinforce the mindsets of people who already believe as the propagandist wishes. The assumption is that, if people believe something false, they will constantly be assailed by doubts. Since these doubts are unpleasant (see cognitive dissonance), people will be eager to have them extinguished, and are therefore receptive to the reassurances of those in power. For this reason propaganda is often addressed to people who are already sympathetic to the agenda. This process of reinforcement uses an individual's predisposition to self-select "agreeable" information sources as a mechanism for maintaining control. Public Domain image of original Kitchener WWI Recruitment poster by Alfred Leete ? is it ely public domain, wheres it from, Pre-1928: This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Public Domain image of original Kitchener WWI Recruitment poster by Alfred Leete ? is it ely public domain, wheres it from, Pre-1928: This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Anglo-Irish British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... False colors redirects here. ... Cognitive dissonance is a psychological state that describes the uncomfortable feeling between what one holds to be true and what one knows to be true. ...


Propaganda can be classified according to the source and nature of the message. White propaganda generally comes from an openly identified source, and is characterized by gentler methods of persuasion, such as standard public relations techniques and one-sided presentation of an argument. Black propaganda is identified as being from one source, but is in fact from another. This is most commonly to disguise the true origins of the propaganda, be it from an enemy country or from an organization with a negative public image. Grey propaganda is propaganda without any identifiable source or author. A major application of grey propaganda is making enemies believe falsehoods using straw arguments: As phase one, to make someone believe "A", one releases as grey propaganda "B", the opposite of "A". In phase two, "B" is discredited using some strawman. The enemy will then assume "A" to be true. White propaganda is propaganda which truthfully states its origin. ... Black propaganda is propaganda that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. ... This article is about the type of communication. ... A lie is a statement made by someone who believes or suspects it to be false, in the expectation that the hearers may believe it. ... A straw man or man of straw is a dummy in the shape of a human created by stuffing straw into clothes. ...


In scale, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by the potential of true and correct information to compete with the propaganda. For example, opposition to white propaganda is often readily found and may slightly discredit the propaganda source. Opposition to grey propaganda, when revealed (often by an inside source), may create some level of public outcry. Opposition to black propaganda is often unavailable and may be dangerous to reveal, because public cognizance of black propaganda tactics and sources would undermine or backfire the very campaign the black propagandist supported.

Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.

Propaganda may be administered in insidious ways. For instance, disparaging disinformation about the history of certain groups or foreign countries may be encouraged or tolerated in the educational system. Since few people actually double-check what they learn at school, such disinformation will be repeated by journalists as well as parents, thus reinforcing the idea that the disinformation item is really a "well-known fact", even though no one repeating the myth is able to point to an authoritative source. The disinformation is then recycled in the media and in the educational system, without the need for direct governmental intervention on the media. Such permeating propaganda may be used for political goals: by giving citizens a false impression of the quality or policies of their country, they may be incited to reject certain proposals or certain remarks or ignore the experience of others. See also: black propaganda, marketing, advertising Image File history File links Britannialion. ... Image File history File links Britannialion. ... Britannia is one of the national emblems of Britain. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... Black propaganda is propaganda that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... // Advert redirects here. ...

Techniques

See also: doublespeak, cult of personality, spin (politics), demonization, and factoid

Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports, government reports, historical revision, junk science, books, leaflets, movies, radio, television, and posters. In the case of radio and television, propaganda can exist on news, current-affairs or talk-show segments, as advertising or public-service announce "spots" or as long-running advertorials. Propaganda campaigns often follow a strategic transmission pattern to indoctrinate the target group. This may begin with a simple transmission such as a leaflet dropped from a plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hot line, radio program, et cetera (as it is seen also for selling purposes among other goals). The strategy intends to initiate the individual from information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and then from information seeker to opinion leader through indoctrination. Doublespeak (sometimes double talk) is language constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning, often resulting in a communication bypass. ... This article is about the political institution. ... In public relations, spin is a usually pejorative term signifying a heavily biased portrayal in ones own favor of an event or situation that is designed to bring about the most positive result possible. ... Demonization is the characterization of individuals, groups, or political bodies as evil or subhuman for purposes of justifying and making plausible an attack, whether in the form of character assassination, legal action, circumscribing of political liberties, or warfare. ... Mount Isa, Australia, is often incorrectly referred to as the largest city in the world by area Toronto, Canada, was never designated by UNESCO as the worlds most multicultural city Factoid can refer to a spurious (unverified, incorrect, or invented) fact intended to create or prolong public exposure or... Junk or bunk science is a term used to describe purportedly scientific data, research, analyses or claims which are perceived to be driven by political, financial or other questionable motives. ... The Why We Fight Series depicts the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Opinion leadership is a concept that arose out of the theory of two-step flow of communication propounded by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz. ...


Number of techniques which are based on social psychological research are used to generate propaganda. Many of these same techniques can be found under logical fallacies, since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid. The scope of social psychological research. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fallacy. ...


Some time has been spent analyzing the means by which propaganda messages are transmitted. That work is important but it is clear that information dissemination strategies only become propaganda strategies when coupled with propagandistic messages. Identifying these messages is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those messages are spread. Below are a number of techniques for generating propaganda:

