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Encyclopedia > Project Apollo

Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 19611975. It was devoted to the goal (in U.S. President John F. Kennedy's famous words) of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" within the decade of the 1960s. This goal was achieved with the Apollo 11 mission in July 1969. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (606x608, 438 KB)Apollo program insignia, cropped white spaces around image. ... boogers loser The furthest of destinations for manned spaceflight missions has been the Moon. ... The NASA worm logo. ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... The SA-9 (Saturn I Block II), the eighth Saturn I flight, lifted off on February 16, 1965. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... There have been several John Kennedys: John F. Kennedy, American president John F. Kennedy, Jr. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ...


The program continued into the early 1970s to carry out the initial hands-on scientific exploration of the Moon, with a total of six successful landings. As of 2007, there has not been any further human spaceflight beyond low earth orbit. The later Skylab program and the joint American-Soviet Apollo-Soyuz Test Project used equipment originally produced for Apollo, and are often considered to be part of the overall program. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ...


Despite the many successes, there were two major failures, the first of which resulted in the deaths of three astronauts, Virgil Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee, in the Apollo 1 launchpad fire (the mission designation was AS-204, which was renamed Apollo 1 in the astronauts' widows' honor). The second was an explosion on Apollo 13, in whose aftermath the deaths of three more astronauts were averted by the efforts of flight controllers, project engineers, and backup crewmembers. Gus Grissom in his Mercury spacesuit Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926–January 27, 1967) was a U.S. Air Force pilot who became one of the first American astronauts. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... Roger Chaffee Roger Bruce Chaffee (February 15, 1935 - January 27, 1967) was a U.S. Navy pilot who became an American astronaut in the Apollo program. ... Apollo One is the official name given to the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) spacecraft, destroyed by fire during a training exercise on January 27, 1967, at Pad 34 (Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral - then known as Cape Kennedy) atop a Saturn IB rocket. ... Apollo 13 was the third manned lunar-landing mission, part of Project Apollo under the NASA in the United States. ...


The Apollo project was named after the Greek god of the sun. Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a...

Contents

Background

Main article: Space race

The Apollo Program was originally conceived early in 1960, during the Eisenhower administration, as a follow-up to America's Mercury program. While the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited earth orbital mission, the Apollo spacecraft was intended to be able to carry three astronauts on a circumlunar flight and perhaps even on a lunar landing. The program was named after the Greek god of the sun by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who later said that "I was naming the spacecraft like I'd name my baby."[1] While NASA went ahead with planning for Apollo, funding for the program was far from certain, particularly given Eisenhower's equivocal attitude to manned spaceflight.[2] For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961). ... Mercury program monument Project Mercury was the United States first manned spaceflight program. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... Abe Silverstein (1908 - 2001 ) was an American engineer who played an important part in the United States space program. ...

President John F. Kennedy delivers a speech at Rice University on the subject of the American space program, September 12, 1962.

In November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected President after a campaign that promised American superiority over the Soviet Union in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Using space exploration as a symbol of national prestige, he warned of a "missile gap" between the two nations, pledging to make the United States not "first but, first and, first if, but first period."[3] Despite Kennedy's rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he was elected President. He knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned moon landing.[4] When NASA Administrator James Webb requested a thirty percent budget increase for his agency, Kennedy supported an acceleration of NASA's large booster program but deferred a decision on the broader issue.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 200 × 290 pixelsFull resolution (200 × 290 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 200 × 290 pixelsFull resolution (200 × 290 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University, commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art, is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... James E. Webb James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906 - March 27, 1992) was the second administrator of NASA, serving from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968. ...


On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to fly in space, reinforcing American fears about being left behind in a technological competition with the Soviet Union. At a meeting of the U.S. House Committee on Science and Astronautics held only the day after Gagarin's flight, many congressmen pledged their support for a crash program aimed at ensuring that America would catch up.[6] Kennedy, however, was circumspect in his response to the news, refusing to make a commitment on America's response to the Soviets.[7] On April 20 Kennedy sent a memo to Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, asking Johnson to look into the status of America's space program, and into programs that could offer NASA the opportunity to catch up.[8] Johnson responded on the following day, concluding that "we are neither making maximum effort nor achieving results necessary if this country is to reach a position of leadership."[9] His memo concluded that a manned moon landing was far enough in the future to make it possible that the United States could achieve it first.[9] April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: , Jurij Aleksejevič Gagarin; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968), Hero of the Soviet Union, was a Soviet cosmonaut who on 12 April 1961 became the first person in space and the first person to orbit the Earth. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... “LBJ” redirects here. ...


