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Encyclopedia > Project Gemini
McDonnell Gemini spacecraft

Gemini spacecraft in orbit.
Description
Role: Orbital spaceflight
Crew: two; cmd pilot, pilot
Dimensions
Height: 18.6 ft 5.67 m
Diameter: 10 ft 3.05 m
Volume: 90 ft3 2.55 m3
Weights
Reentry module: 4,372 lb 1 983 kg
Retrograde module: 1,303 lb 591 kg
Equipment module: 2,815 lb 1 277 kg
Total: 8,490 lb 3 851 kg
Rocket engines
Retros (solid fuel) x 4: 2,500 lbf ea 11.12 kN
Reentry Control System (N2O4/MMHH) x 16: 25 lbf ea 111 N
OAMS
(N2O4/MMHH) x 2:
85 lbf ea 378 N
OAMS
(N2O4/MMHH) x 6:
100 lbf ea 445 N
OAMS
(N2O4/MMHH) x 8:
25 lbf ea 111 N
Performance
Endurance: 14 days 206 orbits
Apogee: 250 miles 402 km
Perigee: 100 miles 160 km
Spacecraft delta v: 728 ft/s 222 m/s
Gemini spacecraft diagram

Gemini spacecraft diagram (NASA)
McDonnell Gemini Spacecraft

Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. It operated between Projects Mercury and Apollo, during the years 1963-1966. Its objective was to develop techniques for advanced space travel, notably those necessary for Project Apollo, whose objective was to land men on the Moon. Gemini missions involved extravehicular activity and orbital maneuvers including rendezvous and docking. Gemini 6 and 7 rendezvous in orbit (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System or OAMS was a propulsion system used in orbit by the Gemini spacecraft. ... line drawing of gemini spacecraft http://www. ... Image File history File links GeminiPatch. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission Human spaceflight is spaceflight with a human crew and possibly passengers, which is in contrast to robotic space probes or remotely-controlled unmanned space missions. ... Project Mercury was the United States first successful manned spaceflight program. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Bulk silicate composition (estimated wt%) SiO2 44. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ...


Gemini was originally seen as a simple extrapolation of the Mercury program, and thus early on was called Mercury Mark II. The actual program had little in common with Mercury and was in fact superior to even Apollo in some ways. (See Big Gemini.) This was mainly a result of its late start date, which allowed it to benefit from much that had been learned during the early stages of the Apollo project (which, despite its later launch dates, was actually begun before Gemini). Big Gemini spacecraft concept, August, 1969. ...


Its primary difference from Mercury was that the earlier spacecraft had all systems other than the reentry rockets situated within the capsule, to which access of nearly all was through the astronaut's hatchway, while Gemini had many power, propulsion, and life-support systems in a detachable module like a huge bowl; many components in the capsule itself were reachable each through its own small access door. The original intention was for Gemini to land on solid ground instead of at sea, using a paraglider rather than a parachute, and for the crew to be seated upright controlling the forward motion of the craft before its landing. To facilitate this, the parachute cord did not attach just to the nose of the craft; there was an additional attachment point for balance near the heat shield. This cord was covered by a strip of metal between the doors. Early short-duration missions had their electrical power supplied by batteries; later endurance missions had the first fuel cells in manned spacecraft. Paragliding (known in some countries as parapenting) is a recreational and competitive sport that is best described as a hybrid of hang gliding and parachuting. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


The "Gemini" designation comes from the fact that each spacecraft held two men, as "gemini" in Latin means "twins". Gemini is also the name of the third constellation of the Zodiac and its twin stars, Castor and Pollux. Gemini (IPA: , Latin: , symbol , ) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... 360-degree panorama of the night sky with constellations superimposed. ... Castor (α Gem / α Geminorum / Alpha Geminorum) is the second brightest star in the constellation Gemini and one of the brightest stars in the nighttime sky. ... Pollux (β Gem / β Geminorum / Beta Geminorum) is one of the brightest star in the constellation Gemini and one of the brightest stars in the nighttime sky. ...