"The Pope is Antichrist" - 1521 propaganda print by Lucas Cranach the Elder, commissioned by Martin Luther.
A Latin phrase which has come to mean attacking your opponent, as opposed to attacking their arguments.
This argument approach uses tireless repetition of an idea. An idea, especially a simple slogan, that is repeated enough times, may begin to be taken as the truth. This approach works best when media sources are limited and controlled by the propagator.
Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support a position, idea, argument, or course of action.
Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling anxieties and panic in the general population, for example, Joseph Goebbels exploited Theodore Kaufman's Germany Must Perish! to claim that the Allies sought the extermination of the German people.
  • Appeal to prejudice
Using loaded or emotive terms to attach value or moral goodness to believing the proposition. For example, the phrase: "Any hard-working taxpayer would have to agree that those who do not work, and who do not support the community do not deserve the community's support through social assistance."
Bandwagon and "inevitable-victory" appeals attempt to persuade the target audience to join in and take the course of action that "everyone else is taking."
  • Inevitable victory: invites those not already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain victory. Those already or at least partially on the bandwagon are reassured that staying aboard is their best course of action.
  • Join the crowd: This technique reinforces people's natural desire to be on the winning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best interest to join.
  • Black-and-White fallacy
Presenting only two choices, with the product or idea being propagated as the better choice. (e.g., "You are either with us, or you are with the enemy")
  • Beautiful people
The type of propaganda that deals with famous people or depicts attractive, happy people. This makes other people think that if they buy a product or follow a certain ideology, they too will be happy or successful. (This is more used in advertising for products, instead of political reasons)
The repeated articulation of a complex of events that justify subsequent action. The descriptions of these events have elements of truth, and the "big lie" generalizations merge and eventually supplant the public's accurate perception of the underlying events. After World War I the German Stab in the back explanation of the cause of their defeat became a justification for Nazi re-militarization and revanchist aggression. According to Robert Conquest, Soviet authorities also adopted this Hitler's propaganda technique to deny artificial famines in the Soviet Union and the existence of Gulag labor camp system. [4]
The "'plain folks'" or "common man" approach attempts to convince the audience that the propagandist's positions reflect the common sense of the people. It is designed to win the confidence of the audience by communicating in the common manner and style of the target audience. Propagandists use ordinary language and mannerisms (and clothe their message in face-to-face and audiovisual communications) in attempting to identify their point of view with that of the average person. For example, a propaganda leaflet may make an argument on a macroeconomic issue, such as unemployment insurance benefits, using everyday terms: "given that the country has little money during this recession, we should stop paying unemployment benefits to those who do not work, because that is like maxing out all your credit cards during a tight period, when you should be tightening your belt."
  • Demonizing the enemy
Making individuals from the opposing nation, from a different ethnic group, or those who support the opposing viewpoint appear to be subhuman (e.g., the Vietnam War-era term "gooks" for NLF soldiers), worthless, or immoral, through suggestion or false accusations.
World War I poster by Winsor McCay, urging Americans to buy Liberty Bonds
  • Direct order
This technique hopes to simplify the decision making process by using images and words to tell the audience exactly what actions to take, eliminating any other possible choices. Authority figures can be used to give the order, overlapping it with the Appeal to authority technique, but not necessarily. The Uncle Sam "I want you" image is an example of this technique.
The use of an event that generates euphoria or happiness, or using an appealing event to boost morale. Euphoria can be created by declaring a holiday, making luxury items available, or mounting a military parade with marching bands and patriotic messages.
The creation or deletion of information from public records, in the purpose of making a false record of an event or the actions of a person or organization, including outright forgery of photographs, motion pictures, broadcasts, and sound recordings as well as printed documents.
  • Flag-waving
An attempt to justify an action on the grounds that doing so will make one more patriotic, or in some way benefit a group, country, or idea. The feeling of patriotism which this technique attempts to inspire may not necessarily diminish or entirely omit one's capability for rational examination of the matter in question.
The Finnish Maiden - personification of Finnish nationalism
Glittering generalities are emotionally appealing words applied to a product or idea, but which present no concrete argument or analysis. A famous example is the campaign slogan "Ford has a better idea!"
  • Half-truth
A half-truth is a deceptive statement which may come in several forms and includes some element of truth. The statement might be partly true, the statement may be totally true but only part of the whole truth, or it may utilize some deceptive element, such as improper punctuation, or double meaning, especially if the intent is to deceive, evade blame or misrepresent the truth.
Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may supply its own interpretations. The intention is to move the audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their validity or attempting to determine their reasonableness or application. The intent is to cause people to draw their own interpretations rather than simply being presented with an explicit idea. In trying to "figure out" the propaganda, the audience forgoes judgment of the ideas presented. Their validity, reasonableness and application may still be considered.
This technique is used to persuade a target audience to disapprove of an action or idea by suggesting that the idea is popular with groups hated, feared, or held in contempt by the target audience. Thus if a group which supports a certain policy is led to believe that undesirable, subversive, or contemptible people support the same policy, then the members of the group may decide to change their original position. This is a form of Bad Logic, where a is said to equal X, and b is said to equal X, therefore, a = b.
Favorable generalities are used to provide simple answers to complex social, political, economic, or military problems.
Selective editing of quotes which can change meanings. Political documentaries designed to discredit an opponent or an opposing political viewpoint often make use of this technique.
  • Name-calling
Propagandists use the name-calling technique to incite fears and arouse prejudices in their hearers in the intent that the bad names will cause hearers to construct a negative opinion about a group or set of beliefs or ideas that the propagandist would wish hearers to denounce. The method is intended to provoke conclusions about a matter apart from impartial examinations of facts. Name-calling is thus a substitute for rational, fact-based arguments against the an idea or belief on its own merits.[5]
Individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to rationalize questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant phrases are often used to justify such actions or beliefs.
Presenting data or issues that, while compelling, are irrelevant to the argument at hand, and then claiming that it validates the argument.
This type of propaganda deals with a jingle or word that is repeated over and over again, thus getting it stuck in someones head, so they can buy the product. The "Repetition" method has been described previously.
Assigning blame to an individual or group, thus alleviating feelings of guilt from responsible parties and/or distracting attention from the need to fix the problem for which blame is being assigned.
A slogan is a brief, striking phrase that may include labeling and stereotyping. Although slogans may be enlisted to support reasoned ideas, in practice they tend to act only as emotional appeals. Opponents of the US's invasion and occupation of Iraq use the slogan "blood for oil" to suggest that the invasion and its human losses was done to access Iraq's oil riches. On the other hand, "hawks" who argue that the US should continue to fight in Iraq use the slogan "cut and run" to suggest that it would be cowardly or weak to withdraw from Iraq. Similarly, the names of the military campaigns, such as "enduring freedom" or "just cause", may also be regarded to be slogans, devised to influence people.
This technique attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable. For instance, reporting on a foreign country or social group may focus on the stereotypical traits that the reader expects, even though they are far from being representative of the whole country or group; such reporting often focuses on the anecdotal.
Testimonials are quotations, in or out of context, especially cited to support or reject a given policy, action, program, or personality. The reputation or the role (expert, respected public figure, etc.) of the individual giving the statement is exploited. The testimonial places the official sanction of a respected person or authority on a propaganda message. This is done in an effort to cause the target audience to identify itself with the authority or to accept the authority's opinions and beliefs as its own. See also, damaging quotation
Also known as Association, this is a technique of projecting positive or negative qualities (praise or blame) of a person, entity, object, or value (an individual, group, organization, nation, patriotism, etc.) to another to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. It evokes an emotional response, which stimulates the target to identify with recognized authorities. Often highly visual, this technique often utilizes symbols (for example, the Swastika used in Nazi Germany, originally a symbol for health and prosperity) superimposed over other visual images. An example of common use of this technique in America is for the President's image to be overlaid with a swastika by his opponents.
This technique is used when the propaganda concept that the propagandist intends to transmit would seem less credible if explicitly stated. The concept is instead repeatedly assumed or implied.
These are words in the value system of the target audience which tend to produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, "The Truth", etc. are virtue words. In countries such as the U.S. religiosity is seen as a virtue, making associations to this quality affectively beneficial. See ""Transfer"".

