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Encyclopedia > Project Nike
Launch of a Nike Zeus missile

Project Nike was a US Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. The project delivered the America's first operational anti-aircraft missile system in 1953, the Nike Ajax. A huge number of the technologies and rocket systems used to develop the Nike Ajax were re-used in a number of roles, many of which gained the "Nike" name (after Nike, the goddess of victory from Greek mythology). The missile's first-stage solid rocket booster became the basis for everything from the Nike Hercules missile to NASA's Nike Smoke rocket, used for upper-atmosphere research. Nike Zeus missile, PD image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nike Zeus missile, PD image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Victory in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... Nike Hercules missile Nike-Hercules Missile, designation MIM-14 (initially SAM-N-25) was a solid fuel propelled surface-to-air missile, used by US and NATO armed forces for high- and medium-altitude air defense. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ...

Contents

History

Project Nike began in 1944 when the War Department demanded a new air defense system to combat the new jet aircraft, as existing gun-based systems proved largely incapable of dealing with the speeds and altitudes at which jet aircraft operated. Two proposals were accepted. Bell Labs offered Project Nike. A much longer-ranged collision-course system was developed by General Electric, named Project Thumper, eventually delivering the BOMARC missile. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... GE redirects here. ... The Bomarc Missile Program was a joint United States of America-Canada effort during 1957 to 1971 to protect against the USSR bomber threat. ...


Bell's proposal would have to deal with bombers flying at 500 mph (800 km/h) or more at altitudes of up to 60,000 ft (20,000 m). At these speeds, even a supersonic rocket is no longer fast enough to be simply aimed at the target. The missile must "lead" the target to ensure it hits it before it runs out of fuel. This means that the missile and target cannot be tracked in a single radar, increasing the complexity of the system. One part was well developed. By this point, the US had considerable experience with lead-calculating analog computers, starting with the British Kerrison Predictor and a series of increasingly capable U.S. designs. A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden bombsight. ... The Kerrison Predictor was one of the first fully-automated anti-aircraft predictors, fire control systems which would attempt to predict the correct aim at a plane based on simple inputs like the observed speed and angle to the target. ...


For Nike, three radars were used. The acquisition radar searched for a target to be handed over to the Target Tracking Radar (TTR) for tracking. The Missile Tracking Radar (MTR) tracked the missile by way of a transponder, as the missile's radar signature alone was not sufficient. The MTR also commanded the missile by way of Pulse-position modulation, the pulses were received, decoded and then amplified back for the MTR to track. Once the tracking radars were locked the system was able to work automatically following launch, barring any unexpected occurrences. The computer compared the two radars directions, along with information on the speeds and distances, to calculate the intercept point and steer the missile. The entirety of this system was provided by the Bell System's electronics firm, Western Electric. This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... An Ontario Highway 407 toll transponder In telecommunication, the term transponder (short-for Transmitter-responder and sometimes abbreviated to XPDR, XPNDR or TPDR) has the following meanings: An automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency (see also broadcast translator). ... Pulse-position modulation is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of possible time-shifts. ... Company Masthead Logo Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site Logo 1969-1983 Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995. ...


The Douglas-built missile was a two stage missile using a solid fuel booster stage and a liquid fuelled (IRFNA/UDMH) second stage. The missile could reach a maximum speed of 1,000 mph (1,600 km/h), an altitude of 70,000 ft (21 km) and had a range of 25 miles (40 km). The missile contained an unusual three part payload, with explosive fragmentation charges at three points down the length of the missile to help ensure a fatal hit. The missile's limited range was seen by critics as a serious flaw, because it often meant that the missile had to be sited very close to the area it was protecting. DC-10, retired from American Airlines fleet at gate McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ... Solid fuel is a term given to various types of solid material that provide energy. ... Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules which can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, which in turn usually produces kinetic energy, and which also must take the shape of their container. ... RFNA is a rocket fuel (a storeable oxidiser): red fuming nitric acid. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser nitrogen tetroxide. ... The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket Description A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is, like any rocket, propelled by the recoil pressure of the burning gases it emits as it burns fuel. ...


