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Encyclopedia > Promethium
61 neodymiumpromethiumsamarium
-

Pm

Np
General
Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61
Chemical series lanthanides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f
Appearance metallic
Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.26 g/cm³
Melting point 1315 K
(1042 °C, 1908 °F)
Boiling point 3273 K
(3000 °C, 5432 °F)
Heat of fusion 7.13 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 289 kJ/mol
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity  ? 1.13 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 540 kJ/mol
2nd: 1050 kJ/mol
3rd: 2150 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 185 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 205 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) est. 0.75 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 17.9 W/(m·K)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
est. 11 µm/(m·K)
Young's modulus (α form) est. 46 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) est. 18 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) est. 33 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) est. 0.28
CAS registry number 7440-12-2
Notable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of promethium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
145Pm syn 17.7 y ε 0.163 145Nd
146Pm syn 5.53 y ε 1.472 146Nd
β- 1.542 146Sm
147Pm syn 2.6234 y β- 0.224 147Sm
References

This article is about the chemical element. General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block _ , 6 , f Density, Hardness 7353 kg/m3, no data Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass (237) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Image File history File links Promethium table image created by schnee for Wikipedia on June 23, 2003, 13:55 UTC. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For information about the period table of elements, see Periodic table. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... The atomic mass of a chemical element (also known as the relative atomic mass or average atomic mass or atomic weight) is the average atomic mass of all the chemical elements isotopes as found in a particular environment, weighted by isotopic abundance. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... It has been suggested that Energy level be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... Properties The electron is a lightweight fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (69-73 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The standard enthalpy change of fusion, also known as the heat of fusion, is the amount of thermal energy which must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change states from a solid to a liquid or vice versa. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Rose des Sables (Sand Rose), formed of gypsum crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation state or oxidation number is defined as the sum of negative and positive charges in an atom, which indirectly indicates the number of electrons it has accepted or donated. ... It has been suggested that strong base be merged into this article or section. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction that an atom has for the bonding pair of electrons in a covalent bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The atomic radius is the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outmost stable electron orbital in an atom that is at equilibrium. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Picometre (American spelling: picometer) is an SI measure of length that is equal to 10−12 of a metre. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (69-73 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, λ or k, is the intensive property of a material which relates its ability to conduct heat. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, λ, is the quantity of heat transmitted, due to unit temperature gradient, in unit time under steady conditions in a direction normal to a surface of unit area, when the heat transfer is dependent only on the temperature gradient thermal conductivity = heat flow rate / (distance × temperature... Solids expand in response to heating and contract on cooling; this response to temperature change is expressed as its coefficient of thermal expansion: The coefficient of thermal expansion is used in two ways: as a volumetric thermal expansion coefficient as a linear thermal expansion coefficient These characteristics are closely related. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (69-73 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (also known as the modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus or tensile modulus) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus S, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: S = shear stress/shear strain = (F/A)/Φ. Another commonly accepted symbol is G. Shear modulus is usually measured in ksi (kips per square... The bulk modulus K of a fluid or solid is the inverse of the compressibility: where p is pressure and V is volume. ... When a sample of material is stretched in one direction, it tends to get thinner in the other two directions. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Promethium (Pm) Has no stable isotopes. ... Isotopes are forms of an element whose nuclei have the same atomic number - the number of protons in the nucleus - but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block _ , 6 , f Density, Hardness 7353 kg/m3, no data Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 150. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block _ , 6 , f Density, Hardness 7353 kg/m3, no data Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 150. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ...

Promethium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Pm and atomic number 61. In DC comics, Prometheum is the alternative answer to Marvels Adamantium. ... A napalm airstrike during the Vietnam War Incendiary liquids have been used in warfare for thousands of years (see Greek fire). ... Cover of the Warhammer 40,000 4th edition rulebook This article is about the tabletop miniature wargame and the fictional universe in which it is set. ... Fictional chemical substances are compounds or minerals that exist only in works of fiction (usually fantasy or science fiction). ... A chemical element, often called simply element, is a chemical substance that cannot be divided or changed into other chemical substances by any ordinary chemical technique. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (Z) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ...

Contents


Notable characteristics

Promethium has no stable isotopes. It is a man-made soft beta emitter; it does not emit gamma rays, but beta particles impinging on elements of high atomic numbers can generate X-rays. Pure promethium exists in two allotropic forms, but little else is known about the metal. Promethium salts luminesce in the dark with a pale blue or greenish glow due to their high radioactivity. Beta particles are high-energy electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei such as potassium-40. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Allotropy (Gr. ...


Applications

Uses for promethium include:

  • Beta radiation source for thickness gauges.
  • Light source for signals that require dependable operation (using phosphor to absorb the beta radiation and produce light).
  • In a nuclear battery in which photocells convert the light into electric current, yielding a useful life of about five years using 147-Pm.
  • Possibly in the future as a portable X-ray source, as an auxiliary heat / power source for space probes and satellites, and to make lasers that can be used to communicate with submerged submarines.