I LOVE HITLER! Image File history File links Lucas_Cranach_-_Antichrist. ... Image File history File links Lucas_Cranach_-_Antichrist. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person, office, or group recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christs place. ... Portrait of Lucas Cranach the Elder at age 77 by Lucas Cranach the Younger (1550), at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 1472 – October 16, 1553) was a German painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Look up ad hominem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up ad nauseam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An appeal to authority or argument by authority is a type of argument in logic consisting on basing the truth value of an assertion on the authority, knowledge, expertise, or position of the person asserting it. ... An appeal to fear (also called argumentum ad metum or argumentum in terrorem) is a logical fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for his or her idea by playing on existing fears and prejudices. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Germany Must Perish! is the title of a 104-page book written and self-published by Theodore N. Kaufman, who founded the Argyle Press of Newark, New Jersey, in order to publish the book. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ... Big Lie is a propaganda technique, defined by Adolf Hitler in his 1925 autobiography Mein Kampf as a lie so colossal that no one would believe that someone could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously.[page # needed] // It is often erroneously claimed or implied Hitler had advocated... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstosslegende (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend often translated into English as stab-in-the-back myth) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World... Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... The term common man emphasizes the similarities between a politician and the average citizen. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Viet Cong redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (549x852, 79 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Propaganda Winsor McCay Liberty bond ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (549x852, 79 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Propaganda Winsor McCay Liberty bond ... Winsor McCay Winsor McCay (September 26, 1867(?) – July 26, 1934) was a prolific artist and pioneer in the art of comic strips and animation. ... Liberty Bond poster by Winsor McCay A Liberty Bond was a special type of war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. It could be redeemed for the original value of the bond plus interest. ... An appeal to authority or argument by authority is a type of argument in logic consisting on basing the truth value of an assertion on the authority, knowledge, expertise, or position of the person asserting it. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... Forgery is the process of making or adapting objects or documents (see false document), with the intention to deceive. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Maiden of Finland (Finnish: Suomi-neito) is the national personification of Finland, much as Marianne in France, Britannia in the United Kingdom, Deutscher Michel in Germany and Uncle Sam for the United States. ... Glittering generalities are emotionally appealing words so closely associated with highly valued concepts and beliefs that they carry conviction without supporting information or reason. ... A half-truth comes in several forms, and is a deceptive statement, that includes some element of truth. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Reductio ad Hitlerum, also argumentum ad Hitlerum, or reductio (or argumentum) ad Nazium – dog Latin for reduction (or argument) to Hitler (or the Nazis) – is a modern fallacy in logic. ... The fallacy of the single cause, also known as joint effect or causal oversimplification, is a logical fallacy of causation that occurs when it is assumed that there is one, simple cause of an outcome when in reality it may have been caused by a number of only jointly sufficient... It has been suggested that Contextomy be merged into this article or section. ... For the 1996 Blur single, see Stereotypes (song). ... Look up Rationalization on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Rationalization can refer to more than one thing: In psychology, rationalization is the process of constructing a logical justification for a decision that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. ... Ignoratio elenchi (also known as irrelevant conclusion or irrelevant thesis) is the formal fallacy of presenting an argument that may in itself be valid, but doesnt address the issue in question. ... Look up Repetition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The scapegoat was a goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in Judaism during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the term used in Computing, see Stereotype (computing). ... An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ... In promotion and advertising, a testimonial or endorsement consists of a written or spoken statement, sometimes from a public figure, sometimes from a private citizen, extolling the virtue of some product. ... A damaging quotation is a short utterance by a public figure used by opponents as a discrediting tactic. ... Portrait of Bill Clinton, the American flag placed nonchalantly in the background Transfer is a technique used in propaganda and advertising. ... Unstated assumption is a type of propaganda message which foregoes explicitly communicating the propagandas purpose and instead states ideas derived from it. ... A virtue word is a word intended to invoke a positive image, sometimes for the purposes of propaganda. ... Portrait of Bill Clinton, the American flag placed nonchalantly in the background Transfer is a technique used in propaganda and advertising. ...


Models

Herman and Chomsky's propaganda model

French Propaganda Postcard from World War I era showing a caricature of Kaiser Wilhelm II biting the world

The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (422x642, 38 KB) French Postcard - French Military Humour Propaganda : The Ingordo, too hard - unknown Year, approximately 1915 Carte postale de France - Propagande militaire française humoristique - Lingordo, trop dur - Année 1915 File links The following pages on the English... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (422x642, 38 KB) French Postcard - French Military Humour Propaganda : The Ingordo, too hard - unknown Year, approximately 1915 Carte postale de France - Propagande militaire française humoristique - Lingordo, trop dur - Année 1915 File links The following pages on the English... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes, see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection). ... William II (German: ) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... For other senses of this word, see Bias (disambiguation). ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... This article is about causality as it is used in many different fields. ...

The 20th century has been characterized by three developments of great political importance: the growth of democracy, the growth of corporate power, and the growth of corporate propaganda as a means of protecting corporate power against democracy.

First presented in their 1988 book Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass Media, the propaganda model views the private media as businesses selling a product — readers and audiences (rather than news) — to other businesses (advertisers) and relying primarily on government and corporate information and propaganda. The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... An audience is the/a group of people who participate in and experience or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music or academics in any medium. ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ...


The first three (ownership, funding, and sourcing) are generally regarded by the authors as being the most important. Although the model was based mainly on the characterization of United States media, Chomsky and Herman believe the theory is equally applicable to any country that shares the basic economic structure and organizing principles which the model postulates as the cause of media biases. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Chomsky stated that the new filter replacing communism would be terrorism and Islam. An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered. ...


Ross' epistemic merit model

The epistemic merit model is a method for understanding propaganda conceived by Sheryl Tuttle Ross and detailed in her 2002 article for the Journal of Aesthetic Education entitled "Understanding Propaganda: The Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art".[8] Ross developed the Epistemic merit model due to concern about narrow, misleading definitions of propaganda. She contrasted her model with the ideas of Pope Gregory XV, the Institute for Propaganda Analysis, Alfred Lee, F.C. Bartlett, and Hans Speier. Insisting that each of their respective discussions of propaganda are too narrow, Ross proposed her own definition. The epistemic merit model is a method for understanding propaganda conceived by Sheryl Tuttle Ross and detailed in her 2002 article for the Journal of Aesthetic Education entitled Understanding Propaganda: The Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art. Ross developed the Epistemic merit model due to concern about narrow... The Institute for Propaganda Analysis was a U.S.-based organization composed of social scientists, opinion leaders, historians, educators, and journalists. ...

American WWI poster: "Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty"

To appropriately discuss propaganda, Ross argues that one must consider a threefold communication model: that of Sender-Message-Receiver. "That is... propaganda involve[s]... the one who is persuading (Sender) [who is] doing so intentionally, [the] target for such persuasion (Receiver) and [the] means of reaching that target (Message)." There are four conditions for a message to be considered propaganda. Propaganda involves the intention to persuade. As well, propaganda is sent on behalf of a sociopolitical institution, organization, or cause. Next, the recipient of propaganda is a socially significant group of people. Finally, propaganda is an epistemic struggle to challenge other thoughts. Image File history File links Novum_Eboracum. ... Image File history File links Novum_Eboracum. ...