After bickering between the Army and the Air Force (see the Key West Agreement), all longer-range systems were turned over to the Air Force in 1948. They merged their own long-range research with Project Thumper, while the Army continued to develop Nike. In 1950 the Army formed the Army Anti-Aircraft Command (ARAACOM) to operate batteries of anti-aircraft guns and missiles. ARAACOM was renamed the US Army Air Defense Command (USARADCOM) in 1957. It adopted a simpler acronym, ARADCOM, in 1961. The Key West Agreement is the colloquial name for a policy paper entitled Functions of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff drafted by James V. Forrestal, the first United States Secretary of Defense. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...


Nike Ajax

A Nike Ajax missile.

The first successful Nike test was in November 1951, intercepting a drone B-17. The first type, Nike Ajax (MIM-3), were deployed starting in 1953. The Army initially ordered 1,000 missiles and 60 sets of equipment. They were placed to protect strategic and tactical sites within the US. As a last-line of defense from air attack, they were positioned to protect cities as well as military installations. The missile was first deployed at Fort Meade, Maryland in December, 1953. A further 240 launch sites were built up to 1962. They replaced 896 radar-guided anti-aircraft guns, operated by the National Guard or Army to protect certain key sites. This left a handful of 75 mm Skysweeper emplacements as the only anti-aircraft artillery remaining in use by the US. By 1957 the Regular Army AAA units had been replaced by missile battalions. In 1958 the Army National Guard began to replace their guns and adopt the Ajax system. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1156x3870, 346 KB) A Nike Ajax missile at the Army Museum in Brussels. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1156x3870, 346 KB) A Nike Ajax missile at the Army Museum in Brussels. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... NSA headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland Fort George G. Meade, 5 miles (8 km) northeast of the town of Laurel, Maryland, is an active US Army installation. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Skysweeper anti-aircraft gun in firing position Skysweeper, technically Gun, M51, Antiaircraft, was an American 75 mm anti-aircraft gun deployed in the early 1950s. ...


Each launch site had three parts, separated by at least 1,000 yards (914 m). One part (designated C) of about six acres (24,000 m²) contained the IFC (Integrated Fire Control) radar systems to detect incoming targets (acquisition and target tracking) and direct the missiles (missile tracking), along with the computer systems to plot and direct the intercept. The second part (designated L), around forty acres (160,000 m²), held 1-3 underground missile magazines each serving a group of four launch assemblies and included a safety zone. The site had a crew of 109 officers and men who ran the site continuously. One launcher would be on 15 minutes alert, two on 30 minutes and one on two hour alert. The third part was the administrative area (designated A), which was usually co-located with the IFC and contained the battery headquarters, barracks, mess, recreation hall, and motor pool. The actual configuration of the Nike sites differed depending on geography. Whenever possible the sites were placed on existing military bases or National Guard armories, otherwise land had to be purchased. This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ...


The Nike batteries were organized in Defense Areas and placed around population centers and strategic locations such as long-range bomber bases, nuclear plants, and (later) ICBM sites. The Nike sites in a Defense Area formed a ring around these cities and bases. There was no fixed number of Nike batteries in a Defense Area and the actual number of batteries varied from a low of two in the Barksdale AFB Defense Area to a high of 22 in the Chicago Defense Area. In the Continental United States the sites were numbered from 01 to 99 starting at the north and increasing clockwise. The numbers had no relation to actual compass headings, but generally Nike sites numbered 01 to 25 were to the northeast and east, those numbered 26 to 50 were to the southeast and south, those numbered 51 to 75 were to the southwest and west, and those numbered 76 to 99 were to the northwest and north. The Defense Areas in the Continental United States were identified by a one- or two-letter code which were related to the city name. Thus those Nike sites starting with C were in the Chicago Defense Area, those starting with HM were in the Homestead AFB/Miami Defense Area, those starting with NY were in the New York Defense Area, and so forth. As an example Nike Site SF-88L refers to the launcher area (L) of the battery located in the northwestern part (88) of the San Francisco Defense Area (SF).