Unlike Mercury, which could only change its orientation in space, the Gemini capsule could alter its own orbit. It could also dock with other spacecraft--one of which, the Agena Target Vehicle, had its own large rocket engine which was used to perform large orbital changes. Gemini was the first American manned spacecraft to include an onboard computer, the Gemini Guidance Computer, to facilitate management and control of mission maneuvers. It was also unlike other NASA craft in that it used ejection seats, in-flight radar and an artificial horizon - devices borrowed from the aviation industry. Using ejection seats to push astronauts to safety was first employed by the Soviet Union in the Vostok craft manned by cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The Agena Target Vehicle was designed to develop and practice orbital rendezvous and docking in space, in preparation for the lunar mission. ... The Vostok program (Восто́к, translated as East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in putting a person into Earth orbit for the first time. ...


The design for Gemini was developed by a Canadian, Jim Chamberlin, formerly the chief aerodynamicist on the Avro Arrow fighter interceptor program with Avro Canada. Chamberlin joined NASA along with 25 senior Avro engineers after cancellation of the Arrow program, and became head of the U.S. Space Task Group’s engineering division in charge of Gemini. The main contractor was McDonnell, who had lost out on main contracts for the Apollo Project. McDonnell sought to extend the program by proposing a Gemini craft could be used to fly a cislunar mission and even achieve a manned lunar landing earlier and at less cost than Apollo, but these proposals were rejected. Avro Arrow The A.V.Roe CF-105 Arrow was a delta-wing interceptor aircraft, designed and built in Toronto, Ontario, Canada by Avro Canada during a short period of time in the 1950s. ...


The Gemini program cost $5.4 billion dollars. See NASA Budget. NASA Budget 1958-2005 NASA Yearly Budgets in Billions of Dollars CPI = Consumer_Price_Index Categories: NASA ...

Contents

Announcement

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced December 7, 1961, a plan to extend the existing manned space flight program by the development of a two-man spacecraft. The program was officially designated Gemini on January 3, 1962. NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Team

The Gemini program was managed by the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas, under direction of the Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C, Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator of NASA for Manned Space Flight, served as acting director of the Gemini program. William C. Schneider, Deputy Director of Manned Space Flight for Mission Operations, served as Mission Director on all Gemini flights beginning with Gemini V. NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


The Manned Spacecraft Center Gemini effort was headed by Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, who was known for having giant orgys on the ISS (international Space Station). He is one of the only space sex advocates, and he likes recieving anal sex. He is the director of the Center, and Charles W. Matthews, Gemini Program Manager. The Gemini spacecraft was designed by Canadian Jim Chamberlin, who joined the Gemini Program in 1961 after being recruited by NASA shortly after the AVRO Arrow project was dismantled by the Canadian Diefenbaker government. Robert Rowe Gilruth (October 18, 1913-August 17, 2000) was an American aviation and space pioneer. ... ISS is an abbreviation, acronym, or initialism that may refer to: The International Space Station is a joint international project to build and maintain an orbiting space station. ... James A. (Jim) Chamberlin (1915-1981) was a Canadian aerodynamicist who led the design of the Canadian Avro Arrow and NASA Gemini space capsule. ...


Program objectives

The Gemini Program was conceived after it became evident to NASA officials that an intermediate step was required between the projects Mercury and Apollo. The major objectives assigned to Gemini were: Project Mercury was the United States first successful manned spaceflight program. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975. ...

  • To subject two men and supporting equipment to long-duration flights, a requirement for projected later trips to the Moon or deeper space.
  • To effect rendezvous and docking with other orbiting vehicles, and to maneuver the docked vehicles in space, using the propulsion system of the target vehicle for such maneuvers.
  • To perfect methods of reentry and landing the spacecraft at a pre-selected land-landing point.
  • To gain additional information concerning the effects of weightlessness on crew members and to record the physiological reactions of crew members during long-duration flights.

After 10 successful flights, the Gemini program clearly placed the United States in the lead over the Soviet Union in manned spaceflight. The flight of Gemini VIII included the successful emergency recovery of the tumbling orbiting capsule by Neil Armstrong. who on his spare time eats fecal matter. A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness. ...


