FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Project management

Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e.g. people) in such a way that the project is completed within defined scope, quality, time and cost constraints. A project is a temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service, which brings about beneficial change or added value. This property of being a temporary and one-time undertaking contrasts with processes, or operations, which are permanent or semi-permanent ongoing functional work to create the same product or service over and over again. The management of these two systems is often very different and requires varying technical skills and philosophy, hence requiring the development of project management. This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service[1]. // The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, to throw something forwards which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in... Illustration of a physical process: a geyser in action. Process (lat. ... It has been suggested that Management system be merged into this article or section. ...


The first challenge of project management is to ensure that a project is delivered within defined constraints. The second, more ambitious challenge is the optimized allocation and integration of inputs needed to meet pre-defined objectives. A project is a carefully defined set of activities that use resources (money, people, materials, energy, space, provisions, communication, quality, risk, etc.) to meet the pre-defined objectives. Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... In strategic planning, a resource-allocation decision is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future. ... A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service[1]. // The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, to throw something forwards which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in... In economics, factors of production are resources used in the production of goods and services. ... Various denominations of currency, one form of money Money is any good or token that functions as a medium of exchange that is socially and legally accepted in payment for goods and services and in settlement of debts. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... In telecommunication, provisioning is the act of acquiring telecommunications service from the submission of the requirement through the activation of service. ... Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by several methods. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... Lets talk about risk control strategies, anyone with more information and willing to share, please do so. ...

Contents

History of Project Management

As a discipline, Project Management developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense. In the United States, the forefather of project management is Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famously known for his use of the "Gantt" chart as a project management tool, for being an associate of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management[1], and for his study of the work and management of Navy ship building. His work is the forerunner to many modern project management tools including the work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation. Henry Laurence Gantt, A.B.; M.E. (1861-1919) was a mechanical engineer and management consultant who is most famous for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s. ... Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 - March 21, 1915) was an American engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Scientific management, Taylorism or the Classical Perspective is a method in management theory which determines changes to improve labour productivity. ... // One of the most important WBS design principles is called the 100% Rule. ...


The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era. Again, in the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts, and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project scheduling models were developed: (1) the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or PERT, developed by Booz-Allen & Hamilton as part of the United States Navy's (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program[2]; and (2) the "Critical Path Method" (CPM) developed in a joint venture by both DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises. Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. ... PERT network chart for a seven-month project with five milestones (10 through 50) and six activities (A through F). ... USN redirects here. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. ... Dupont, DuPont, Du Pont, or du Pont may refer to: // E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, the worlds third largest chemical company Du Pont Motors Gilbert Dupont, a French stock brokerage part of retail banking network Crédit du Nord ST Dupont, a French manufacturer of fine... A Remington Rand branded typewriter Remington Rand was an early American computer manufacturer, best known as the original maker of the UNIVAC I, and now part of Unisys. ...


In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed to serve the interest of the project management industry. The premise of PMI is that the tools and techniques of project management are common even among the widespread application of projects from the software industry to the construction industry. In 1981, the PMI Board of Directors authorized the development of what has become A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), containing the standards and guidelines of practice that are widely used throughout the profession. The International Project Management Association (IPMA), founded in Europe in 1967, has undergone a similar development and instituted the IPMA Project Baseline. Both organizations are now participating in the development of a ISO project management standard. Incorporated in 1969 and situated outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was founded by five volunteers. ... Starting in the 1980s, application software has been sold in mass-produced packages through retailers The software industry comprises of businesses involved in the development, maintenance and publication of computer software. ... Project Management Institute (PMI) published the first PMBOK® in an attempt to document and standardize generally accepted project management information and practices. ...


For a more comprehensive discussion on the history of project management see "The Origins of Modern Project Management"PDF,Weaver, P. 2007 The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ...


Definitions

  • PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge as defined by the Project Management Institute - PMI):"Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements."[3]
  • PRINCE2 project management methodology: "The planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of the project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality and performance."[4]
  • PROJECT: A temporary piece of work with a finite end date undertaken to create a unique product or service. Projects bring form or function to ideas or needs.
  • DIN 69901 (Deutsches Institut für Normung - German Organization for Standardization): "Project management is the complete set of tasks, techniques, tools applied during project execution"

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is a project management standard developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI). ... For other meanings, see Prince (disambiguation). ...

