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Encyclopedia > Proopiomelanocortin
Proopiomelanocortin
Identifiers
Symbol(s) POMC
Entrez 5443
OMIM 176830
RefSeq NM_000939
UniProt P01189
Other data
Locus Chr. 2 p23

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. It is synthesised by corticotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland, melanotrope cells of the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland, about 3000 neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and smaller populations of neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and brainstem. Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... In biology and evolutionary computation, a locus is the position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. ... Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... An amino acid residue is what is left of an amino acid once a molecule of water has been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- from the carboxylic side) in the formation of a peptide bond. ... Corticotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce adrenocorticotrophic hormone. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ...


The large molecule of POMC is the source of several important biologically active substances. POMC can be cleaved enzymatically into the following peptides: Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ...

Each of these peptides is packaged in large dense-core vesicles that are released from the cells by exocytosis in response to appropriate stimulation. α-MSH produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus has important roles in the regulation of appetite and sexual behavior, while α-MSH secreted from the intermediate lobe of the pituitary regulates the production of melanin. ACTH is a peptide hormone that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Corticotropin-like intermediate peptide (CLIP) is a short neuropeptide secreted by the corticotrope cells of the adenohypophysis. ... Lipotropin is a pituitary hormone It comes in two forms: gamma lipotropin (γ-LPH) beta lipotropin (β-LPH) It is derived from proopiomelanocortin. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Exocytosis is the process by which a cell is able to get rid of large molecules or materials including wastes through its membrane. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... The name glucocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ...


β-endorphin and met-enkephalin are endogenous opioid peptides with widespread actions in the brain. Opioid Peptides are short sequences of amino acids which mimick the effect of opiates in the brain. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
POMC - proopiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotropin/ beta-lipotropin/ alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-melanocyte ... (5206 words)
The currently available data suggest that elevated AGRP mRNA along with reduced proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA is associated with many types of obesity and agents antagonizing the effect of AGRP may be a potential therapeutic target in treating obesity and obesity-associated disorders in which endogenous hypothalamic AGRP is elevated.
This pattern of changes in POMC mRNA is consistent with an inhibitory effect of beta-endorphin on GnRH after the midcycle surge and in the postovulatory phase of the cycle, while low levels of POMC mRNA in the early afternoon of proestrus may permit the release of GnRH, which triggers the LH surge.
Nucleotide sequences responsible for the cell-specific expression of the human proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene were analyzed by histochemical staining of beta-galactosidase in culture cells transfected with chimeric genes containing the 5'-flanking regions of the human POMC gene fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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