Ross claims that it is misleading to say that propaganda is simply false, or that it is conditional to a lie, since often the propagandist believes in what he/she is propagandizing. In other words, it is not necessarily a lie if the person who creates the propaganda is trying to persuade you of a view that they actually hold. "The aim of the propagandist is to create the semblance of credibility." This means that they appeal to an epistemology that is weak or defective. Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ...

False statements, bad arguments, immoral commands as well as inapt metaphors (and other literary tropes) are the sorts of things that are epistemically defective... Not only does epistemic defectiveness more accurately describe how propaganda endeavors to function... since many messages are in forms such as commands that do not admit to truth-values, [but it] also accounts for the role context plays in the workings of propaganda. In linguistics, trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ...

Throughout history those who have wished to persuade have used art to get their message out. This can be accomplished by hiring artists for the express aim of propagandizing or by investing new meanings to a previously nonpolitical work. Therefore, Ross states, it is important to consider "the conditions of its making [and] the conditions of its use."


History

Ancient propaganda

English Civil War cartoon entitled "The Cruel Practices of Prince Rupert" (1643)

Propaganda has been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The Behistun Inscription (c. 515 BC) detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne, can be seen as an early example of propaganda. The Arthashastra written by Chanakya (c. 350 - 283 BC), a professor of political science at Takshashila University and a prime minister of the Maurya Empire, discusses propaganda in detail, such as how to spread propaganda and how to apply it in warfare. His student Chandragupta Maurya (c. 340 - 293 BC), founder of the Maurya Empire, employed these methods during his rise to power.[9] The writings of Romans such as Livy (c. 59 BC - 17 AD) are considered masterpieces of pro-Roman propaganda. Another example of early propaganda would be the 12th century work The War of the Irish with the Foreigners, written by the Dál gCais to portray themselves as legitimate rulers of Ireland. Image File history File links Prince_Rupert_-_1st_English_Civil_War. ... Image File history File links Prince_Rupert_-_1st_English_Civil_War. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... for the city in British Columbia, see Prince Rupert, British Columbia Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-1682), soldier and inventor, was a younger son of Frederick V, Elector Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart, and the nephew of King Charles I of England. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Darius I the Great (c. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Chanakya- The Great Politics and Education Guru (Master) of India The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Takshashila University in ancient India was the worlds first university, dated from around 700 BCE. It was well known as an institution of higher learning in ancient India, attracting applicants from around the world who had to sit tough entrance examinations to be admitted. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... The War of the Irish with the Foreigners (Irish: Cogad Gaedel re Gallaib) is a two-part medieval Irish chronicle that claims to record the depredations of the Vikings in Ireland and the Irish king Brian Borus great war against them. ... The Dál gCais (or Dal Cais) were a dynastic group of related septs in located in north Munster, and who rose to political prominence in the early medieval era in Ireland. ...


19th and 20th centuries

U.S. Propaganda from World War II, depicting Hitler as foolish.

Gabriel Tarde's Laws of Imitation (1890) and Gustave Le Bon's The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1897) were two of the first codifications of propaganda techniques, which influenced many writers afterward, including Sigmund Freud. Hitler's Mein Kampf is heavily influenced by Le Bon's theories. Journalist Walter Lippmann, in Public Opinion (1922) also worked on the subject, as well as the American advertising pioneer Edward Bernays, a nephew of Freud, early in the 20th century.[10] Image File history File links Ww2_poster_oct0404. ... Image File history File links Ww2_poster_oct0404. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Gabriel Tarde (March 12, 1843 in Dordogne, France – May 13, 1904 in Paris) French sociologist and social psychologist who conceived sociology as based on small psychological interactions among individuals (much as if it were chemistry), the fundamental forces being imitation and innovation. ... Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 - December 14, 1974) was an influential American writer, journalist, and political commentator. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... Cover of Bernays 1928 book, Propaganda. ...


During World War I, Lippmann and Bernays were hired by then United States President, Woodrow Wilson, to participate in the Creel Commission, the mission of which was to sway popular opinion in favor of entering the war, on the side of the United Kingdom. The Creel Commission provided themes for speeches by "four-minute men" at public functions, and also encouraged censorship of the American press. The Commission was so unpopular that after the war, Congress closed it down without providing funding to organize and archive its papers. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI and the Creel Committee, was intended to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American intervention in World War I. It was established under President SAMI JO Woodrow Wilson as an independent agency by Executive order 2594, April 13, 1917. ...


The war propaganda campaign of Lippmann and Bernays produced within six months such an intense anti-German hysteria as to permanently impress American business (and Adolf Hitler, among others) with the potential of large-scale propaganda to control public opinion. Bernays coined the terms "group mind" and "engineering consent", important concepts in practical propaganda work. In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... Hitler redirects here. ...

An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One
John Bull on a British First World War recruiting poster

The current public relations industry is a direct outgrowth of Lippmann's and Bernays' work and is still used extensively by the United States government. For the first half of the 20th century Bernays and Lippmann themselves ran a very successful public relations firm. World War II saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war, both by Hitler's propagandist Joseph Goebbels and the British Political Warfare Executive, as well as the United States Office of War Information. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x715, 857 KB) Licensing This image is of a historical political poster, button, flier or banner, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the creator of the poster or the artist who produced the poster/button/flier... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x715, 857 KB) Licensing This image is of a historical political poster, button, flier or banner, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the creator of the poster or the artist who produced the poster/button/flier... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (431x640, 36 KB) John Bull, World War I recruiting poster, c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (431x640, 36 KB) John Bull, World War I recruiting poster, c. ... World War I recruiting poster An earlier John Bull in which he is depicted as an actual bull. ... For the Arrested Development episode, see Public Relations (Arrested Development episode). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... During World War II, the Political Warfare Executive (PWE) was a British clandestine body created to produce and disseminate both white and black propaganda, with the aim of damaging enemy morale. ... The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services. ...


In the early 2000s, the United States government developed and freely distributed a video game known as America's Army. The stated intention of the game is to encourage players to become interested in joining the U.S. Army. According to a poll by I for I Research, 30% of young people who had a positive view of the military said that they had developed that view by playing the game.[citation needed] For the actual U.S. Army, see United States Army. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Russian revolution

Russian revolutionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries distinguished two different aspects covered by the English term propaganda. Their terminology included two terms: Russian: агитация (agitatsiya), or agitation, and Russian: пропаганда, or propaganda, see agitprop (agitprop is not, however, limited to the Soviet Union, as it was considered, before the October Revolution, to be one of the fundamental activities of any Marxist activist; this importance of agit-prop in Marxist theory may also be observed today in Trotskyist circles, who insist on the importance of leaflet distribution). Agitprop poster by Vladimir Mayakovsky. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... A 1990 hand-drawn flyer advertising a Goa trance party from Israel. ...