In the early-to-mid 1960s the Nike Ajax batteries were upgraded to the Hercules system. The new missiles had greater range and destructive power, so about half as many batteries provided the same defensive capability. Regular Army batteries were either upgraded to the Hercules system or decommissioned. Army National Guard units continued to use the Ajax system through 1964, when they too upgraded to Hercules. Eventually, the Regular Army units were replaced by the National Guard as a cost saving measure, since the Guard units could return to their homes when off duty.


Nike Hercules

A Nike Hercules missile.
Main article: Nike-Hercules Missile

Even as Nike Ajax was being tested, work started on Nike-B, later renamed Nike Hercules (MIM-14). It improved speed, range and accuracy, and could intercept ballistic missiles. The Hercules had a range of about 100 miles (160 km), a top speed in excess of 3,000 mph (4,800 km/h) and a maximum altitude of around 100,000 ft (30 km). It had solid fuel boost and sustainer rocket motors. The boost phase was four of the Nike Ajax boosters strapped together. In the electronics, some vacuum tubes were replaced with more reliable solid-state components. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1648x3900, 600 KB) A Nike Hercules missile at the Army Museum in Brussels. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1648x3900, 600 KB) A Nike Hercules missile at the Army Museum in Brussels. ... Nike Hercules missile Nike-Hercules Missile, designation MIM-14 (initially SAM-N-25) was a solid fuel propelled surface-to-air missile, used by US and NATO armed forces for high- and medium-altitude air defense. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... A booster in space-related applications is usually a solid rocket booster: a solid fuel rocket of which two or more are attached to the main rocket to provide the main thrust in the initial phase of the rockets flight. ...


The missile also had an optional nuclear warhead to improve the probability of a kill. The W-31 warhead had a variable yield system offering 2, 20 or 40 kiloton detonations. However, the missile typically carried a non-nuclear explosive fragmentation warhead, the T-45. The fire control of the Nike system was also improved with the Hercules and included a surface-to-surface mode. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held, vehicle mounted, trailer mounted or fixed installation or from a ship. ...


The Nike Hercules was deployed starting in June 1958. First deployed to Chicago, 393 Hercules ground systems were manufactured. By 1960 ARADCOM had 88 Hercules batteries and 174 Ajax batteries, defending 23 zones across 30 states. Peak deployment was in 1963 with 134 Hercules batteries. Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The development of ICBMs decreased the value of the Nike air defense system. Beginning around 1965, the number of Nike batteries were reduced. Thule air defense was cut in 1965 and SAC base defense in 1966, reducing the number of batteries to 112. Budgetary cuts reduced that number to 87 in 1968, and 82 in 1969. A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Map of Greenland Reconnaissance route from Thule AB to Soviet Union. ... SAC can mean: S-Allyl cysteine, a chemical constituent of garlic SAC Capital Partners, a hedge fund managed by Steven A. Cohen SAC programming language St. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ...


Nike Hercules was included in SALT I discussions as an ABM. Following the treaty signed in 1972, and further budget cuts, almost all Nike sites in the continental United States were deactivated by April, 1974. Some units remained active until the later part of that decade in a coast air defense role. SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Nike Zeus

Development continued, producing Improved Nike Hercules and then Nike Zeus A and B. Zeus, with a new 400,000 lbf (1.78 MN) thrust solid-fuel booster, was first test fired in August 1959 and demonstrated a top speed of 8,000 mph (12,875 km/h) but had certain deficiencies and was renamed Spartan in 1967. Production of the Zeus was deferred in 1961 and phased out in 1963 in favor of a specific ABM system initially designated Nike X but later renamed Sentinel. 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Launch of a Spartan The Spartan, designation LIM-49A, was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ...


Some small-scale work to use Nike Zeus as an anti-satellite weapon (ASAT) was carried out from 1962 until the project was cancelled in favor of Thor based systems in 1966. In the end, neither development would enter service. However, the Nike Zeus system did demonstrate a hit-to-kill capability against ballistic missiles in the early 1960s. See National Missile Defense and anti-ballistic missile systems. Anti-satellite weapons (ASATs) are weapons designed to be used against artificial satellites. ... Thor-Ablestar Thor was the United Statess first operational ballistic missile. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ...