The Project Manager

Project management is quite often the province and responsibility of an individual project manager. This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that produce the end result, but rather strives to maintain the progress and productive mutual interaction of various parties in such a way that overall risk of failure is reduced. A project manager is the person who has the overall responsibility for the successful planning and execution of any project. ...


A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm he/she is representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality, and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.


In whatever field, a successful project manager must be able to envision the entire project from start to finish and to have the ability to ensure that this vision is realized.


Any type of product or service —buildings, vehicles, electronics, computer software, financial services, etc.— may have its implementation overseen by a project manager and its operations by a product manager. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Traditional Triple Constraints

Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as scope, time, and cost. These are also referred to as the Project Management Triangle, where each side represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without impacting the others. A further refinement of the constraints separates product 'quality' or 'performance' from scope, and turns quality into a fourth constraint.

The Project Management Triangle

The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project's end result. These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope. Image File history File links Project-triangle-en. ... Image File history File links Project-triangle-en. ...


The discipline of project management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints.


Another approach to project management is to consider the three constraints as finance, time and human resources. If you need to finish a job in a shorter time, you can throw more people at the problem, which in turn will raise the cost of the project, unless by doing this task quicker we will reduce costs elsewhere in the project by an equal amount.


Time

For analytical purposes, the time required to produce a deliverable is estimated using several techniques. One method is to identify tasks needed to produce the deliverables documented in a work breakdown structure or WBS. The work effort for each task is estimated and those estimates are rolled up into the final deliverable estimate. In project management, a product is a physical entity that is created as a result of project work. ... // One of the most important WBS design principles is called the 100% Rule. ...


The tasks are also prioritized, dependencies between tasks are identified, and this information is documented in a project schedule. The dependencies between the tasks can affect the length of the overall project (dependency constrained), as can the availability of resources (resource constrained). Time is not considered a cost nor a resource since the project manager cannot control the rate at which it is expended. This makes it different from all other resources and cost categories.


Cost

Cost to develop a project depends on several variables including (chiefly): labor rates, material rates, risk management, plant (buildings, machines, etc.), equipment, and profit. When hiring an independent consultant for a project, cost will typically be determined by the consultant's or firm's per diem rate multiplied by an estimated quantity for completion. For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ... Per diem, or per day, is a Latin phrase meaning specific amount of money an organization allows an individual to spend per day. ...


Scope

Requirements specified for the end result. The overall definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish, and a specific description of what the end result should be or accomplish. A major component of scope is the quality of the final product. The amount of time put into individual tasks determines the overall quality of the project. Some tasks may require a given amount of time to complete adequately, but given more time could be completed exceptionally. Over the course of a large project, quality can have a significant impact on time and cost (or vice versa). For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ...


Together, these three constraints have given rise to the phrase "On Time, On Spec, On Budget". In this case, the term "scope" is substituted with "spec(ification)".


Project Management activities

Project Management is composed of several different types of activities such as:

  1. Planning the work or objectives
  2. Analysis & design of objectives and events
  3. Assessing and controlling risk (or Risk Management)
  4. Estimating resources
  5. Allocation of resources
  6. Organizing the work
  7. Acquiring human and material resources
  8. Assigning tasks
  9. Directing activities
  10. Controlling project execution
  11. Tracking and reporting progress
  12. Analyzing the results based on the facts achieved
  13. Defining the products of the project
  14. Forecasting future trends in the project
  15. Quality Management
  16. Issues management
  17. Issue solving
  18. Defect prevention
  19. Identifying, managing & controlling changes
  20. Project closure
  21. Communicating to stakeholders
  22. Increasing/ decreasing a company's workers

Strategic planning is a way to identify and move toward desired future states. ... For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ... Estimation is the calculated approximation of a result which is usable even if input data may be incomplete, uncertain, or noisy. ... Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. ...