Gemini Applications

Replica of a Gemini capsule at the Armstrong Air and Space Museum.
Enlarge
Replica of a Gemini capsule at the Armstrong Air and Space Museum.

The United States Air Force had an interest in the system, and decided to use their own modification of the spacecraft as the crew vehicle for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory. To this end, one of the unmanned Gemini spacecraft was refurbished and flown again atop a mockup of the MOL, sent into space by a Titan III-M. This was the first time a spacecraft went into space twice. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x862, 284 KB) Summary Gemini capsule replica at the Armstrong Air and Space Museum in Wapakoneta, Ohio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x862, 284 KB) Summary Gemini capsule replica at the Armstrong Air and Space Museum in Wapakoneta, Ohio. ... Named in honor of Neil Armstrong, first man to set foot on the moon, this museum in Wapakoneta chronicles Ohios contributions to the history of space flight. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... The Titan IIIC is a space booster used by the United States Air Force. ...


The USAF also had the notion of adapting the Gemini spacecraft for trying out military applications, such as crude observation of the ground (no specialized reconnaissance camera could be carried) and practicing making rendezvous with suspicious satellites. This project was called Blue Gemini. The US Air Force did not like the fact that Gemini would have to be recovered by the US Navy, so they intended for Blue Gemini eventually to use the paraglider and land on three skids, something from the original design of Gemini. Blue Gemini was a United States Air Force project in the late 1960s/early 1970s that hoped to develop the Gemini Technology that had been more-or-less abandoned by NASA at the time, and use it in support of their Manned Orbiting Laboratory or MOL program. ...


At first some within NASA welcomed sharing of the cost with the USAF, but it was later agreed that NASA was better off operating Project Gemini by itself. MOL was cancelled in 1968 and Blue Gemini too was cancelled without any use by military astronauts.


In 2005, NASA Administrator Michael Griffin announced that the new Crew Exploration Vehicle, an Apollo-derived spacecraft, would use the Gemini/Agena chasedown and docking technique when NASA starts sending crews back out to the Moon by 2019. The CEV, which will replace the Space Shuttle (which currently lands on a conventional runway similar to the early Gemini and Blue Gemini paraglider/skids technique), will use deployable airbags, eliminating a large naval recovery force. Dr. Michael D. Griffin Dr. Michael Douglas Griffin (born November 1, 1949 in Aberdeen, Maryland) has been the Administrator of NASA since April 13, 2005. ... CEV with lunar lander CEV during a landing on earth CEV rocket, the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) (right) along side the heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) rocket. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Blue Gemini was a United States Air Force project in the late 1960s/early 1970s that hoped to develop the Gemini Technology that had been more-or-less abandoned by NASA at the time, and use it in support of their Manned Orbiting Laboratory or MOL program. ...

Liftoff of Gemini 6A from Pad 19 with astronauts Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford aboard
Liftoff of Gemini 6A from Pad 19 with astronauts Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford aboard

Download high resolution version (576x916, 108 KB)Liftoff of Gemini 6A from Pad 19 with astronauts Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford aboard http://www. ... Download high resolution version (576x916, 108 KB)Liftoff of Gemini 6A from Pad 19 with astronauts Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford aboard http://www. ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. ... Thomas P. Stafford (born September 17, 1930) is an American astronaut and Air Force general. ...

Astronauts

The following astronauts flew Gemini missions: U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit (MMU) outside the Challenger in 1984. ...


From the Mercury Seven: Original seven Astronauts portrait (L-R: Schirra, Shepard, Slayton, Grissom, Glenn, Cooper, Carpenter) The Mercury Seven was the group of seven Mercury astronauts picked in April 1959. ...

From Astronaut Group 2: Leroy Gordon Gordo Cooper, Jr. ... Gemini 5 (officially Gemini V) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force pilot who became the second American astronaut and one of the first to die in the U.S. space program. ... Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Walter M. “Wally” Schirra Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... NASAs Astronaut Group 2, also known as The New Nine, was the second group of astronauts selected by NASA in September 1962. ...