Specifications

Missile Nike Ajax Nike Hercules Nike Zeus A Nike Zeus B (XLIM-49A) Spartan (LIM-49A)
Length 10.36 m overall
6.41 m second stage
12.53 m overall
8.18 m second stage
13.5 m 14.7 m 16.8 m
Diameter 0.30 m 0.80 m booster
0.53 m second stage
0.91 m 0.91 m 1.09 m
Fin span 1.22 m 3.50 m booster
1.88 m second stage
2.98 m 2.44 m 2.98 m
Mass 1,116 kg at launch
523 kg second stage
4850 kg at launch
2505 kg second stage
4980 kg 10300 kg 13100 kg
Maximum speed Mach 2.25 (ca. 3,000 km/h) Mach 3.65 (ca. 4 4700 km/h) Mach 4 > (ca. 4 900 km/h)
Range 40 km 140 km 320 km 400 km 740 km
Ceiling 21,300 m 45,700 m  ? 280 km 560 km
First stage Solid-fuel
(263 kN static thrust for 2.5 seconds)
Hercules M42 solid-fueled rocket cluster
(4x M5E1 Nike boosters)
978 kN (220,000 lbf) total
Thiokol TX-135
1,800 kN (400,000 lbf)
Thiokol TX-135
2000 kN (450,000 lbf)
Thiokol TX-500
2200 kN (500,000 lbf)
Second stage Liquid-fuel
(11.6 kN static thrust for 21 seconds)
Thiokol M30 solid-fueled rocket
44.4 kN (10,000 lbf)
 ? Thiokol TX-238 Thiokol TX-454
Third stage None None None Thiokol TX-239 Thiokol TX-239
Warhead conventional 3 warheads each surrounded with
2 layers of 1/4 in (6 mm) hardened steel cubes
Nose: M2: 4.5 lb (2.0 kg) Composition B 12 lb (5.4 kg) total
Mid-body: M3: 92 lb (42 kg) Comp. B, 176.8 lb (80.2 kg) total
Aft: M4: 59 lb (27 kg) Comp B, 121.3 lb (55.0 kg) total
T-45 HE warhead weighed
1106 lb (500 kg) and contained 600 lb (272 kg) of HBX-6
M17 blast-fragmentation
Nuclear warhead only Nuclear warhead only Nuclear warhead only
Warhead nuclear Conventional warhead only W-31 nuclear
2 kt (M-97)
20 kt (M-22)
40 kt (M-23)
W-31 nuclear W-50 (400 kt)
thermonuclear
W-71 (5 Mt)
thermonuclear

Nike Hercules missile Nike-Hercules Missile, designation MIM-14 (initially SAM-N-25) was a solid fuel propelled surface-to-air missile, used by US and NATO armed forces for high- and medium-altitude air defense. ... Launch of a Spartan The Spartan, designation LIM-49A, was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... A Trident C-4 FBM launches and fires its Thiokol solid rocket first stage Thiokol (variously Thiokol Chemical Company, Morton-Thiokol Inc. ... Composition B is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT as well as, in some instances, additional desensitizing agents. ... HBX is a family of binary explosives that are composed of RDX, TNT, powdered aluminum, and D-2 wax with calcium chloride. ... At the end of the 20th century, Thermonuclear has came to imply anything which has to do with fusion nuclear reactions which are triggered by particles of thermal energy. ...