Project Objectives

Project objectives define target status at the end of the project, reaching of which is considered necessary for the achievement of planned benefits. They can be formulated as S.M.A.R.T. Strategic planning is a way to identify and move toward desired future states. ... SMART is a mnemonic used in project management at the project objective setting stage. ...

  • Specific,
  • Measurable (or at least evaluable) achievement,
  • Achievable (recently Acceptable is used regularly as well),
  • Realistic and
  • Time terminated(bounded).

The evaluation (measurement) occurs at the project closure. However a continuous guard on the project progress should be kept by monitoring and evaluating.


Project Management artifacts

Most projects, to be successful, must adequately document objectives and deliverables. These documents are a mechanism to align sponsors, clients, and project team's expectations.

  1. Project Charter
  2. Preliminary Scope Statement/Statement of Work
  3. Business case/Feasibility Study
  4. Scope Statement / Terms of reference
  5. Project management plan / Project Initiation Document
  6. Work Breakdown Structure
  7. Change Control Plan
  8. Risk Management Plan
  9. Risk Breakdown Structure
  10. Communications Plan
  11. Governance Model
  12. Risk Register
  13. Issue Log
  14. Action Item List
  15. Resource Management Plan
  16. Project Schedule
  17. Status Report
  18. Responsibility assignment matrix
  19. Database of lessons learned
  20. Stakeholder Analysis

These documents are normally hosted on a shared resource (i.e., intranet web page) and are available for review by the project's stakeholders (except for the Stakeholder Analysis, since this document comprises personal information regarding certain stakeholders. Only the Project Manager has access to this analysis). Changes or updates to these documents are explicitly outlined in the project's configuration management (or change control plan). A Project Charter is a document that formalizes the request from a sponsor for responding to a business need. ... A business case is a structured proposal for business change that is justified in terms of costs and benefits. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Scope statements may take many forms depending on the type of project being implemented and the nature of the organization. ... A Terms Of Reference is a document which describes the purpose and structure of a project. ... The project management plan is a document that describes the project management system used by a project team. ... A Project initiation document is a logical document whose purpose is to bring together the key information needed to start the project on a sound basis; and to convey that information to all concerned with the project. ... // One of the most important WBS design principles is called the 100% Rule. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Risk Management Plan (RMP) is the document prepared by a Project manager to foresee risks, to estimate the effectiveness and to mitigate them. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... In project management, a schedule consists of a list of a projects terminal elements with intended start and finish dates. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Project control variables

Project Management tries to gain control over variables such as risk:

Risk 
Potential points of failure: Most negative risks (or potential failures) can be overcome or resolved, given enough planning capabilities, time, and resources. According to some definitions (including PMBOK Third Edition) risk can also be categorized as "positive--" meaning that there is a potential opportunity, e.g., complete the project faster than expected.

Customers (either internal or external project sponsors) and external organizations (such as government agencies and regulators) can dictate the extent of three variables: time, cost, and scope. The remaining variable (risk) is managed by the project team, ideally based on solid estimation and response planning techniques. Through a negotiation process among project stakeholders, an agreement defines the final objectives, in terms of time, cost, scope, and risk, usually in the form of a charter or contract. Lets talk about risk control strategies, anyone with more information and willing to share, please do so. ...


To properly control these variables a good project manager has a depth of knowledge and experience in these four areas (time, cost, scope, and risk), and in six other areas as well: integration, communication, human resources, quality assurance, schedule development, and procurement.


Approaches

There are several approaches that can be taken to managing project activities including agile, interactive, incremental, and phased approaches.


Regardless of the approach employed, careful consideration needs to be given to clarify surrounding project objectives, goals, and importantly, the roles and responsibilities of all participants and stakeholders.


The traditional approach

A traditional phased approach identifies a sequence of steps to be completed. In the traditional approach, we can distinguish 5 components of a project (4 stages plus control) in the development of a project:

  1. project initiation stage;
  2. project planning or design stage;
  3. project execution or production stage;
  4. project monitoring and controlling systems;
  5. project completion stage.