Soviet propaganda meant dissemination of revolutionary ideas, teachings of Marxism, and theoretical and practical knowledge of Marxist economics, while agitation meant forming favorable public opinion and stirring up political unrest. These activities did not carry negative connotations (as they usually do in English) and were encouraged. Expanding dimensions of state propaganda, the Bolsheviks actively used transportation such as trains, aircraft and other means. Marxian economics refers to a body of economic thought stemming from the work of Karl Marx. ...


Joseph Stalin's regime built the largest fixed-wing aircraft of the 1930s, Tupolev ANT-20, exclusively for this purpose. Named after the famous Soviet writer Maxim Gorky who had recently returned from fascist Italy, it was equipped with a powerful radio set called "Voice from the sky", printing and leaflet-dropping machinery, radio stations, photographic laboratory, film projector with sound for showing movies in flight, library, etc. The aircraft could be disassembled and transported by railroad if needed. The giant aircraft set a number of world records. Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... ANT-20 Maxim Gorky propaganda aircraft in the Moscow sky The Tupolev ANT-20 (also known as the Maxim Gorky) (Туполев АНТ-20 Максим Горький in Russian) was a Soviet 8-engine aircraft, the largest in the 1930s. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... Lens and mounting of a large format camera Photography is the technique of recording and generating permanent images, by the capturing and preservation of physical stimulus-patterns on a layer of photosensitive material. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 35 mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ...

COCK!!


Nazi Germany

Main article: Nazi propaganda

Most propaganda in Germany was produced by the Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Propagandaministerium). Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry shortly after Hitler took power in 1933. All journalists, writers, and artists were required to register with one of the Ministry's subordinate chambers for the press, fine arts, music, theater, film, literature, or radio. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews, consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... The Propagandaministerium () (or State Ministry for Public enlightenment and Propaganda) was the Ministry of propaganda in Nazi Germany. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...


The Nazis believed in propaganda as a vital tool in achieving their goals. Adolf Hitler, Germany's Führer, was impressed by the power of Allied propaganda during World War I and believed that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918 (see also: Dolchstoßlegende). Hitler would meet nearly every day with Goebbels to discuss the news and Goebbels would obtain Hitler's thoughts on the subject; Goebbels would then meet with senior Ministry officials and pass down the official Party line on world events. Broadcasters and journalists required prior approval before their works were disseminated. Along with posters, the Nazis produced a number of films and books to spread their beliefs. Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ...

Cold War propaganda

The United States and the Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively during the Cold War. Both sides used film, television, and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations. The United States Information Agency operated the Voice of America as an official government station. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which were in part supported by the Central Intelligence Agency, provided grey propaganda in news and entertainment programs to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union respectively. The Soviet Union's official government station, Radio Moscow, broadcast white propaganda, while Radio Peace and Freedom broadcast grey propaganda. Both sides also broadcast black propaganda programs in periods of special crises. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The United States Information Agency (USIA), which existed from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to what it called public diplomacy. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... This article is about the radio broadcast service. ... Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... CIA redirects here. ... White propaganda is propaganda which truthfully states its origin. ... Black propaganda is propaganda that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. ...

Soldier loads a "leaflet bomb" during the Korean war.

In 1948, the United Kingdom's Foreign Office created the IRD (Information Research Department) which took over from wartime and slightly post-war departments such as the Ministry of Information and dispensed propaganda via various media such as the BBC and publishing.[11][12] Download high resolution version (595x765, 79 KB) Photo #: NH 97050 Korean War Psychological Warfare SFC Furl A. Krebs loads an M16M1 cluster adapter at the FEC {Far Eastern Command} Printing Plant, Yokohama, Japan. ... Download high resolution version (595x765, 79 KB) Photo #: NH 97050 Korean War Psychological Warfare SFC Furl A. Krebs loads an M16M1 cluster adapter at the FEC {Far Eastern Command} Printing Plant, Yokohama, Japan. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... The Information Research Department, founded in 1946, was a department of the British Foreign Office set up to counter Russian propaganda and infiltration, particularly amongst the western labour movement. ... The Minister of Information is a British government position that was created briefly during the First World War and again during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


The ideological and border dispute between the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China resulted in a number of cross-border operations. One technique developed during this period was the "backwards transmission", in which the radio program was recorded and played backwards over the air. (This was done so that messages meant to be received by the other government could be heard, while the average listener could not understand the content of the program.) The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ...


When describing life in capitalist countries, in the US in particular, propaganda focused on social issues such as poverty and anti-union action by the government. Workers in capitalist countries were portrayed as "ideologically close". Propaganda claimed rich people from the US derived their income from weapons manufacturing, and claimed that there was substantial racism or neo-fascism in the US. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

A North Korean propaganda poster depicting a soldier destroying the U.S. Capitol Building.

When describing life in Communist countries, western propaganda sought to depict an image of a citizenry held captive by governments that brainwash them. The West also created a fear of the East, by depicting an aggressive Soviet Union. In the Americas, Cuba served as a major source and a target of propaganda from both black and white stations operated by the CIA and Cuban exile groups. Radio Habana Cuba, in turn, broadcast original programming, relayed Radio Moscow, and broadcast The Voice of Vietnam as well as alleged confessions from the crew of the USS Pueblo. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is a Banner-class technical research ship which was boarded and captured by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea on 23 January 1968 in what is known as the Pueblo incident or alternatively as the Pueblo crisis. ...


George Orwell's novels Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four are virtual textbooks on the use of propaganda. Though not set in the Soviet Union, these books are about totalitarian regimes in which language is constantly corrupted for political purposes. These novels were, ironically, used for explicit propaganda. The CIA, for example, secretly commissioned an animated film adaptation of Animal Farm in the 1950s with small changes to the original story to suit its own needs.[2] George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ...


Revolution in Central and Eastern Europe

Comrades it's Over! Political poster in Hungary in 1989.

During the democratic revolutions of 1989 in Central and Eastern Europe the propaganda poster was important weapon in the hand of the opposition. Printed and hand-made political posters appeared on the Berlin Wall, on the statue of St. Wenceslas in Prague and around the unmarked grave of Imre Nagy in Budapest and the role of them was important for the democratic change. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 417 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (548 × 787 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Comrades its Over! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 417 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (548 × 787 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Comrades its Over! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Imre Nagy. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...