Project Legacy

Nike Site D-57, a former Nike missile site in Newport, Michigan

Leftover traces of the approximately 300 Nike missile bases can still be seen around cities across the country. As the sites were decommissioned they were first offered to Federal agencies. Many were already located on Army National Guard bases who continued to use the property. Others were offered to state and local governments while others were sold to school districts. The left-overs were offered to private individuals. Thus, many Nike sites are now municipal yards, communications and FAA facilities (the IFC areas), probation camps, and other uses. Several were completely obliterated and turned into parks. Some are now private residences. Only a few retain any integrity and preserve the history of the Nike project. There are also a few sites abroad, notably in Turkey and Greece. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 559 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1049 pixel, file size: 981 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions of this file File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 559 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1049 pixel, file size: 981 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions of this file File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  • The 40 acres that once housed Nike Site C-70 in Naperville, Illinois has been divided into an office park and Naperville Park District soccer, softball and Little League fields. It is located at the south-east corner of Mill Street and Diehl Road in northern Naperville.
  • What is believed to be Nike Site C-93 is located on an island in the Skokie Lagoons Forest Preserve near the border of Glencoe and Winnetka, IL is still visible and fenced off.
  • Evidence of Nike Site C-98 is quickly disappearing as Fort Sheridan, IL is being converted slowly into a high end residential subdivision. This site is very rarely documented. Many sources claim that the Chicago Defense System had 22 Nike Cites but with Ft. Sheridan the actual number is 23.
  • Nike Site C-84, located in Deer Park, Illinois at the northeast corner of Quentin and Lake-Cook roads, has been converted into an office park and shopping mall.
  • Nike Site DF-01, located off North Locust Street just north of Denton, Texas was converted for use as an astronomical observatory of the University of North Texas after decommissioning. Aside from its use as a laboratory for the school's astronomy program, the site has been used for storage, research and experimentation. A broadcasting tower is also located on site. The site's housing and administrative complex has been sold to a private owner and is currently being used as a residence.
  • Nike Site F-07C near Spokane, Washington was acquired by the United States Air Force in 1963 to be used as one of the command readout stations for the DMSP mission. It was operated by Detachment 1, 4000 Aerospace Applications Group, which was later designated as Detachment 1, 1000th Satellite Operations Group, and later the 5th Satellite Control Squadron part of the 50th Space Wing. It was later converted to the Fairchild Satellite Operations Center to support MILSTAR/GPS and other programs under Air Force Space Command.[1]
  • The IFC area of Nike Site KC-60 in Gardner, Kansas is now the Nike Intermediate School in the Gardner-Edgerton Unified School District 231.
  • Nike Site L-85C near Connor, Maine was acquired by the United States Air Force in 1963 to be used as the second command readout station for the DMSP mission. It was operated by Detachment 2, 4000 Aerospace Applications Group until 1993, when all DMSP operations were transferred to Site 1.
  • In Los Angeles, California, the stripped IFC area of Nike Site LA-96, on top of a mountain in the middle of the city, San Vicente Peak, has been turned into a Cold War memorial park. The LA-96 launcher area in Van Nuys has been stripped of its hydraulics, electrical equipment, etc. which were to be transported to Nike Site LA-43 at Whites Point, Fort MacArthur, on the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Unfortunately, the Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks made it impossible to complete this project. The Nike parts are still (as of March 1, 2006) at LA-96 and awaiting possible use elsewhere. Francis Gary Powers, Jr. has expressed interest in using some of the LA-96 parts at Nike Site W-64, in Lorton, Virginia. Foundations and other signs of Nike installations can still be found elsewhere across the area, including the Palos Verdes Peninsula, the Santa Monica Mountains, and the San Gabriel Mountains.