On May 25, 1961, Kennedy announced his support for the Apollo program as part of a special address to a joint session of Congress: May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...

...I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important in the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish..."[10]

At the time of Kennedy's speech, only one American had flown in space — less than a month earlier — and NASA had not yet sent a man into orbit. Some NASA employees disbelieved whether Kennedy's ambitious goal could be met.[11]


Choosing a mission mode

See also: Moon landing

Once Kennedy had defined a goal, the Apollo mission planners were faced with the challenge of designing a set of flights that could meet this stated goal while minimizing risk to human life, cost, and demands on technology and astronaut skill. Four possible mission modes were considered: The historical plaque on the Apollo 11 lunar module Eagle, still remaining on the Moon. ...

Early Apollo configuration for
Direct Ascent and
Earth Orbit Rendezvous - 1961 (NASA)
  • Direct Ascent: A spacecraft would travel directly to the Moon, landing and returning as a unit. This plan would have required a very powerful booster, the planned Nova rocket.
  • Earth Orbit Rendezvous: Two Saturn V rockets would be launched, one carrying the spacecraft and one carrying a propulsion unit that would have enabled the spacecraft to escape earth orbit. After a docking in earth orbit, the spacecraft would have landed on the Moon as a unit.
  • Lunar Surface Rendezvous: Two spacecraft would be launched in succession. The first, an automated vehicle carrying propellants, would land on the Moon and would be followed some time later by the manned vehicle. Propellant would be transferred from the automated vehicle to the manned vehicle before the manned vehicle could return to Earth.
  • Lunar Orbit Rendezvous (LOR): One Saturn V would launch a spacecraft that was composed of modular parts. A command module would remain in orbit around the moon, while a lunar module would descend to the moon and then return to dock with the command module while still in lunar orbit. In contrast with the other plans, LOR required only a small part of the spacecraft to land on the Moon, thereby minimizing the mass to be launched from the Moon's surface for the return trip.

In early 1961, direct ascent was generally the mission mode in favor at NASA. Many engineers feared that a rendezvous, which had never been attempted in space, would be impossible in lunar orbit. However, dissenters including John Houbolt at Langley Research Center emphasized the important weight reductions that were offered by the LOR approach. Throughout 1960 and 1961, Houbolt campaigned for the recognition of LOR as a valid and practical option. Bypassing the NASA hierarchy, he sent a series of memos and reports on the issue to Associate Administrator Robert Seamans; while acknowledging that he spoke "somewhat as a voice in the wilderness," Houbolt pleaded that LOR should not be discounted in studies of the question.[12] Apollo direct ascent or earth orbit rendezvous design - 1961 Downloaded from NASA Headquarters History Website. ... Apollo direct ascent or earth orbit rendezvous design - 1961 Downloaded from NASA Headquarters History Website. ... Direct ascent was a proposed method for an American mission to the moon. ... Diagram of Saturn I, Saturn V and Nova 8L rockets. ... Earth Orbit Rendezvous was a proposed method for American space missions to the moon. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Lunar Orbit Rendezvous was the method of flying to the moon used in the Apollo Missions, where a Main ship would carry a ferry to the moon which would carry astronauts down to the surface. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... Category: ... Langley Research Center NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. ... Robert C. Seamans, Jr. ...


Seamans' establishment of the Golovin committee in July 1961 represented a turning point in NASA's mission mode decision.[13] While the ad-hoc committee was intended to provide a recommendation on the boosters to be used in the Apollo program, it recognized that the mode decision was an important part of this question. The committee recommended in favor of a hybrid EOR-LOR mode, but its consideration of LOR — as well as Houbolt's ceaseless work — played an important role in publicizing the workability of the approach. In late 1961 and early 1962, members of NASA's Space Task Group at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston began to come around to support for LOR.[13] The engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center took longer to become convinced of its merits, but their conversion was announced by Wernher von Braun at a briefing in June 1962. NASA's formal decision in favor of LOR was announced on July 11, 1962. Space historian James Hansen concludes that: The Space Task Group was a working group of engineers based at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... Wernher von Braun stands at his desk in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama in May 1964, with models of rockets developed and in progress. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...