Not all the projects will visit every stage as projects can be terminated before they reach completion. Some projects probably don't have the planning and/or the monitoring. Some projects will go through steps 2, 3 and 4 multiple times. Project planning is part of project management, which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment. ...


Many industries utilize variations on these stages. For example, in bricks and mortar architectural design, projects typically progress through stages like Pre-Planning, Conceptual Design, Schematic Design, Design Development, Construction Drawings (or Contract Documents), and Construction Administration. In software development, this approach is often known as 'waterfall development' i.e one series of tasks after another in linear sequence. In software development many organizations have adapted the Rational Unified Process (RUP) to fit this methodology, although RUP does not require or explicitly recommend this practice. Waterfall development can work for small tightly defined projects, but for larger projects of undefined or unknowable scope, it is less suited. Because software development is often the realization of a new or novel product, this method has been widely accepted as ineffective for software projects where requirements are largely unknowable up front and susceptible to change. While the names may differ from industry to industry, the actual stages typically follow common steps to problem solving--defining the problem, weighing options, choosing a path, implementation and evaluation. Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... The waterfall model is a sequential software development model (a process for the creation of software) in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of requirements analysis, design, implementation, testing (validation), integration, and maintenance. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ...


Rational Unified Process

  1. Inception - Identify the initial scope of the project, a potential architecture for the system, and obtain initial project funding and stakeholder acceptance.
  2. Elaboration - Prove the architecture of the system.
  3. Construction - Build working software on a regular, incremental basis which meets the highest-priority needs of project stakeholders.
  4. Transition - Validate and deploy the system into the production environment

The Rational Unified Process (RUP) is an iterative software development process created by the Rational Software Corporation, now a division of IBM. The RUP is an extensive refinement of the (generic) Unified Process. ...

Temporary organization sequencing concepts

  1. Action-based entrepreneurship
  2. Fragmentation for commitment-building
  3. Planned isolation
  4. Institutionalised termination

Critical chain

Critical chain is an extension to the traditional critical path method. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) is based on methods and algorithms developed in 1997 by Eliyahu M. Goldratt. ... The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. ...


In critical studies of project management, it has been noted that several of these fundamentally PERT-based models are not well suited for the multi-project company environment of today. Most of them are aimed at very large-scale, one-time, non-routine projects, and nowadays all kinds of management are expressed in terms of projects. Using complex models for "projects" (or rather "tasks") spanning a few weeks has been proven to cause unnecessary costs and low maneuverability in several cases. Instead, project management experts try to identify different "lightweight" models, such as Extreme Programming for software development and Scrum techniques. The generalization of Extreme Programming to other kinds of projects is extreme project management, which may be used in combination with the process modeling and management principles of human interaction management. PERT network chart for a seven-month project with five milestones (10 through 50) and six activities (A through F). ... Extreme Programming (or XP) is a software engineering methodology, the most prominent of several agile software development methodologies, prescribing a set of daily stakeholder practices that embody and encourage particular XP values (below). ... Template:Test6 Scrum is an agile method for project management, in use since at least 1990. ... Extreme project management (XPM) refers to the method of managing very complex and very uncertain projects. ... This article is about the general term. ... Human Interaction Management is a name for the process used to support and monitor tasks while also permitting ongoing process development. ...


Event chain methodology

Event chain methodology is the next advance beyond critical path method and critical chain project management. Event chain diagram Event chain methodology is an uncertainty modeling and schedule network analysis technique that is focused on identifying and managing events and event chains that affect project schedules. ... The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. ... Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) is based on methods and algorithms developed in 1997 by Eliyahu M. Goldratt. ...


Event chain methodology is an uncertainty modeling and schedule network analysis technique that is focused on identifying and managing events and event chains that affect project schedules. Event chain methodology helps to mitigate the negative impact of psychological heuristics and biases, as well as to allow for easy modeling of uncertainties in the project schedules. Event chain methodology is based on the following major principles.

