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Encyclopedia > Proliferation Security Initiative

The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) is an international effort led by the United States to interdict transfer of banned weapons and weapons technology. The PSI is primarily focused on combating proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and materials. The initiative is designed to work within the framework of other international agreements and the role of participating countries varies. The PSI consists of 15 core countries, which alongside the US include Russia, Japan, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. A further 60 countries have agreed to cooperate on an ad hoc basis. Interdict can refer to several things: Look up interdict in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ...


In September 2005, the People's Republic of China announced that it would not be participating in PSI due to concerns over its legality. India has so far resisted signing on to PSI. However, India, US, Japan, Australia & Singapore are conducting PSI exercises in the Bay of Bengal (Malabar Exercises - September 2007). 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in September September 28 : Constance Baker Motley September 25 : M. Scott Peck September 25 : Don Adams September 20 : Simon Wiesenthal September 14 : Robert Wise September 10 : Hermann Bondi September 8 : Donald Horne September 7 : Moussa Arafat...

Contents

History

The idea of the PSI was specifically developed by John R. Bolton, US Under-Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security, after 15 Scud missiles found on board a North Korean freighter had to be released when it turned out that international law did not allow them to be confiscated. The PSI was announced by US President George W. Bush on May 31, 2003 in Cracow, Poland. John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), is an jewish American diplomat in several Republican administrations, who served as the Permanent US Representative to the UN from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. ... For other uses, see Scud (disambiguation). ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ...


Six nations have signed bi-lateral Mutual Shipboarding Pacts with the United States, allowing the mutual expedition of shipboarding requests for ships under those nations' flags. The six are Belize, Croatia, Cyprus, Liberia, the Marshall Islands, and Panama. Each of these nations maintains a large number of commercial vessels on their registries.


For the text of these bilateral agreements please refer to [1]


For an academic analysis of shipboarding in the PSI context see Fabio Spadi (2006), "Bolstering the Proliferation Security Initiative at Sea: A Comparative Analysis of Ship-boarding as a Bilateral and Multilateral Implementing Mechanism", Nordic Journal of International Law [2]


Participation

The primary role of PSI participants is to abide by a Statement of Interdiction Principles, with the primary purpose of interdicting subject weapons and materials. Additionally, participants are to enact legal statutes to facilitate effective interdiction and seizure of such items. Finally, participants are to take measures to ensure that their national facilities are not utilized to transfer illicit weapon cargoes.


In the United States, the program is managed by the NSC Staff working out of the White House, with the Pentagon and intelligence agencies playing lead roles. The United States Department of State Bureau of Nonproliferation has less of a role in the PSI than one might expect. Department of State redirects here. ... Acting Assistant Secretary Stephen Rademaker The Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation is an agency within the United States Department of State responsible for managing a broad range of nonproliferation, counterproliferation, and arms control functions. ...


Exercise

In August 2005, a multi-national maritime interdiction exercise, codenamed Exercise Deep Sabre, was conducted in Singapore as part of the Proliferation Security Initiative. The exercise, launched at the Changi Naval Base and conducted in the South China Sea, involved some 2,000 personnel from the military, coast guard, customs and other agencies of 13 countries, including Singapore, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the US. Ten ships and six maritime patrol aircraft were involved in the exercise that aimed to develop and practice effective procedures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. [3] Exercise Deep Sabre is a multi-national maritime interdiction exercise conducted in August 2005 in South China Sea. ... Changi Naval Base (CNB) is the latest naval facility of the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) and was built to replace Brani Naval Base. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Luzon Sea Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


See also

The Container Security Initiative is the most topical AFF ever. ...

External links

  • Official United States Department of State PSI Homepage
  • Canadian Government's Information webpage[4]

Anti-PSI links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Proliferation Security Initiative - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (561 words)
The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) is an international effort led by the United States to interdict transfer of banned weapons and weapons technology.
The PSI is primarily focused on combating proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and materials.
In August 2005, a multi-national maritime interdiction exercise, codenamed Exercise Deep Sabre, was conducted in Singapore as part of the Proliferation Security Initiative.
Disarmament Documentation: Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) Meeting, Paris, September 3-4 (1487 words)
The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) is a response to the growing challenge posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), their delivery systems, and related materials worldwide.
It is consistent with and a step in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Presidential Statement of January 1992, which states that the proliferation of all WMD constitutes a threat to international peace and security, and underlines the need for member states of the UN to prevent proliferation.
The PSI is an initiative to develop political commitments and practical cooperation to help impede and stop the flow of WMD, their systems and related materials to and from states and non-State actors of concern.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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