Without NASA's adoption of this stubbornly held minority opinion in 1962, the United States may still have reached the Moon, but almost certainly it would not have been accomplished by the end of the 1960s, President Kennedy's target date.[14]

Spacecraft

Main article: Apollo spacecraft

The Apollo spacecraft consisted of three main sections, plus two minor sections. Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ...

Apollo CSM in lunar orbit.

The Command Module (CM) was the part in which the astronauts spent most of their time, including launch and landing. It was the only part that returned to Earth after the mission. The Service Module (SM) housed the equipment needed by the astronauts, such as oxygen tanks, and the engine that would take the spacecraft into and out of lunar orbit. The combined Command and Service modules were called the CSM. Apollo 17 CSM in lunar orbit (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Apollo 17 CSM in lunar orbit (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... In astronomy, lunar orbit refers just to the orbit of the Moon around the Earth. ...


The Lunar Module (LM) (also known as Lunar Excursion Module, or LEM), was the part of the spacecraft that actually landed on the moon. It was comprised of a descent stage and an ascent stage, the former serving as a launch platform for the latter when the lunar exploration party blasted off for lunar orbit where they would dock with the CSM prior to returning to Earth. The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ...

Apollo LM on lunar surface.

To learn lunar landing techniques, astronauts practiced in the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV), a flying vehicle that simulated (by means of a special, additional jet engine) the reduced gravity that the Lunar Module would actually fly in. The LLRV was later replaced by the 3 Lunar Landing Training Vehicles (LLTV) which were the primary training vehicles used by the astronauts. Apollo 16 LM on lunar surface (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Apollo 16 LM on lunar surface (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 22. ...


The Launch Escape Tower (LET) would carry the Command Module clear of the launch vehicle, should it explode during launch, and the Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) was used to connect the spacecraft to the Launch Vehicle. In addition, on Apollos 9 - 17, it housed and protected the Lunar Module and on the ASTP flight, it housed the docking adapter. Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the Apollo program, a ten day earth-orbital mission launched 3 March 1969. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ...


Boosters

Saturn V diagram from the Apollo 6 press kit

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 337 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2093 × 3724 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Project Apollo ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 337 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2093 × 3724 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Project Apollo ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Diagram of Saturn I, Saturn V and Nova 8L rockets. ...

Astronauts

See List of Apollo astronauts.

Twenty-four astronauts have been on or near the Moon. ...

Missions

See also: List of Apollo missions

Green dots indicate locations of Apollo missions on the moon The Apollo missions were a series of space missions, both manned and unmanned, flown by NASA between 1961 and 1975. ...

Mission types

In September 1967, the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, proposed a series of missions that would lead up to a manned lunar landing. Seven mission types were outlined, each testing a specific set of components and tasks; each previous step needed to be completed successfully before the next mission type could be undertaken. These were: 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Front gate of Johnson Space Center. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837 Government  - Mayor Bill White Area  - City  601. ...

  • A - Unmanned Command/Service Module (CSM) test
  • B - Unmanned Lunar Module (LM) test
  • C - Manned CSM in low Earth orbit
  • D - Manned CSM and LM in low Earth orbit
  • E - Manned CSM and LM in an elliptical Earth orbit with an apogee of 4600 mi (7400 km)
  • F - Manned CSM and LM in lunar orbit
  • G - Manned lunar landing

Later added to this were H missions, which were short duration stays on the Moon with two LEVAs ("moonwalks"). These were followed by the J missions, which were longer 3 day stays, with 3 LEVAs and the use of the lunar rover. Apollo 18 to 20 would have been J missions. The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... For other uses, see Ellipse (disambiguation). ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Lunar Rover-Manned land vehicle (NASA) The Lunar Roving Vehicle or Lunar rover or LRV is a land vehicle for use on the Moon. ...


In addition, a further group of flights — the I missions — were planned. Lunar Orbital Survey Missions were conceived that would have seen a long duration orbital mission of the Moon using a Service Module bay loaded with scientific equipment. When it became obvious that later flights were being cancelled, such mission plans were brought into the J missions that were actually flown.