  • Nike Site M-47 in Waukesha, Wisconsin resided on hill nicknamed by local children has "Nike Hill". The command center is a common spot for Urban exploration. Some have suggested that it be made into a cold war museum. [1] In March of 2006, the City of Waukesha took ownership of the property, retaking it from the federal government. [2].
  • The IFC area of Nike Site MS-20, located on 112th Street in Warren, Wisconsin, St. Croix County, is being used as a storage facility; the launcher area is privately owned. Most of the buildings have been destroyed.
  • Nike Site NY-73, located in Mountainside, New Jersey, is now the current site of the Watchung Stables of Union County.
  • Nike Site NY-80R in Randolph, New Jersey was left vacant for many years and the building kept intact. Sometime in the mid to late 90's the phonebooths outside were removed and some activity was resumed at the base for a few months. Picking up in late 2006, the base is currently experiencing some remodeling. The sidewalk is being redone as well as the stairs leading up to the building.
  • Nike Site PH-32 in Marlton, New Jersey. It was shut down after the deactivation of Ajax-only sites. A housing development was built on top of the control area in the early 1990s. The launch area remains vacant.
  • Nike Site PH-41/43 in Sicklerville, Gloucester Township, New Jersey. It was a double site, operating both Ajax and Hercules missles from 1956 to 1974. The site has been turned over to Gloucester Township for commercial development.
  • Nike Site PI-71's launch site was located at Moon Township, Pennsylvania, outside Pittsburgh. The launch site is now a nature preserve and is off limit to motorized vehicles. Only the blacktop / concrete pads still exist.
  • Nike Site S-13/14 in Redmond, Washington is owned by the Lake Washington School District and was previously used for the district's NEVAC work study programs. All the structures remain intact, though some are in disrepair. The radar site to the west of the launchers has been renovated and is now owned by the United States Air Force. The radars have been removed and portions of the site have been converted into Redmond's Nike Park.
  • Nike Site SF-88L, in Fort Barry (part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area) across the Golden Gate from San Francisco, has been preserved as a Nike museum, complete with missiles (inert). This site was given intact to the National Park Service in 1974 after it was decommissioned for use as a legacy of the Nike program. It is open to the public on designated days; usually Wednesday to Friday, 12:30 to 3:30 pm. The SF-88L site has been restored by volunteers and National Park Service employees to the condition it was in the 1960s, complete with signage and various pieces of equipment such as the radars and control vans that would have been stationed on hills overlooking the site. One of the two missile magazines has been restored and has a working elevator and launch rail for the inert missiles. Site SF-88 is listed in the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Fort Barry Historic District.
  • Nike Site SF-91 on Angel Island in San Francisco Bay has been permanently removed from this State Park. The former site has been restored to its' natural condition, and is now enjoyed as one of the best views of the region by hikers and picnicers. This is an early Ajax-only site that was never converted to Hercules. The mountain between the launcher and the IFC was "notched" in three places to allow the Missile Tracking Radar to acquire the missile while sitting on the launcher.
  • Nike Site SF-93L in San Rafael, California in San Francisco Bay has had the missile silos converted into recycled water storage tanks by the Marin Municipal Water District. The water is used to irrigate a nearby park and golf course.
  • Nike Site W-64 in Lorton, Virginia. This site was co-located with the now closed Lorton Reformatory. The launcher facility, located at the intersection of Hooes Road and VA 611, is in the process of being developed into the Cold War Museum with the assistance of Francis Gary Powers, Jr., the son of Francis Gary Powers, the U-2 pilot shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960. The former control facility is located on the west side of Silverbrook Road just south of Hooes Road and became part of the prison maintenance facility.
  • Nike Site W-83 in Great Falls, Virginia was later used by the Defense Mapping Agency and is now part of the Fairfax County Turner Farm park. The park has been identified as having the darkest skies within 30 miles of Washington, D.C. It is used by the amateur-astronomy Analemma Society for night viewing, and has recreational facilities for daytime use. There are proposals to create an "Observatory Park" for public observation and education using county grants.