Serb propaganda

During the Yugoslav wars, Serb propaganda was used to create fear and hatred and particularly incite the Serb population against the other ethnicities (Bosniaks, Croats, Albanians and other non-Serbs). Serb media made a great effort in justifying, revising or denying mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during the Yugoslav wars on Bosniaks and other non-Serbs.[13] According to the ICTY verdicts against Serb political and military leaders, during the Bosnian war, the propaganda was a part of the Strategic Plan by Serb leadership, aimed at linking Serb-populated areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina together, gaining control over these areas and creating a separate Serb state, from which most non-Serbs would be permanently removed. The Serb leadership was aware that the Strategic Plan could only be implemented by the use of force and fear, thus by the commission of war crimes.[14][15] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Republic of Srpska Serbian Krajina FR Yugoslavia, Paramilitary forces from Serbia Commanders Milan Kučan Janez Janša, Franjo Tuđman, Mate Boban Janko Bobetko, Alija Izetbegović, Sefer Halilović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana Bill Clinton... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Republic of Srpska Serbian Krajina FR Yugoslavia, Paramilitary forces from Serbia Commanders Milan Kučan Janez Janša, Franjo Tuđman, Mate Boban Janko Bobetko, Alija Izetbegović, Sefer Halilović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana Bill Clinton... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ...


Afghan War

In the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, psychological operations tactics were employed to demoralize the Taliban and to win the sympathies of the Afghan population. At least six EC-130E Commando Solo aircraft were used to jam local radio transmissions and transmit replacement propaganda messages. Leaflets were also dropped throughout Afghanistan, offering rewards for Osama bin Laden and other individuals, portraying Americans as friends of Afghanistan and emphasizing various negative aspects of the Taliban. Another shows a picture of Mohammed Omar in a set of crosshairs with the words "We are watching." This technique has been shown to be rather ineffective in terms of long term opinions change given current political and social conditions in Afghanistan.[citation needed] For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Psychological Operations (PSYOP, PSYOPS) are techniques used by military and police forces to influence a target audiences emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and behavior. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... The EC-130 Commando Solo conducts psychological operations and civil affairs broadcast missions in the standard AM, FM, HF, TV and military communications bands. ... A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ...


The US Air Force can use cluster bombs to deliver leaflets. The LBU-30 clusterbomb is designed to allow an aircraft to deliver leaflets to a target area while minimizing wind drift. Seal of the Air Force. ... A US B-1 Lancer releasing its payload of cluster bombs Cluster Munitions or Cluster Bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions (bomblets). The most common types are intended to kill enemy personnel and destroy vehicles. ...


Iraq War

US PSYOP pamphlet disseminated in Iraq. Text: "This is your future al-Zarqawi" and shows al-Qaeda fighter al-Zarqawi caught in a rat trap.

During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Iraqi Information Minister Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf repeatedly claimed Iraqi forces were decisively winning every battle. Even up to the overthrow of the Iraqi government at Baghdad, he maintained that the United States would soon be defeated, in contradiction with all other media. Due to this, he quickly became a cult figure in the West, and gained recognition on the website WeLoveTheIraqiInformationMinister.com[16] The Iraqis who were misled by his propaganda were shocked when Iraq was defeated. Image File history File links Your_future_al-Zarqawi. ... Image File history File links Your_future_al-Zarqawi. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Psychological Operations (PSYOP, PSYOPS) are techniques used by military and police forces to influence a target audiences emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and behavior. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in one of eight photos from Rewards for Justice, all undated. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This is a list of Iraqi Information Ministers during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. ... Iraqi Information Minister Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf (also Mohammed Said al-Sahhaf) (born 1940) is an Iraqi diplomat and politician. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... A cult figure or cult icon is a person who attracts the attention of a small band of aficionados. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ...


In November 2005, The Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times, alleged that the United States military had manipulated news reported in Iraqi media in an effort to cast a favorable light on its actions while demoralizing the insurgency. Lt. Col. Barry Johnson, a military spokesman in Iraq, said the program is "an important part of countering misinformation in the news by insurgents", while a spokesman for former Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said the allegations of manipulation were troubling if true. The Department of Defense has confirmed the existence of the program.[17] The New York Times published an article about how the Pentagon has started to use contractors with little experience in journalism or public relations to plant articles in the Iraqi press. These articles are usually written by US soldiers without attribution or are attributed to a non-existent organization called the "International Information Center." Planting propaganda stories in newspapers was done by both the Allies and Central Powers in the First World War and the Axis and Allies in the Second; this is the latest version of this technique.[18][19][20] Front page of the Tribune incorrectly reporting that Dewey won the 1948 presidential election The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains the leading newspaper of the Midwest of the United States. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Media manipulation is an aspect of public relations in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. ... “Insurrection” redirects here. ... Barry Alan Johnson (b. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... Donald Rumsfeld Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is the current Secretary of Defense of the United States, since January 20, 2001, under President George W. Bush. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Children

Niños de la revolución Sandinista, Nicaragua Sandinista's revolution children.
Cover page of Album de la Revolucion Cubana, a series of comic trading card and music compilation that targets children

Of all the potential targets for propaganda, children are the most vulnerable because they are the most unprepared for the critical reasoning and contextual comprehension required to determine whether a message is propaganda or not. Children's vulnerability to propaganda is rooted in developmental psychology. The attention children give their environment during development, due to the process of developing their understanding of the world, will cause them to absorb propaganda indiscriminately. Also, children are highly imitative: studies by Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross and Sheila A. Ross in the 1960s indicated that children are susceptible to filmed representations of behaviour. Therefore television is of particular interest in regard to children's vulnerability to propaganda. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 440 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1088 × 1482 pixels, file size: 608 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Página 73 del libro de lectura Los Carlitos de primer grado, Ministerio de Educación, Managua Nicaragua 1985. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 440 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1088 × 1482 pixels, file size: 608 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Página 73 del libro de lectura Los Carlitos de primer grado, Ministerio de Educación, Managua Nicaragua 1985. ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Music CD Image, derived from the comic trading card cover page Album de la Revolucion Cubana is a propaganda publication on the history of the Cuban Revolution. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Albert Bandura (born 4 20 1925 in Mundare, Canada), a Ball Licker, is best known for his work on nut sack and on self-efficacy. ...


Another vulnerability of children is the theoretical influence that their peers have over their behaviour. According to Judith Rich Harris's group-socialization theory, children learn the majority of what they do not receive paternally, through genes, from their peer groups. The implication then is that if peer-groups can be indoctrinated through propaganda at a young age to hold certain beliefs, the group will self-regulate the indoctrination, since new members to the group will adapt their beliefs to fit the group's. Judith Rich Harris (February 10, 1938 - ) is a psychologist and the author of The Nurture Assumption, a book criticizing the belief that parents are the most important factor in child development. ... Indoctrination is instruction in the fundamentals of a system of belief (such as a philosophy, religion or science). ...


To a degree, socialization, formal education, and standardized television programming can be seen as using propaganda for the purpose of indoctrination. Schools that utilize dogmatic, frozen world-views, often resort to propagandist curricula that indoctrinate children. The use of propaganda in schools was highly prevalent during the 1930s and 1940s in Germany, as well as in Stalinist Russia. A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... Indoctrination is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology. ...