The original pre-lunar landing program was more conservative but, as the 'all-up' test flights for the Saturn V proved successful, some missions were deleted. The revised schedule published in October 1967 had the first manned Apollo CSM earth orbit mission (Apollo 7) followed by an Earth Orbit Rendezvous of the CSM and LM launched on two Saturn 1Bs (Apollo 8) followed by a Saturn V launched CSM on a Large Earth Orbit Mission (Apollo 9) followed by the Saturn V launched dress rehearsal in Lunar Orbit with Apollo 10. By the summer of 1968 it became clear to program managers that a fully functional LM would not be available for the Apollo 8 mission. Rather than perform a simple earth orbiting mission, they chose to send Apollo 8 around the moon during Christmas. The original idea for this switch was the brainchild of George Low. Although it has often been claimed that this change was made as a direct response to Soviet attempts to fly a piloted Zond spacecraft around the moon, there is no evidence that this was actually the case. NASA officials were aware of the Soviet Zond flights, but the timing of the Zond missions does not correspond well with the extensive written record from NASA about the Apollo 8 decision. It is relatively certain that the Apollo 8 decision was primarily based upon the LM schedule, rather than fear of the Soviets beating the Americans to the moon. G. David Low, NASA Astronaut PERSONAL DATA: Born February 19, 1956, in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ...


Samples returned

Ferroan Anorthosite, collected by Apollo 16.
Lunar
Mission
Sample
Returned
Apollo 11 22 kg
Apollo 12 34 kg
Apollo 14 43 kg
Apollo 15 77 kg
Apollo 16 95 kg
Apollo 17 111 kg
Main article: Moon rock

Apollo returned 381.7 kg (841.5 lb) of rocks and other material from the Moon, much of which is stored at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1375, 270 KB) Summary Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1375, 270 KB) Summary Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Anorthosite is a phaneritic, intrusive igneous rock characterized by a predominance of plagioclase feldspar (90-100%), and a minimal mafic component (0-10%). Pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine are the mafic minerals most commonly present. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... Genesis Rock returned by the Apollo 15 mission. ... First samples from the Moon being delivered to LRL in 1969 The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) is a facility at NASAs Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (Building 37) that was constructed to quarantine astronauts and material brought back from the Moon during the Apollo program. ...


In general the rocks collected from the Moon are extremely old compared to rocks found on Earth, as measured by radiometric dating techniques. They range in age from about 3.2 billion years old for the basaltic samples derived from the lunar mare, to about 4.6 billion years for samples derived from the highlands crust.[15] As such, they represent samples from a very early period in the evolution of the Solar System that is largely missing from Earth. One important rock found during the Apollo Program was the Genesis Rock, retrieved by astronauts James Irwin and David Scott during the Apollo 15 mission. This rock is composed almost exclusively of the mineral anorthosite, and is believed to be representative of the highland crust. A geochemical component called KREEP (an acronym for rocks with high abundances of potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorus) was discovered that has no known terrestrial counterpart. Together, KREEP and the anorthositic samples have been used to infer that the outer portion of the Moon was once completely molten (see lunar magma ocean). Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black volcanic rock. ... The Lunar maria (singular: mare, IPA: //) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earths Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... The Genesis Rock The Genesis Rock is a sample of lunar crust retrieved from the Moon by Apollo 15 astronauts James Irwin and David Scott, and it is anorthosite. ... James Benson Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) was a member of the Apollo 15 mission and the eighth man to walk on the Moon. ... David Scotts Apollo 15 training space suit on display in the Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC. Colonel David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932), a former NASA astronaut, was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and is one of only twelve... Anorthosite is a phaneritic, intrusive igneous rock characterized by a predominance of plagioclase feldspar (90-100%), and a minimal mafic component (0-10%). Pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine are the mafic minerals most commonly present. ... KREEP stands for potassium (atomic symbol K), rare earth elements (REE), and phosphorus (P). ... This article, which relates to the Moon, is a stub. ...


Almost all of the rocks show evidence for having been affected by impact processes. For instance, many samples appear to be pitted with micrometeoroid impact craters, something which is never seen on earth due to its thick atmosphere. Additionally, many show signs of being subjected to high pressure shock waves that are generated during impacts events. Some of the returned samples are of impact melt, referring to materials that are melted in the vicinity of an impact crater. Finally, all samples returned from the Moon are highly brecciated as a result of being subjected to multiple impact events. A Micrometeoroid (also micrometeorite, micrometeor) is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock from space, usually weighing less than a gram, that poses a threat to space exploration. ... Breccia, derived from the Latin word for broken, is a sedimentary rock composed of angular fragments in a matrix that may be of a similar or a different material. ...