Porter is a town in Porter County, Indiana, United States. ... Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, a U.S. national lakeshore authorized by Congress in 1966, is located in Northwest Indiana. ... A woodsball player firing at opponents from behind cover. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Little League Baseball - Logo Little League pitcher in Winesburg, Ohio Little League, Wayne, Michigan Little League Baseball is the name of a non-profit organization in the United States which organizes local childrens leagues of baseball and softball throughout the USA and the rest of the world. ... Incorporated Village in 1836. ... United States Army Forces Command DUI U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) is the Armys largest major command. ... Deer Park is a village located in Cook and Lake County. ... Motto: Just North of Ordinary Location within the state of Texas County Denton County Government  - Mayor Perry McNeill Area  - City 161. ... MolÄ—tai Astronomical Observatory An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events. ... The University of North Texas (informally UNT or North Texas) is a public university located in Denton, Texas. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... Nickname: Location of Spokane in Spokane County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County Spokane Government  - Mayor Dennis P. Hession Area  - City  58. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) monitors meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics for the United States Department of Defense An artists impression showing one of the Block 5D-2 spacecraft in orbit. ... Air Force Space Command emblem Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) is a major command of the United States Air Force with headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, USA. It was created on September 1, 1982. ... The Nike Missile Site HM-69 (also known as Hole in the Donut or Everglades Nike Site or Missile Base) is a historic site in Homestead, Florida, United States. ... Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 20 % of the original wetland area. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... Gardner is a city in Johnson County, Kansas, USA. The population in 2006 was 13,321. ... Connor is an unorganized territory in Aroostook County, Maine, United States. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) monitors meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics for the United States Department of Defense An artists impression showing one of the Block 5D-2 spacecraft in orbit. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Van Nuys is a district within the city of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Fort MacArthur is a former U.S. Army installation in San Pedro, California (now the port community of Los Angeles), named for General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. ... Lorton is a census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... Palos Verdes is often used to refer to a group of coastal cities on the Palos Verdes Peninsula in the Los Angeles/South Bay area of California. ... Santa Monica Mountains The Santa Monica Mountains are a low transverse range in southern California in the United States. ... San Gabriel Mountains The San Gabriel Mountains are located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, USA. The mountain range forms a barrier between the Greater Los Angeles Area and the Mojave Desert. ... County Waukesha Mayor Larry Nelson (D) Congressional Rep. ... An urban explorer stands near the outfall of a muffin shaped brick and concrete storm drain, under Saint Paul, Minnesota. ... Warren is the name of some places in the U.S. state of Wisconsin: Warren, St. ... St. ... The Sandy Hook Proving Ground was a military facility, formally established by the Secretary of War on August 7, 1874, to serve as the United States Armys first proving ground for the testing of ordnance and materiel. ... Gateway National Recreation Area is a 26,607 acre (105 km²) recreation area owned by the United States government in the New York City metropolitan area. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... Map of Mountainside in Union County Mountainside is a borough in Union County, New Jersey, United States. ... Randolph Seal Randolph Township is a Township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. ... Richboro is a census-designated place located in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. ... The Council Rock School District is located in lower Bucks County, in southeastern Pennsylvania. ... Northampton Township is a township located in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. ... A batting cage is an enclosed cage for baseball players to practice the skill of batting. ... PH-32 is a former Nike Missile launch site in Marlton, New Jersey. ... Marlton is a town within Evesham Township in Burlington County, New Jersey. ... Sicklerville, New Jersey (latitude 39. ... Gloucester Township highlighted in Camden County Gloucester Township is a Township located in Camden County, New Jersey. ... Moon Township is located along the Ohio River in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Allegheny Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18, 1816 (city) Government  - Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area  - City 151. ... Location of Redmond within King County, and King County within Washington. ... The Lake Washington School District #414 is a public school district in King County, Washington. ... // Cougar Mountain Cougar Mountain is a 22 square mile cluster of highlands in the suburbs of Seattle, Washington, southeast of the intersection of Interstate 90 and I-405. ... Issaquah City Hall Issaquah (pronounced ) is a city in King County, Washington, United States. ... Nickname: Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Greg Nickels (NP) Area  - City  142. ... Kingston (formerly AppleTree Cove) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Kitsap County, Washington, United States. ... Great Neck Village School, an alternative school in Great Neck, New York in the United States An alternative school, sometimes referred to as a minischool, or remedial school, is any public or private school having a special curriculum, especially an elementary or secondary school offering a more flexible program of... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... SF-88 is a former Nike Missile launch site at Fort Barry, in the Marin Headlands to the north of San Francisco, California, U.S. Opened in 1954, the site was intended to protect the population and military installations of the San Francisco Bay Area during the Cold War, specifically... The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area, administered by the National Park Service, which surrounds the San Francisco Bay area. ... The Golden Gate The Golden Gate, looking south towards San Francisco. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... Aerial view of Angel Island. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... San Rafael (IPA: ; originally IPA: ), is the county seat of Marin County, California, United States. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... Lorton is a census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... When Theodore Roosevelt commissioned a new prison for the District of Columbia at the beginning of the 20th century, he envisioned a place where inmates could be rehabilitated through a hard days work. ... The Cold War Museum is a planned American history museum. ... Francis Gary Powers with a model of the U-2. ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Great Falls is a census-designated place (CDP) located in Fairfax County, Virginia. ... The U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), before 2004 known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), was established October 1, 1996, by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency Act of 1996. ... Fort Richardson is a United States Army installation in the U.S. state of Alaska, adjacent to the city of Anchorage. ... Nickname: Motto: Live a Big Wild Life Location in the state of Alaska Coordinates: Borough Municipality of Anchorage Government  - Mayor Mark Begich (D) Area  - City 5,079. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ...