In Nazi Germany, the education system was thoroughly co-opted to indoctrinate the German youth with anti-Semitic ideology. This was accomplished through the National Socialist Teachers’ Union, of which 97% of all German teachers were members in 1937. It encouraged the teaching of “racial theory.” Picture books for children such as Don’t Trust A Fox in A Green Meadow Or the Word of A Jew, The Poisonous Mushroom, and The Poodle-Pug-Dachshund-Pincher were widely circulated (over 100,000 copies of Don’t Trust A Fox... were circulated during the late 1930s) and contained depictions of Jews as devils, child molesters, and other morally charged figures. Slogans such as “Judas the Jew betrayed Jesus the German to the Jews” were recited in class.[21] The following is an example of a propagandistic math problem recommended by the National Socialist Essence of Education: National Socialism redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

The Jews are aliens in Germany—in 1933 there were 6,606,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the per cent of aliens?[22]

See also

'Bold text'==References== Ad Council Americas Army, video game produced by the U.S. government with the stated aim of encouraging players to become interested in joining the U.S. Army. ... Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of beauty and the moral value of art, so aestheticization as propaganda is the process of presenting any form of behaviour considered dangerous or threatening as an acceptable means of promoting a political aim, for example violence that may involve... The Agenda-setting theory,is the theory that the mass-news media have a large influence on audiences by their choice of what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space to give them. ... Agitprop poster by Vladimir Mayakovsky. ... Antihomosexual propaganda — organised social and political activity (public speech, public behavior, meetings and actions), based on negative and intolerant attitude towards LGBT people or same-sex relations. ... Axis Sally was a female radio personality during World War II. Born Mildred Elizabeth Sisk in Portland, Maine on November 29, 1900 she took the name Mildred Gillars as a small child after her mother remarried. ... Black propaganda is propaganda that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. ... This article is about the political institution. ... Corporate propaganda are propagandist claims made by a corporation (or corporations), nearly always for the purpose of manipulating market opinion to the benefit of their product or to divide public opinion with regard to controversial issues related to that corporation, and its associated business dealings. ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... False colors redirects here. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... In media studies, sociology and psychology, framing is a process of selective control over the individuals perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases. ... His Last Bow, one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is one of eight stories in the cycle collected as His Last Bow. ... Indoctrination is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology. ... The Institute for Propaganda Analysis was a U.S.-based organization composed of social scientists, opinion leaders, historians, educators, and journalists. ... Lord Haw-Haw was a propaganda radio program broadcast by Nazi German radio to audiences in Britain and Ireland on the mediumwave station Radio Hamburg and by shortwave to the United States. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... An agency or ministry of propaganda is a part of the government that is in charge of coordinating propaganda, and which bears a name which describes this function. ... The National Anthem Project was launched in 2005 to raise awareness of the importance of music education within the United States by MENC: The National Association for Music Education. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Nurture Assumption is a book written by Judith Harris with the foreword by Steven Pinker. ... The Overton window is a concept in political theory, named after the former vice president of the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Joe Overton, who developed the model. ... Politics and the English Language (1946) is an essay by George Orwell wherein he criticizes ugly and inaccurate contemporary written English, and asserts that it was both a cause and an effect of foolish thinking and dishonest politics. ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ... The Why We Fight Series depicts the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... Chinese poster saying: Chairman Mao is the Red sun in our hearts. ... Propaganda has been an important tool of the Republic of China government since its inception in 1912. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Propaganda. ... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... In international relations, the term public diplomacy is a term coined in the 1960s to describe aspects of international diplomacy other than the interactions between national governments. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... For other uses, see Tokyo Rose (disambiguation). ... Self-deception is a process of denying or rationalizing away the relevance, significance, or importance of opposing evidence and argument. ... Self propaganda is a form of propaganda performed by an individual or a group on oneself. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... This article is about the institution. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Edith Cavell Edith Louisa Cavell (December 4, 1865–October 12, 1915) was a British World War I nurse and humanitarian. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Inter-Press News Service: 05/23/2005 : Bush to continue producing 'packaged news stories'. Retrieved on March 15, 2006.
  2. ^ The Religious Movements Page: Conceptualizing "Cult" and "Sect". Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  3. ^ Polish Anti-Cult Movement (Koscianska) - CESNUR. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  4. ^ Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine Oxford University Press (1987), ISBN 0195051807, p. 308. [1]
  5. ^ Propaganda Techniques
  6. ^ "Letter from Noam Chomsky" to Covert Action Quarterly, quoting Alex Carey, Australian social scientist.
  7. ^ review of Carey, Alex (1995) Taking the Risk out of Democracy: Propaganda in the US and Australia, University of NSW Press.
  8. ^ Ross, Sheryl Tuttle. "Understanding Propaganda: The Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art." Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 36, No.1. pp. 16-30
  9. ^ Boesche, Roger. "Kautilya’s Arthasastra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India", The Journal of Military History 67 (p. 9–38), January 2003.
  10. ^ About Edward Berneys book chapter
  11. ^ Records. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  12. ^ Reports. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  13. ^ "Serbian Propaganda: A Closer Look" (April 12, 1999). “NOAH ADAMS: The European Center for War, Peace and the News Media, based in London, has received word from Belgrade that no pictures of mass Albanian refugees have been shown at all, and that the Kosovo humanitarian catastrophe is only referred to as the one made up or overemphasized by Western propaganda.
    Also, and we quote from the report, "information programs are designed to present the illegitimacy of a NATO aggression on Yugoslavia, the unanimity of the Serbian people in resisting the enemy and Serbian invincibility. All three aims are wrapped in a nationalistic code, `most powerful Western nations, killers, death disseminators, fascists, dictators, criminals, villains, bandits, vandals, barbarians, gangsters, vampires, cowards, perverts, lunatics, scum and trash who want to destroy the small but honorable, dignified, freedom-loving Serbian nation.”
  14. ^ ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin verdict - 1. Joint Criminal Enterprise.
  15. ^ ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin verdict - C. The implementation of the Strategic Plan in the Bosnian Krajina.
  16. ^ WeLoveTheIraqiInformationMinister.com. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  17. ^ http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/U.S._military_covertly_pays_to_run_stories_in_Iraqi_press#Sources
  18. ^ U.S. Military Unclear on 'Planted' Stories. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  19. ^ U.S. military plants stories in the Iraqi media -. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  20. ^ AP Wire: 12/02/2005 : Pentagon describes Iraq propaganda plan. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  21. ^ Mills, Mary. "Propaganda and Children During the Hitler Years". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/propchil.html
  22. ^ Hirsch, Herbert.|Genocide and the Politics of Memory. Chapel Hill & London: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. pg. 119

Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

Notations

  • Fred Cohen. ``Frauds, Spies, and Lies - and How to Defeat Them. ISBN 1-878109-36-7 (2006). ASP Press.
  • Fred Cohen. ``World War 3 ... Information Warfare Basics. ISBN 1-878109-40-5 (2006). ASP Press.
  • Appendix I: PSYOP Techniques (August 31, 1979). Psychological Operations Field Manual No.33-1. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters; Department of the Army. (partial contents here)
  • Bytwerk, Randall L. Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-87013-710-7
  • Edwards, John Carver. Berlin Calling: American Broadcasters in Service to the Third Reich. New York, Prager Publishers, 1991. ISBN 0275939057
  • Howe, Ellic. The Black Game: British Subversive Operations Against the German During the Second World War. London: Futura, 1982.
  • Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World Revisited, New York: Harper, 1958
  • Ellul, Jacques. Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes. Trans. Konrad Kellen & Jean Lerner. New York: Knopf, 1965. New York: Random House/ Vintage 1973
  • Hindery, Roderick, "The Anatomy of Propaganda within Religious Terrorism", Humanist, March-April 2003, 16-19.
  • Le Bon, Gustave, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, 1897 (1895 original version)
  • Linebarger, Paul M. A. (aka Cordwainer Smith). Psychological Warfare. Washington, D.C., Infantry Journal Press, 1948.
  • Nelson, Richard Alan. A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press, 1996. ISBN 0-313-29261-2.
  • Rouse, Ed. The PsyWarrior. Retrieved from http://www.psywarrior.com.
  • Jeanne Boros Class Lessons
  • Young, Emma (October 10, 2001) Psychological warfare waged in Afghanistan. New Scientist.
  • Shirer, William L. Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934-1941. New York: Albert A. Knopf, 1942.
  • Stauber, John, and Rampton, Sheldon Toxic Sludge Is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995.

THIS WAS MADE BII MII NOT U CUZ U SUCK BEATCH is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ... Cordwainer Smith – pronounced CORDwainer Smith – was the pseudonym used by American author Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger (July 11, 1913 – August 6, 1966) for his science fiction works. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Further reading

"Here may lie the most important effect of mass communication, its ability to mentally order and organize our world for us. In short, the mass media may not be successful in telling us what to think, but they are stunningly successful in telling us what to think about."
Shaw & McCombs, The Emergence of American Political Issues, 1977
  • Altheide, David L. & Johnson, John M. Bureaucratic Propaganda. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. (1980)
  • J. A. C. Brown Techniques of Persuasion: From Propaganda to Brainwashing Harmondsworth: Pelican (1963)
  • John H. Brown. "Two Ways of Looking at Propaganda" (2006)
  • , Victoria. Propaganda and Persuasion 4th edition. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage (2006)
  • Kenez, Peter. The Birth of the Propaganda State: Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1985)
  • Kevin R. Kosar. "Is Propaganda Legal?" Chicago Sun-Times, January 29, 2006.
  • Kevin R. Kosar. Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Branch Activities, CRS Report RL32750, February 2005.
  • Kevin R. Kosar. "The Law: The Executive Branch and Propaganda: The Limits of Legal Restrictions" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 35 Iss. 4 Page 784-797, December 2005.
  • Harold D. Lasswell. Propaganda Technique in World War I. Cambridge, Mass: The M.I.T. Press. (1971)
  • Le Bon, Gustave, The Crowd: a study of the Popular Mind (1895)
  • John R. MacArthur. Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War. New York: Hill and Wang. (1992)
  • Randal Marlin. Propaganda & The Ethics of Persuasion. Orchard Park, New York: Broadview Press. (2002)
  • McCombs M. E. & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176-87.
  • Paul M. Linebarger. Psychological Warfare. International Propaganda and Communications. ISBN 0-405-04755-X (1948)
  • Pratkanis, Anthony & Aronson, Elliot. Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. (1992)
  • Rutherford, Paul. Endless Propaganda: The Advertising of Public Goods. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (2000)
  • Rutherford, Paul. Weapons of Mass Persuasion: Marketing the War Against Iraq. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (2004)
  • Nancy Snow. "American Persuasion, Influence and Propaganda"
  • Sproule, J. Michael. Channels of Propaganda. Bloomington, IN: EDINFO Press. (1994)
  • David R.Willcox,Propaganda, the Press and Conflict (2005)
  • Rogers, William. Persuasion: Messages, Receivers, and Contexts.[3]

John Brown is a Senior Fellow at USC Center on Public Diplomacy where he regularly publishes the Public Diplomacy Press Review. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902 — December 18, 1978) was a leading political scientist and communications theorist. ... Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ... This article is about American journalist John R. MacArthur. ... Propaganda and the Ethics of Persuasion Randal Marlin is a philosophy professor at Carleton University who specializes in the study of propaganda. ...

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... SourceWatchs logo features a magnifying glass through which its name can be seen. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... DjVu (pronounced déjà vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned images, especially those containing text and line drawings. ... The bandwagon effect, also known as social proof and closely related to opportunism, is the observation that people often do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A code word is a word or a phrase designed to evoke a predetermined meaning to certain listeners while disguising the speakers true meaning by allowing them to use a word that sounds much more acceptable to an average listener. ... Dog-whistle politics is a term used to describe a type of political campaigning which is only heard by a specific intended audience. ... Doublespeak (sometimes double talk) is language constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning, often resulting in a communication bypass. ... In media studies, sociology and psychology, framing is a process of selective control over the individuals perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases. ... Glittering generalities are emotionally appealing words so closely associated with highly valued concepts and beliefs that they carry conviction without supporting information or reason. ... Lesser of Two Evils redirects here. ... Loaded words are words or phrases which have strong emotional overtones or connotations and which evoke strongly positive (or negative) reactions far beyond the specific meaning of the word which is listed in the dictionary. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... For the Arrested Development episode, see Public Relations (Arrested Development episode). ... Plain Folks is one of the seven forms of propaganda. ... A weasel word is a word intended to soften the force of a statement and/or make an assertion as though one is just conveying some others opinion. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
First World War.com - Propaganda Posters (237 words)
Each of the nations which participated in World War One from 1914-18 used propaganda posters not only as a means of justifying involvement to their own populace, but also as a means of procuring men, money and resources to sustain the military campaign.
In countries such as Britain the use of propaganda posters was readily understandable: in 1914 she only possessed a professional army and did not have in place a policy of national service, as was standard in other major nations such as France and Germany.
Yet while the use of posters proved initially successful in Britain the numbers required for active service at the Front were such as to ultimately require the introduction of conscription.
Propaganda - MSN Encarta (765 words)
Because propaganda is frequently accompanied by distortions of fact and by appeals to passion and prejudice, it is often thought to be invariably false or misleading.
By skillful propaganda the Jesuits were able in the 17th century to reclaim for the church large areas of central Europe that had been lost to Protestantism during the Reformation.
Propaganda for social justice was carried on by the British statistician Charles Booth and by the American social-settlement worker Jane Addams.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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