  • Probabilistic moment of risk: An activity (task) in most real life processes is not a continuous uniform process. Tasks are affected by external events, which can occur at some point in the middle of the task.
  • Event chains: Events can cause other events, which will create event chains. These event chains can significantly affect the course of the project. Quantitative analysis is used to determine a cumulative effect of these event chains on the project schedule.
  • Critical events or event chains: The single events or the event chains that have the most potential to affect the projects are the “critical events” or “critical chains of events.” They can be determined by the analysis.
  • Project tracking with events: If a project is partially completed and data about the project duration, cost, and events occurred is available, it is possible to refine information about future potential events and helps to forecast future project performance.
  • Event chain visualization: Events and event chains can be visualized using event chain diagrams on a Gantt chart.

Event chain diagram Event Chain Diagrams are visualizations that show the relationships between events and tasks and how the events affect each other. ... Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. ...

Process-based management

Also furthering the concept of project control is the incorporation of process-based management. This area has been driven by the use of Maturity models such as the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) and ISO/IEC15504 (SPICE - Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination), which have been far more successful. This article needs to be wikified. ... The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a method for evaluating the maturity of software development organisations on a scale of 1 to 5. ... ISO 15504 is a standard for Process Assessment. ...


Agile project management approaches based on the principles of human interaction management are founded on a process view of human collaboration. This contrasts sharply with traditional approach. In the agile software development or flexible product development approach, the project is seen as a series of relatively small tasks conceived and executed as the situation demands in an adaptive manner, rather than as a completely pre-planned process. Human Interaction Management is a name for the process used to support and monitor tasks while also permitting ongoing process development. ... Agile software development is a conceptual framework for undertaking software engineering projects that embraces and promotes evolutionary change throughout the entire life-cycle of the project. ... Although the development of a new product naturally involves change from what came before it, the business processes and project management methodologies usually used for product development are not designed to accommodate change. ...


Project systems

As mentioned above, traditionally, project development includes five elements: control systems and four stages.


Project control systems

Project control is that element of a project that keeps it on-track, on-time, and within budget. Project control begins early in the project with planning and ends late in the project with post-implementation review, having a thorough involvement of each step in the process. Each project should be assessed for the appropriate level of control needed: too much control is too time consuming, too little control is too costly. If control is not implemented correctly, the cost to the business should be clarified in terms of errors, fixes, and additional audit fees. The most general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person, organization, system, process, project or product. ...


Control systems are needed for cost, risk, quality, communication, time, change, procurement, and human resources. In addition, auditors should consider how important the projects are to the financial statements, how reliant the stakeholders are on controls, and how many controls exist. Auditors should review the development process and procedures for how they are implemented. The process of development and the quality of the final product may also be assessed if needed or requested. A business may want the auditing firm to be involved throughout the process to catch problems earlier on so that they can be fixed more easily. An auditor can serve as a controls consultant as part of the development team or as an independent auditor as part of an audit. Lets talk about risk control strategies, anyone with more information and willing to share, please do so. ... Audit can refer to: Telecommunication audit Financial audit Performance audit Completion of a course of study for which no assessment is completed or grade awarded; especially audit is awarded to those who have elected not to receive a letter grade for a course in which letter grades typically awarded. ... Historical financial statement Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of a business financial activities. ... Audit can refer to: Telecommunication audit Financial audit Performance audit Completion of a course of study for which no assessment is completed or grade awarded; especially audit is awarded to those who have elected not to receive a letter grade for a course in which letter grades typically awarded. ... Basic definition Audit is the examination of records and reports of a company, in order to check that what is provided is relevant and accurate. ... Audit can refer to: Telecommunication audit Financial audit Performance audit Completion of a course of study for which no assessment is completed or grade awarded; especially audit is awarded to those who have elected not to receive a letter grade for a course in which letter grades typically awarded. ... A consultant (from the Latin consultare meaning to discuss from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area of expertise such as accountancy, the environment, technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance, public affairs, communication, engineering... Audit can refer to: Telecommunication audit Financial audit Performance audit Completion of a course of study for which no assessment is completed or grade awarded; especially audit is awarded to those who have elected not to receive a letter grade for a course in which letter grades typically awarded. ... The most general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person, organization, system, process, project or product. ...