Nike as sounding rocket

The Nike was also used as sounding rocket in the following versions: A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ...

The Nike Apache was a sounding rocket with a Nike rocket as first and an Apache rocket as upper stage. ... Nike Hydac is the designation of an American sounding rocket with two stages. ... Nike Iroquois is the designation of a two-stage American sounding rocket. ... Nike Javelin is the designation of an American two stage sounding rocket. ... Nike Malemute is the designation of a two-stage American sounding rocket, consisting of a Nike starting stage and a Malemute upper stage. ... Nike Nike is the designation of an U.S. sounding rocket. ... Nike Orion is the designation of a two-stage American elevator research rocket, with a Nike base stage and an Orion upper stage. ... Nike Recruit is the designation of a two-stage American rocket. ... Nike T40 T55 is the designation of an American three stage rocket consisting of a Nike, a T40 and a T55 stage. ... The Nike Tomahawk was a two stage American sounding rocket. ... Nike Viper is the designation of a two-stage American sounding rocket, consisting of a Nike starting stage and a Viper upper stage. ... Nike Asp is the designation of an American sounding rocket. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Nike Deacon is the designation of an American sounding rocket. ...

See also

Wasserfall (German for Waterfall) was a German surface-to-air missile developed during World War II. It never reached operational status although it was well developed and likely ready for operation, and the project was cancelled in February 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A guided bomb strikes an underground facility Missile guidance technologies of missile systems use a variety of methods to guide a missile to its intended target. ... The Sprint was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ... Launch of a Spartan The Spartan, designation LIM-49A, was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ... The MSR overlooks missile launchers at the Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard complex in Nekoma, North Dakota. ... The SA-1 Guild is the NATO reporting name for the S-25 Berkut (Russian С-25 Беркут - golden eagle) surface-to-air guided missile, the first operational SAM deployed by the Soviet Union. ... Voyska PVO (Russian: Войска ПВО, or PVO Strany until 1981) was the air defense branch of the Soviet military. ...

External links

Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ...

References

Morgan, Mark L., & Berhow, Mark A., Rings of Supersonic Steel, Second Edition, Hole in the Head Press, 2002, ISBN 0-615-12012-1.

  1. ^ Zambos, Ted. History of the Four Grand. The Four Grand. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Project Nike (1063 words)
Project Nike was a US Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system.
Project Nike began in 1944 when the US military demanded a new defense system to combat the potential new jet aircraft.
Nike Hercules was included in SALT I discussions as a ABM and following the treaty signed in 1972 and further budget cuts almost all Nike sites were deactivated by February 4, 1974.
Project Nike at AllExperts (3088 words)
A huge number of the technologies and rocket systems used to develop the Nike Ajax were re-used in a number of roles, many of which gained the "Nike" name (after Nike, the goddess of victory from Greek mythology).
Project Nike began in 1944 when the US military demanded a new defense system to combat the potential new jet aircraft, as existing gun-based systems proved completely incapable of dealing with the speeds and altitudes at which such planes operated.
Development continued, producing Improved Nike Hercules and then Nike Zeus A and B. Zeus, with a new 400,000 lbf (1.78 MN) thrust solid-fuel booster, was first test fired in August 1959 and demonstrated a top speed of 8,000 mi/h (12,875 km/h) but had certain deficiencies and was renamed Spartan in 1967.
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