Apollo Applications

In the speech which initiated Apollo, Kennedy declared that no other program would have as great a long-range effect on America's ambitions in outer space. Following the success of Project Apollo, both NASA and its major contractors investigated several post-lunar applications for the Apollo hardware. The "Apollo Extension Series", later called the "Apollo Applications Program", proposed up to thirty flights to Earth Orbit. Many of these would use the space that the lunar module took up in the Saturn rocket to carry scientific equipment. The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science based manned space missions using surplus material from the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, also simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science based manned space missions using surplus material from the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ...


One plan involved using the Saturn IB to take the Command/Service Module (CSM) to a variety of low-earth orbits for missions lasting up to 45 days. Some missions would involve the docking of two CSMs, and transfer of supplies. The Saturn V would be necessary to take it to polar orbit, or sun-synchronous orbit (neither of which has yet been achieved by any manned spacecraft), and even to the geosynchronous orbit of Syncom 3, a communications satellite not quite in geostationary orbit. This was the first functioning communications satellite at that now-common great distance from the Earth, and it was small enough to be carried through the hatch and taken back to Earth for study as to the effects of radiation on its electronic components in that environment over a period of years. A return to the moon was also planned, this time to orbit for a longer time to map the surface with high-precision equipment. This mission would not include a landing. The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... A satellite in a polar orbit passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet (or other celestial body) on each revolution. ... By analogy with the geosynchronous orbit, a heliosynchronous orbit is a heliocentric orbit of radius 24. ... A geosynchronous orbit is a geocentric orbit that has the same orbital period as the sidereal rotation period of the Earth. ... Syncom-type satellite Syncom was a program of three experimental, active geosynchronous communication satellites which was started by NASA in 1961. ... A geostationary orbit (abbreviated GEO) is a circular orbit in the Earths equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earths rotation. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ...


Of all the plans, only two were implemented: the Skylab space station (May 1973 – February 1974), and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (July 1975). Skylab's fuselage was constructed from the second stage of a Saturn IB, and the station was equipped with the Apollo Telescope Mount, itself based on a lunar module. The station's three crews were ferried into orbit atop Saturn IBs, riding in CSMs; the station itself had been launched with a modified Saturn V. Skylab's last crew departed the station on February 8, 1974, whilst the station itself returned prematurely to Earth in 1979, by which time it had become the oldest operational Apollo component. Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, is the name of a solar observatory that was attached to Skylab, the first US space station. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project involved a docking in Earth orbit between an unnamed CSM and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The mission lasted from July 15 to July 24, 1975. Although the Soviet Union continued to operate the Soyuz and Salyut space vehicles, NASA's next manned mission would not be until STS-1 on April 12, 1981. Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft approaching the International Space Station Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... The first Space Shuttle mission, STS-1, launched April 12, 1981, returned April 14. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1964/5 Grumman, the primary contrator for the Apollo LM systems, attempted to interest the USAF and Navy in a military version of CSM/LM configuration. The LM would have been equipped with a manipulator arm and projectile weapons to intercept and disable enemy satellites. The proposal was never fully developed and was abandoned in 1967. In the same time period, Grumman proposed using an Apollo spacecraft to send a mission to land on a Near-Earth asteroid. Only about half a dozen were known at the time, with close approaches occurring about every three or four years. NASA found the scheme too marginal to pursue. The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are asteroids whose orbits are close to Earths orbit. ...


End of the program and lasting influences

Unflown command module CM-007 at the Museum of Flight in Seattle

Originally three additional lunar landing missions had been planned, as Apollo 18 through Apollo 20. In light of the drastically shrinking NASA budget and the decision not to produce a second batch of Saturn Vs, these missions were cancelled to make funds available for the development of the Space Shuttle, and to make their Apollo spacecraft and Saturn V launch vehicles available to the Skylab program. Only one of the remaining Saturn Vs was actually used; the others became museum exhibits. The Apollo 11 CM, Columbia, in the National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC. Taken in April 2004. ... The Apollo 11 CM, Columbia, in the National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC. Taken in April 2004. ... For the Museum of Flight in East Lothian, Scotland, see Museum of Flight (Scotland). ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... The NASA worm logo. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ...