Businesses sometimes use formal systems development processes. These help assure that systems are developed successfully. A formal process is more effective in creating strong controls, and auditors should review this process to confirm that it is well designed and is followed in practice. A good formal systems development plan outlines: Audit can refer to: Telecommunication audit Financial audit Performance audit Completion of a course of study for which no assessment is completed or grade awarded; especially audit is awarded to those who have elected not to receive a letter grade for a course in which letter grades typically awarded. ...

  • A strategy to align development with the organization’s broader objectives
  • Standards for new systems
  • Project management policies for timing and budgeting
  • Procedures describing the process

A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses. ...

Project development stages

Regardless of the methodology used, the project development process will have the same major stages: initiation, development, production or execution, and closing/maintenance.


Initiation

The initiation stage determines the nature and scope of the development. If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business’s needs. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies should be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them.


The initiation stage should include a cohesive plan that encompasses the following areas:

  • Study analyzing the business needs in measurable goals.
  • Review of the current operations.
  • Conceptual design of the operation of the final product.
  • Equipment requirement.
  • Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget.
  • Select stake holders, including users, and support personnel for the project.
  • Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule.

Financial analysis refers to an assessment of the viability, stability and profitability of a business, sub-business or project. ... Look up budget in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Planning and design

After the initiation stage, the system is designed. Occasionally, a small prototype of the final product is built and tested. Testing is generally performed by a combination of testers and end users, and can occur after the prototype is built or concurrently. Controls should be in place that ensure that the final product will meet the specifications of the project charter. The results of the design stage should include a product design that:

  • Satisfies the project sponsor, end user, and business requirements.
  • Functions as it was intended.
  • Can be produced within quality standards.
  • Can be produced within time and budget constraints.

Closing and Maintenance

Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.


Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes:

  • Continuing support of end users
  • Correction of errors
  • Updates of the software over time

In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Audit can refer to: Telecommunication audit Financial audit Performance audit Completion of a course of study for which no assessment is completed or grade awarded; especially audit is awarded to those who have elected not to receive a letter grade for a course in which letter grades typically awarded. ...


Over the course of any construction project, the work scope changes. Change is a normal and expected part of the construction process. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or, more specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. The record is made on the contract documents – usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings, or more simply, “asbuilts.” The requirement for providing them is a norm in construction contracts.


Project Management Tools

Project Management Tools include

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) charts were first developed in the 1950s by the US Navy to help manage very large, complex projects (such as Polaris) with a high degree of intertask dependency. ... Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. ... Event chain diagram Event Chain Diagrams are visualizations that show the relationships between events and tasks and how the events affect each other. ... A simple run chart showing data collected over time. ... The following is a list of notable project management software applications. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Project Management Associations

Several national and professional associations exist which have as their aim the promotion and development of project management and the project management profession. The most prominent associations include:

Incorporated in 1969 and situated outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was founded by five volunteers. ... Association for Project Management (APM) is an independent organization for project management. ... The International Association of Project and Program Management (IAPPM), formed in 2003 through the active volunteers and established as a global project management professional organization and Association providing knowledge and useful content back to project managers and program managers. ...

International Standards

There have been several attempts to develop project management standards, such as: Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ...

  • A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)
  • The Standard for Program Management
  • The Standard for Portfolio Management
  • Project Management Certification (Project Management Institute (PMI))
  • APM Body of Knowledge 5th ed. (APM - Association for Project Management (UK))
  • PRINCE2 (PRojects IN a Controlled Environment)
  • P2M (A guidebook of Project & Program Management for Enterprise Innovation, Japanese third-generation project management method)(Download page for P2M and related products)
  • V-Modell (German project management method)
  • HERMES_method (The Swiss general project management method, selected for use in Luxembourg and international organisations)
  • Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3)
  • International Standards Organization Founded 1947
    • ISO 9000: a family of standards for quality management systems.
    • ISO 10006:2003, Quality management systems - Guidelines for quality management in projects
  • JPACE (Justify, Plan, Activate, Control, and End - The James Martin Method for Managing Projects (1981-present))
  • Software Engineering Institute: Capability Maturity Model