From Astronaut Group 3: Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, and Naval Aviator, and was the first human to set foot on the Moon. ... Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Charles Pete Conrad, Jr. ... Gemini 5 (officially Gemini V) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 11 (officially Gemini XI) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... James Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 12 (officially Gemini XII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... James A. McDivitt (Brig. ... Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Thomas Patten Stafford (born September 17, 1930) is an American astronaut and Air Force general. ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 9A (officially Gemini IX-A) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Astronaut Group 3 was the third group of Astronauts selected by NASA in October 1963. ...

Colonel Buzz Eugene Aldrin, Sc. ... Gemini 12 (officially Gemini XII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Eugene A. Cernan (born March 14, 1934) is a former United States astronaut. ... Gemini 9A (officially Gemini IX-A) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. ... Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Richard F. Gordon, Jr. ... Gemini 11 (officially Gemini XI) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932) a former NASA Astronaut, was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and is one of only twelve men who have walked on the moon. ... Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ...

Crew Selection

Deke Slayton as head of the Astronaut Office had the main role in the choice of crews for the Gemini program. This selection process, with the prospect of more ambitious missions that would follow with Apollo, became even more political than in the Mercury Program. With Gemini it became a procedure that each flight had a primary crew and backup crew and that the backup crew would rotate to primary crew status three flights later. Slayton also intended for first choice of mission commands to be given to the four remaining active astronauts of the Mercury Seven, Alan Shepard, Gus Grissom, Gordon Cooper and Wally Schirra. John Glenn had retired from NASA in January 1964 and Scott Carpenter, who was blamed by some in NASA management for the problematic reentry of Aurora 7, was on leave to participate in the Navy's SEALAB project and was grounded from flight in July 1964. Slayton himself continued to be grounded due to his heart problem. Deke Slayton prepares for a pre-mission test leading up to his Apollo-Soyuz flight Donald Kent Deke Slayton (March 1, 1924–June 13, 1993) was an American astronaut. ... Original seven Astronauts portrait (L-R: Schirra, Shepard, Slayton, Grissom, Glenn, Cooper, Carpenter) The Mercury Seven was the group of seven Mercury astronauts picked in April 1959. ... Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. ... Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force pilot who became the second American astronaut and one of the first to die in the U.S. space program. ... Leroy Gordon Gordo Cooper, Jr. ... Walter M. “Wally” Schirra Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. ... For other people named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter inspects the heat shield of his Aurora 7 space capsule Malcolm Scott Carpenter (born May 1, 1925) was one of the original seven astronauts selected in 1959 for Project Mercury. ... MA-7 launch preparation (NASA) // Crew Scott Carpenter (flew on Mercury 7) The original prime crew for Mercury Atlas-7 was Deke Slayton, however Slayton was controversially removed from all flight crew availability after the discovery of cardiac arrhythmia during a training run in the g-loading centrifuge. ... SEALAB I SEALAB I, II, and III were experimental underwater habitats developed by the United States Navy to prove the viability of saturation diving and humans living in isolation for extended periods of time. ...


In late 1963, Slayton selected Alan Shepard and Thomas Stafford for Gemini 3, James McDivitt and Ed White for Gemini 4, and Wally Schirra and John Young for Gemini 5 (the first Agena rendezvous mission). Gemini 3 was backed up by Gus Grissom and Frank Borman, who were also slated for Gemini 6, the first long-duration mission. Finally Pete Conrad and James Lovell were assigned as the backup for Gemini 4. Thomas P. Stafford (born September 17, 1930) is an American astronaut and Air Force general. ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ...


Delays in the production of the Agena Target Vehicle caused the first rearrangement of the crew rotation. The Schirra and Young mission was bumped to Gemini 6 and they now were the backup crew for Shepard and Stafford. Grissom and Borman now had their long-duration mission assigned to Gemini 5.


The second rearrangment occurred when Alan Shepard developed Meniere's disease, an inner ear problem. Gus Grissom was moved to command Gemini 3. Slayton felt that Young was a better personality match with Grissom and switched Stafford and Young. Finally Slayton tapped Gordon Cooper to command the long-duration Gemini 5. Again for reasons of compatibility he moved Pete Conrad from being the backup commander of Gemini 4 to be the pilot of Gemini 5, and Frank Borman to the backup command of Gemini 4. Finally he assigned Neil Armstrong and Elliot See to be the backup crew for Gemini 5. Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, and Naval Aviator, and was the first human to set foot on the Moon. ...