The next generation of NASA spacecraft, the Orion (Formerly the Crew Exploration Vehicle or CEV), which is to replace the Space Shuttle following its retirement in 2010, is influenced largely by the Apollo Program. The most notable difference is that the CEV will return to Earth on land, much like the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, rather than at sea as the Apollos did. Like Apollo, the CEV will fly a lunar orbit rendezvous mission profile, but unlike Apollo, the lander, known as the Lunar Surface Access Module, will be launched separately on the Ares V rocket, a rocket based on both Space Shuttle and Apollo technologies. Orion will be launched separately and will link up with the LSAM in low earth orbit like that of the Skylab program. Also, Orion, unlike Apollo, will remain unmanned in lunar orbit while the entire crew lands on the lunar surface, with the lunar polar regions in mind instead of the equatorial regions explored by Apollo. The NASA worm logo. ... Orion is a spacecraft currently under development by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... CEV with lunar lander CEV during a landing on earth CEV rocket, the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) (right) along side the heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) rocket. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft approaching the International Space Station Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... The Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) is the planned landing vehicle of Project Constellation that will allow astronauts to land on the lunar surface when flights to the Moon will resume after 2015. ... The Ares V (formerly known at the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) is the cargo launch component of Project Constellation. ...


The Apollo program stimulated many areas of technology. The flight computer design used in both the lunar and command modules was, along with the Minuteman Missile System, the driving force behind early research into integrated circuits. The fuel cell developed for this program was the first practical fuel cell. Computer-controlled machining (CNC) was pioneered in fabricating Apollo structural components. The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was the first recognizably modern embedded system, used in real-time by astronaut pilots to collect and provide flight information, and to automatically control all of the navigational functions of the Apollo spacecraft. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). ... Integrated circuit showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... A CNC Turning Center A CNC Milling Machine The abbreviation CNC stands for computer numerical control, and refers specifically to a computer controller that reads G-code instructions and drives the machine tool, a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components by the selective removal of metal. ...


Many astronauts and cosmonauts have commented on the profound effects that seeing Earth from space has had on them. One of the most important legacies of the Apollo program was the now-common, but not universal, view of Earth as a fragile, small planet, captured in the photographs taken by the astronauts during the lunar missions. The most famous of these photographs, taken by the Apollo 17 astronauts, is "The Blue Marble". These photographs have also motivated many people toward environmentalism and space colonization. For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... The Blue Marble is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on 7 December 1972 by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft at a distance of about 45,000 kilometers or about 28,000 miles. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ...


The cost of the entire program is estimated at $135 billion (2006 dollars) ($25.4 billion in 1969 dollars).[citation needed] The Apollo spacecraft cost $28 billion (2006 dollars) to develop: $17 billion for the command and service modules, and $11 billion for the Lunar Module. The Saturn I, IB and V launch vehicle development cost about $46 billion. ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


It appears that much of the original film and telemetry data is missing. For more information see Apollo program missing tapes. The Apollo missing tapes are the recordings of the transmissions (television, sound and telemetry data) broadcast during the Apollo missions (including broadcasts from the Moon), referred to as Slow-Scan TV (SSTV). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Project Apollo
Spaceflight Portal

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was the first recognizably modern embedded system, used in real-time by astronaut pilots to collect and provide flight information, and to automatically control all of the navigational functions of the Apollo spacecraft. ... Aside from NASA, a number of entities and individuals observed, through various means, the Apollo missions as they took place. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Independent evidence for Apollo Moon landings. ... Apollo Lunar Television Camera TV cameras used on the Apollo (and later ASTP and Skylab) missions varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each design. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Map of the moon showing some landing sites. ... Details of the Soviet Moonshot were kept intensely secret until the arrival of glasnost. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Apollo Moon Landing hoax accusations. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, p. 55.
  2. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, p. 60.
  3. ^ Beschloss, 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon,' in Launius and McCurdy, eds., Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership.
  4. ^ Sidey, John F. Kennedy, pp. 117-118.
  5. ^ Beschloss, 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon,' p. 55.
  6. ^ "Discussion of Soviet Man-in-Space Shot," Hearing before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, 87th Congress, First Session, April 13, 1961.
  7. ^ Sidey, John F. Kennedy, p. 114
  8. ^ Kennedy to Johnson, "Memorandum for Vice President," April 20, 1961.
  9. ^ a b Johnson to Kennedy, "Evaluation of Space Program," April 21, 1961.
  10. ^ John F. Kennedy, "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs", May 25, 1961
  11. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, pp. 16-17.
  12. ^ Brooks, Grimwood and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo, p. 71.
  13. ^ a b Hansen, Enchanted Rendezvous, p 21
  14. ^ Hansen, Enchanted Rendezvous, p. 27.
  15. ^ James Papike, Grahm Ryder, and Charles Shearer (1998). "Lunar Samples". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 36: 5.1-5.234. 