Project Management Institute (PMI) published the first PMBOK® in an attempt to document and standardize generally accepted project management information and practices. ... For other meanings, see Prince (disambiguation). ... The V-Modell® is the German system development and lifecycle process model standard for federal administration and defense engineering projects. ... // HERMES is based on the German V-Modell. ... Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO or Iso) is an international standard-setting body made up of representatives from national standards bodies. ... Sign on a wholesaler at the Tsukiji fish market indicates ISO 9001 certification. ... ISO 10006:1997, Quality management; Guidelines to quality in project management, is an international standard developed by ISO. It is not as popular or widely accepted as the PMBOK. See also project management External links Overview and discussion of the ISO 10006 Standard Comparison of ISO 10006 and PMBOK Download... The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) is a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense and operated by Carnegie Mellon University. ...

Professional Certifications

See also: An exhaustive list of standards (maturity models) CPM may refer to: Commerce Certified Property Manager Corporate performance management Cost per mille, effective cost per mille, or cost per impression Organizations Communist Party of India (Marxist) Communist Party of Malaya Compton/Woodley Airport (IATA code CPM) Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova The Pentecostal Mission (formerly... Project Management Professional (PMP) is the most globally recognized certification in project management. ... Established in 1969 and situated outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was founded by five volunteers. ... PMI is Private Mortgage Insurance. ...


See also

This article is about building architecture. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Association for Project Management (APM) is an independent organization for project management. ... // Building engineering: a discipline for the modern era Building engineering, commonly known in the US as architectural engineering, is an emerging engineering discipline that concerns with the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... The Capability Maturity Model (CMM), first described by Watts Humphrey in his book Managing the Software Process (Addison Wesley Professional, Massachusetts, 1989), provides a process model based on software best-practices effective in large-scale, multi-person projects. ... Commonware is a set of project management and software tools designed to help organizations achieve global business process interoperability (BPI). ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction... Construction software referes to a broad range of computer software applications designed for businesses in the construction, real estate development, civil engineering, and architecture industries. ... Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ... Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) is based on methods and algorithms developed in 1997 by Eliyahu M. Goldratt. ... In project management, a product is a physical entity that is created as a result of project work. ... A Dependency Structure Matrix, or DSM (also referred to as Design Structure Matrix, Problem Solving Matrix (PSM), incidence matrix, N-square matrix or Design Precedence Matrix), is a compact, matrix representation of a system or project. ... Earned Value Management (EVM) is a project management technique that measures forward progress objectively. ... Event chain diagram Event chain methodology is an uncertainty modeling and schedule network analysis technique that is focused on identifying and managing events and event chains that affect project schedules. ... Estimation is the calculated approximation of a result which is usable even if input data may be incomplete, uncertain, or noisy. ... Although the development of a new product naturally involves change from what came before it, the business processes and project management methodologies usually used for product development are not designed to accommodate change. ... Functionality, mission and scope creep are problems in project management where the initial objectives of the project are jeopardized by a gradual increase in overall objectives as the project progresses. ... Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Aggregate planning Agile software development Critical path method Critical chain Cost overrun Dependency Duration (project management) Dynamic Systems Development Method Earned Schedule Earned value management Estimation Estimation in software engineering Event chain diagram Event chain methodology Extreme project management Float (project management) Focused improvement Fordism Gantt, Henry Gantt chart Goal... It has been suggested that Management system be merged into this article or section. ... A megaproject is a very large investment project. ... Metrics are a system of parameters or ways of quantitative and periodic assessment of a process that is to be measured, along with the procedures to carry out such measurement and the procedures for the interpretation of the assessment in the light of previous or comparable assessments. ... The M.S.P.M. is a Master of Science degree in Project Management. ... Investment management, also called portfolio management or money management, it is a branch of investment analysis that looks into the process of managing money. ... Project accounting is the practice of creating financial reports specifically designed to track the financial progress of projects, which can then be used by managers to aid project management. ... The term Project governance is used in industry, especially in the information technology (IT) sector, to describe the processes that need to exist for a successful project. ... Program management is the process of managing multiple ongoing inter-dependent projects. ... Project management software is a term covering many types of software, including scheduling, resource allocation, collaboration software, communication and documentation systems, which are used to deal with the complexity of large projects. ... The following is a list of notable project management software applications. ... Project workforce management combines project management, workforce management and financials, to replace the spreadsheets and internally developed systems companies currently use for cost and revenue planning, tracking and management reporting. ... Process architecture is the structural design of general process systems and applies to fields such as computers (software, hardware, networks, etc. ... A RACI diagram is used to describe the roles and responsibilities of various teams or people in delivering a project. ... The often-used six sigma symbol. ... Software Project Management is a sub-discipline of Project management in which software projects are planned, monitored and controlled. ... A Terms Of Reference is a document which describes the purpose and structure of a project. ... Book cover The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering is a book on software project management by Fred Brooks, whose central theme is that Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later. ... A timesheet is a method for recording the amount of a workers time spent on each job. ... // One of the most important WBS design principles is called the 100% Rule. ...