A phosphor is a substance that can exhibit the phenomenon of fluorescence (glowing during absorption of radiation of another kind) or phosphorescence (sustained glowing without further stimulus). ...

History

The existence of promethium was first predicted by Bohuslav Brauner in 1902; this prediction was confirmed by Henry Moseley in 1914. Several groups claimed to have produced the element, but they could not confirm their discoveries because of the difficulty of separating promethium from other elements. Proof of the existence of promethium was obtained in 1945 by Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin and Charles D. Coryell during the analysis of byproducts of uranium fission; however, being too busy with defense-related research during World War II, they did not announce their discovery until 1947. [1] The name promethium is derived from Prometheus in Greek mythology, who stole the fire of the sky and gave it to mankind. 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Moseley Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (November 23, 1887-August 10, 1915) was an English physicist. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Jacob A. Marinsky (1918 – September 1, 2005) was a chemist and writer who was the co-discoverer of the element promethium in 1944. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... This article is about the mythological figure; for other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... Perseus with the head of Medusa. ...


In 1963, ion-exchange methods were used to prepare about 10 grams of promethium from atomic reactor fuel processing wastes. Template:C20YearInnTopic 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


Today, promethium is still recovered from the byproducts of uranium fission; it can also be produced by bombarding 146Nd with neutrons, turning it into 147Nd which decays into 147Pm through beta decay with a half-life of 11 days. Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ...


Promethium is also the name of a fictional element in the DC Universe; writer Marv Wolfman claims to have been unaware of the existence of a real substance by that name at the time he wrote the original script featuring the name. The Three Graces, here in a painting by Sandro Botticelli, were the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility in Greek mythology. ... The DC Universe (DCU) is the fictional shared setting where most of the comic stories published by DC Comics take place. ... Cover to Crisis on Infinite Earths #1, which was written by Wolfman. ...


A substance called promethium is also used in the war game Warhammer 40,000. It is a fictional napalm-like flammable material. The Book War Game is a childrens book about World War I. Written by Michael Foreman in 1993, the story describes a group of four young men (Will,Freddie,Billy, and Lacey) who are eager to go for the grand adventure. The story goes from training in England, to... Cover of the Warhammer 40,000 4th edition rulebook This article is about the tabletop miniature wargame and the fictional universe in which it is set. ... A napalm airstrike during the Vietnam War Incendiary liquids have been used in warfare for thousands of years (see Greek fire). ...


Occurrence

Promethium does not naturally occur on Earth, but has been identified in the spectrum of the star HR 465 in Andromeda, and possibly HD 101065 (Przybylski's star) and HD 965 [2]. Earth is the third planet in the Solar system. ... HR 465 (GY Andromedae or GY And) is a variable star in the in the constellation Andromeda. ... Andromeda is a constellation named for the princess Andromeda (which is Greek for Ruler over men), a character in Greek mythology. ...


Compounds

Promethium compounds include:

  • Chlorides
    • PmCl3
  • Bromides
    • PmBr3
  • Oxides
    • Pm2O3

Isotopes

36 radioisotopes of promethium have been characterized, with the most stable being 145Pm with a half-life of 17.7 years, 146Pm with a half-life of 5.53 years, and 147Pm with a half-life of 2.6234 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 364 days, and the majority of these have half lives that are less than 27 seconds. This element also has 11 meta states with the most stable being 148Pmm (T½ 41.29 days), 152Pmm2 (T½ 13.8 minutes) and 152Pmm (T½ 7.52 minutes). A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The isotopes of promethium range in atomic weight from 127.9482600 u (128Pm) to 162.9535200 u (163Pm). The primary decay mode before the longest-lived isotope, 145Pm, is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 145Pm are neodymium (Nd) isotopes and the primary products after are samarium (Sm) isotopes. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block _ , 6 , f Density, Hardness 7353 kg/m3, no data Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 150. ...


Precautions

Promethium must be handled with great care because of its high radioactivity. In particular, promethium can emit X-rays during its beta decay. Note that its half-life is less than that of plutonium-239 by a factor of multiple thousands to tens of thousands. Promethium has no biological role. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


References

External links

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Promethium
Look up promethium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Promethium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (611 words)
The existence of promethium was first predicted by Bohuslav Brauner in 1902; this prediction was confirmed by Henry Moseley in 1914.
Promethium is also the name of a fictional element in the DC Universe; writer Marv Wolfman claims to have been unaware of the existence of a real substance by that name at the time he wrote the original script featuring the name.
Promethium does not naturally occur on Earth, but has been identified in the spectrum of the star HR 465 in Andromeda, and possibly HD 101065 (Przybylski's star) and HD 965 [2].
Promethium - definition of Promethium in Encyclopedia (561 words)
Promethium is a soft beta emitter; it does not emit gamma rays, but beta particles impinging on elements of high atomic numbers can generate X-rays.
Proof of the existence of promethium was obtained in 1944 only by Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin and Charles D. Coryell during the analysis of byproducts of uranium fission; however, being too busy with defense-related research during World War II, they did not claim their discovery until 1946.
The name promethium is derived from Prometheus from Greek mythology, who stole the fire of the sky and gave it to mankind.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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