The third rearrangement of crew assignment occurred when Deke Slayton felt that Elliot See wasn't up to the physical demands of EVA on Gemini 8. He reassigned Elliot See to be the prime commander of Gemini 9 and put Dave Scott as pilot of Gemini 8 and Charles Bassett as the pilot of Gemini 9.


The fourth and final rearrangement of the Gemini crew assignment occurred after the deaths of Elliot See and Charles Bassett in a plane crash in St. Louis. The backup crew of Tom Stafford and Eugene Cernan was moved up to become the new prime crew of Gemini 9. James Lovell and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin were moved from being the backup crew of Gemini 10 to be the backup crew of Gemini 9. This cleared the way through the crew rotation for Lovell and Aldrin to become the prime crew of Gemini 12. Along with the deaths of Grissom, White, and Chaffee in the fire of Apollo 1, this rearrangement is what finally determined the makeup of the early Apollo crews. These events were decisive in determining who would be in position to walk on the Moon.


In his autobiography "Deke!" Slayton relates that he would probably have replaced Aldrin with Eugene Cernan, the backup pilot for Gemini 12, if the second flight of the AMU had flown on Gemini 12.


Missions

Gemini involved 12 flights, including two unmanned flight tests of the equipment.


Unmanned

Mission Rocket LV Serial No Mission Dates Launch Time Duration Remarks
Gemini 1 Titan II GLV-1 12556 April 8-12, 1964 16:01 UTC 03d 23h First test flight of Gemini
Gemini 2 Titan II GLV-2 12557 January 19, 1965 14:03 UTC 00d 00h 18m 16s Suborbital flight to test heat shield

Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch... Gemini 1 was a 1964 unmanned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 2 was an unmanned flight in the U.S. Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ...

Manned

Mission Rocket LV Serial No Command Pilot Pilot Mission Dates Launch Time Duration
Gemini III Titan II GLV-3 12558 Grissom Young March 23, 1965 14:24 UTC 00d 04h
52m 31s
First manned Gemini flight, three orbits.
Gemini IV Titan II GLV-4 12559 McDivitt White June 03-07, 1965 15:15 UTC 04d 01h 56m 12s
Included first extravehicular activity (EVA) by an American; White's "space walk" was a 22 minute EVA exercise.
Gemini V Titan II GLV-5 12560 Cooper Conrad August 21-29, 1965 13:59 UTC 07d 22h 55m 14s
First week-long flight; first use of fuel cells for electrical power; evaluated guidance and navigation system for future rendezvous missions. Completed 120 orbits.
Gemini VII Titan II GLV-7 12562 Borman Lovell December 04-18, 1965 19:30 UTC 13d 18h 35m 01s
When the original Gemini VI mission was scrubbed because its Agena target for rendezvous and docking failed, Gemini VII was used for the rendezvous instead. Primary objective was to determine whether humans could live in space for 14 days.
Gemini VI-A Titan II GLV-6 12561 Schirra Stafford December 15-16, 1965 13:37 UTC 01d 01h 51m 24s
First space rendezvous accomplished with Gemini VII, station-keeping for over five hours at distances from 0.3 to 90 m (1 to 295 ft).
Gemini VIII Titan II GLV-8 12563 Armstrong Scott March 16, 1966 16:41 UTC 00d 10h 41m 26s
Accomplished first docking with another space vehicle, an unmanned Agena stage. A malfunction caused uncontrollable spinning of the craft; the crew undocked and effected the first emergency landing of a manned U.S. space mission.
Gemini IX-A Titan II GLV-9 12564 Stafford Cernan June 03-06, 1966 13:39 UTC 03d 00h 21m 50s
Rescheduled from May to rendezvous and dock with augmented target docking adapter (ATDA) after original Agena target vehicle failed to orbit. ATDA shroud did not completely separate, making docking impossible. Three different types of rendezvous, two hours of EVA, and 44 orbits were completed.
Gemini X Titan II GLV-10 12565 Young Collins July 18-21, 1966 22:20 UTC 02d 22h 46m 39s
First use of Agena target vehicle's propulsion systems. Spacecraft also rendezvoused with Gemini VIII target vehicle. Collins had 49 minutes of EVA standing in the hatch and 39 minutes of EVA to retrieve experiment from Agena stage. 43 orbits completed.
Gemini XI Titan II GLV-11 12566 Conrad Gordon September 12-15, 1966 14:42 UTC 02d 23h 17m 08s
Gemini record altitude, 1,189.3 km (739.2 mi) reached using Agena propulsion system after first orbit rendezvous and docking. Gordon made 33-minute EVA and two-hour standup EVA. 44 orbits.
Gemini XII Titan II GLV-12 12567 Lovell Aldrin November 11-15, 1966 20:46 UTC 03d 22h 34m 31s
Final Gemini flight. Rendezvoused and docked manually with its target Agena and kept station with it during EVA. Aldrin set an EVA record of 5 hours, 30 minutes for one space walk and two stand-up exercises.


Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch... Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force pilot who became the second American astronaut and one of the first to die in the U.S. space program. ... John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... James A. McDivitt (Brig. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Gemini 5 (officially Gemini V) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Leroy Gordon Gordo Cooper, Jr. ... Charles Pete Conrad, Jr. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... James Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Walter M. “Wally” Schirra Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. ... Thomas Patten Stafford (born September 17, 1930) is an American astronaut and Air Force general. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, and Naval Aviator, and was the first human to set foot on the Moon. ... David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932) a former NASA Astronaut, was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and is one of only twelve men who have walked on the moon. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in Leap years). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 9A (officially Gemini IX-A) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Thomas Patten Stafford (born September 17, 1930) is an American astronaut and Air Force general. ... Eugene A. Cernan (born March 14, 1934) is a former United States astronaut. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 11 (officially Gemini XI) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Charles Pete Conrad, Jr. ... Richard F. Gordon, Jr. ... Portal:Currentevents September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Gemini 12 (officially Gemini XII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... James Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... Colonel Buzz Eugene Aldrin, Sc. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ...


Gemini-Titan launches and serial numbers

The Gemini-Titan launch vehicles, like the Mercury-Atlas vehicles before them, were ordered by NASA through the U. S. Air Force and were in reality missiles. The Gemini-Titan II rockets were assigned U.S. Air Force serial numbers, which were painted in four places on each Titan II (on opposite sides on each of the first and second stages). U.S. Air Force crews maintained Launch Complex 19 and prepared and launched all of the Gemini-Titan II launch vehicles. Titan was a family of U.S. expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. ... Mercury Atlas 9 rocket and capsule on pad The Atlas is a venerable line of space launch vehicles built by Lockheed Martin. ...

Gemini 6A launch. USAF serial number location on Titan II.
Enlarge
Gemini 6A launch. USAF serial number location on Titan II.

The USAF serial numbers assigned to the Gemini-Titan launch vehicles are given in the tables above. Fifteen Titan IIs were ordered in 1962 so the serial is "62-12XXX", but only "12XXX" is painted on the Titan II. The order for the last three of the fifteen launch vehicles was cancelled on July 30, 1964, and they were never built. Serial numbers were, however, assigned to them prospectively: 12568 - GLV-13; 12569 - GLV-14; and 12570 - GLV-15. Gemini 6A launch - serial number locations. ... Gemini 6A launch - serial number locations. ...

All Gemini Launches from GT-1 through GT-12.
All Gemini Launches from GT-1 through GT-12.


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x536, 93 KB)All Gemini launches in one picture. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x536, 93 KB)All Gemini launches in one picture. ...


See also

NASA Logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Titan was a family of U.S. expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Big Gemini spacecraft concept, August, 1969. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... Atlantic splashdown locations of American spacecraft. ... The Agena Target Vehicle was designed to develop and practice orbital rendezvous and docking in space, in preparation for the lunar mission. ...