References

  1. ^ http://principles-of-scientific-management.blogspot.com/
  2. ^ http://www.boozallen.com/about/history/history_5
  3. ^ http://www.pmi.org/info/PP_OPM3ExecGuide.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.ruleworks.co.uk/cgi-bin/TUaz.exe?Guide=Prince2&XL=P&t=PRINCE2%20Knowledgebase

Literature

  • Berkun, Scott (2005). Art of Project Management. Cambridge, MA: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00786-8. 
  • Brooks, Fred (1995). The Mythical Man-Month, 20th Anniversary Edition, Adison Wesley. ISBN 0-201-83595-9. 
  • Comninos D &, Frigenti E (2002). The Practice of Project Management - a guide to the business-focused approach. Kogan Page. ISBN 0-7494-3694-8. 
  • Heerkens, Gary (2001). Project Management (The Briefcase Book Series). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-137952-5. 
  • Kerzner, Harold (2003). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, 8th Ed., Wiley. ISBN 0-471-22577-0. 
  • Chamoun, Yamal (2006). Professional Project Management, THE GUIDE, 1st.Edition, Monterrey, NL MEXICO: McGraw Hill. ISBN 970-10-5922-0. 
  • Lewis, James (2002). Fundamentals of Project Management, 2nd ed., American Management Association. ISBN 0-8144-7132-3. 
  • Meredith, Jack R. and Mantel, Samuel J. (2002). Project Management : A Managerial Approach, 5th ed., Wiley. ISBN 0-471-07323-7. 
  • Project Management Institute (2003). A Guide To The Project Management Body Of Knowledge, 3rd ed., Project Management Institute. ISBN 1-930699-45-X. 
  • Stellman, Andrew and Greene, Jennifer (2005). Applied Software Project Management. Cambridge, MA: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00948-8. 
  • Thayer, Richard H. and Yourdon, Edward (2000). Software Engineering Project Management, 2nd Ed., Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 0-8186-8000-8. 
  • Whitty, S. Jonathan (2005). A Memetic Paradigm of Project Management. International Journal of Project Management, 23 (8) 575-583. 
  • Whitty, S.J. and Schulz, M.F. (2007). The impact of Puritan ideology on aspects of project management. International Journal of Project Management, 25 (1) 10-20. 
  • Pettee, Stephen R. (2005). As-builts – Problems & Proposed Solutions. Construction Management Association of America. 
  • Verzuh, Eric (2005). The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management, 2nd, Wiley. ISBN 0-471-69284-0 (pbk.). 

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Project management

  Results from FactBites:
 
Project Management for Construction (1433 words)
Fragmentation of project management among different specialists may be necessary, but good communication and coordination among the participants is essential to accomplish the overall goals of the project.
While this book is devoted to a particular viewpoint with respect to project management for construction, it is not solely intended for owners and their direct representatives.
Chapters 1 to 3 present an overview of the construction management and design process which should be of interest to anyone engaged in project management for construction.
Project management - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2285 words)
The challenge of project management is the optimized integration and allocation of the inputs needed to meet those pre-defined objectives.
Project Management is quite often the province and responsibility of an individual project manager.
Agile project management approaches based on the principles of human interaction management are founded on a process view of human collaboration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m