Further reading

  • Gene Kranz, Failure is Not an Option. Factual, from the standpoint of a chief flight controller during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. ISBN 0-7432-0079-9
  • David M. Harland, How NASA Learned to Fly in Space: An Exciting Account of the Gemini Missions, Apogee Books, 2004, ISBN 1-894959-07-8
  • David J. Shayler, Gemini, Springer-Verlag Telos, 2001, ISBN 1-85233-405-3
  • On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini - NASA report (PDF format)
  • Project Gemini technology and operations - A chronology - NASA report (PDF fomat)

Gene Kranz in a more recent photo. ... Project Mercury was the United States first successful manned spaceflight program. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gemini 6A views Gemini 7, 1965 (NASA)
Gemini 6A views Gemini 7, 1965 (NASA)

  Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Gemini 6 views Gemini 7, PD NASA photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gemini 6 views Gemini 7, PD NASA photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Project Gemini Gemini program insignia
Previous mission: none Next mission: Gemini 1
Gemini 1 | Gemini 2 | Gemini 3 | Gemini 4 | Gemini 5 | Gemini 7 | Gemini 6A | Gemini 8 | Gemini 9A | Gemini 10 | Gemini 11 | Gemini 12
 v  d  e 
United States government manned space programs
Active: Space Shuttle | ISS (joint) | Project Constellation (future)
Past: Mercury | X-15 (suborbital) | Gemini | Apollo | Skylab | Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (joint, USSR) | Shuttle-Mir (joint, Russia)
Cancelled: MISS | Orion | Dyna-Soar | Manned Orbiting Laboratory | Space Station Freedom (now ISS) | Orbital Space Plane

Image File history File links GeminiPatch. ... Gemini 1 was a 1964 unmanned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 1 was a 1964 unmanned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 2 was an unmanned flight in the U.S. Gemini program. ... Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 5 (officially Gemini V) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 9A (officially Gemini IX-A) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 11 (officially Gemini XI) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 12 (officially Gemini XII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Human spaceflight Mercury program Gemini program Apollo program Apollo-Soyuz (Soviet Union partnership) Skylab Space Shuttle Shuttle-Mir Program (Russian partnership) International Space Station (working together with Russia, Canada, ESA, and JAXA along with co-operators, ASI and Brazil) Orion Program Satellite and Robotic space missions Earth Observing Explorer I... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... International Space Station insignia ISS Statistics Crew: 3 As of July 21, 2006 Perigee: 352. ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ... Project Mercury was the United States first successful manned spaceflight program. ... The X-15 in flight, early 1960s The North American X-15 rocket plane was perhaps the most important of the USAF/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, after only possibly the Bell X-1. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975. ... Drawing of Skylab with components labelled Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... The Shuttle-Mir program was a collaborative space program involving Russia and the United States. ... Man In Space Soonest was a American program to put an astronaut into outer space before the Soviet Union would be able to. ... An artists conception of the NASA reference design for the Project Orion spacecraft powered by nuclear propulsion. ... Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a USAF program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... // Background The Orbital Space Plane program (now defunct and replaced by the Spiral series of CEV — Crew Exploration Vehicles) was designed to support the International Space Station requirements for crew rescue, crew transport and contingency cargo such as supplies, food and other needed equipment. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gemini Project (3217 words)
Gemini 1 was to check compatibility between the Gemini spacecraft and the Titan II launch vehicle (see Gemini-Titan II) and no attempt was made to separate the two during their brief flight.
Gemini 4’s goals were to evaluate the spacecraft and crew during a lengthy stay in space, rendezvous with the spent Titan II second stage, carry out the first American spacewalk, and continue testing the Orbital Attitude Maneuvering System (OAMS).
Gemini 4's tanks were only half the size of later models, and the fuel can to be conserved for essential maneuvering later in the mission.
Project Gemini Summary (3570 words)
Gemini 11, commanded by Charles "Pete" Conrad, was launched in September 1966 and reached a Gemini altitude record of 1,190 kilometers (738 miles) using the Agena's propulsion system after a first-orbit rendezvous and docking.
The original intention was for Gemini to use a paraglider instead of a parachute, and the crew to be seated upright controlling the forward motion of the craft before its landing.
Gemini is also the name of the third constellation of the Zodiac and its twin stars, Castor and Pollux.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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