April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...

References

  • Hansen, James R. (1995). Enchanted Rendezvous: John C. Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar-Orbit Rendezvous Concept. NASA. 
  • Murray, Charles; Catherine Bly Cox (1989). Apollo: The Race to the Moon. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-61101-1. 
  • Papike, James; Graham Ryder and Charles Shearer (1998). "Lunar Samples". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 36: 5.1-5.234. 

Further reading

  • Kranz, Gene, Failure is Not an Option. Factual, from the standpoint of a chief flight controller during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. ISBN 0-7432-0079-9
  • Chaikin, Andrew. A Man on the Moon. ISBN 0-14-027201-1. Chaikin has interviewed all the surviving astronauts, plus many others who worked with the program.
  • Cooper, Henry S. F. Jr. Thirteen: The Flight That Failed. ISBN 0-8018-5097-5. Although this book focuses on Apollo 13, it is extremely well-researched and provides a wealth of background information on Apollo technology and procedures.
  • Wilhelms, Don E. To a Rocky Moon. ISBN 0-8165-1065-2. Tells the history of Lunar exploration from a geologist's point of view.
  • Pellegrino, Charles R.; Stoff, Joshua. Chariots for Apollo: The Untold Story Behind the Race to the Moon. ISBN 0-380-80261-9. Tells Grumman's story of building the Lunar Modules.
  • Lovell, Jim; Kluger, Jeffrey. Lost Moon: The perilous voyage of Apollo 13 aka Apollo 13: Lost Moon. ISBN 0-618-05665-3. Details the flight of Apollo 13.
  • Collins, Michael. Carrying the Fire; an Astronaut's journeys. Astronaut Mike Collins autobiography of his experiences as an astronaut, including his flight aboard Apollo 11, the first landing on the Moon
  • Slayton, Donald K.; Cassutt, Michael. Deke! An Autobiograpy. ISBN 0-312-85918-X. This is an excellent account of Deke Slayton's life as an astronaut and of his work as chief of the astronaut office, including selection of the crews which flew Apollo to the Moon.
  • Chariots for Apollo: A history of Manned Lunar Spacecraft - NASA reportPDF (133 MiB)
  • The Apollo spacecraft. Volume 1 - A chronology:PDF (13.2 MiB) From origin to 7 November. 1962
  • The Apollo spacecraft: Volume 2 - A chronology:PDF (13.4 MiB) 8 November 1962 - 30 September 1964
  • The Apollo spacecraft: Volume 3 - A chronology:PDF (13.5 MiB) 1 October 1964 - 20 January 1966
  • The Apollo spacecraft: Volume 4 - A chronology:PDF (24.2 MiB) 21 January 1966 - 13 July 1974
  • Apollo program summary report: Synopsis of the Apollo program - NASA reportPDF (26.5 MiB)

Gene Kranz in a more recent photo. ... Mercury program monument Project Mercury was the United States first manned spaceflight program. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... James Jim Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. ... Donald Kent Deke Slayton (March 1, 1924 – June 13, 1993) was one of the original Mercury Seven NASA astronauts. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ...

External links


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Project Apollo
SA-1 | SA-2 | SA-3 | SA-4 | QTV | Pad Abort Test-1 | SA-5 | A-001 | A-101 | A-102 | A-002 | A-103 | A-003 | A-104 | Pad Abort Test-2 | A-105 | A-004 | AS-201 | AS-203 | AS-202 | Apollo 1 | Apollo 4 | Apollo 5 | Apollo 6 | Apollo 7 | Apollo 8 | Apollo 9 | Apollo 10 | Apollo 11 | Apollo 12 | Apollo 13 | Apollo 14 | Apollo 15 | Apollo 16 | Apollo 17
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United States government human spaceflight programs
Active: Space Shuttle | ISS (joint) | Project Constellation (future)
Past: X-15 (suborbital) | Mercury | Gemini | Apollo | Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (joint, USSR) | Skylab | Shuttle-Mir (joint, Russia)
Cancelled: MISS | Orion | Dyna-Soar | Manned Orbiting Laboratory | Space Station Freedom (now ISS) | Orbital Space Plane

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (606x608, 438 KB)Apollo program insignia, cropped white spaces around image. ... SA-1 was the first flight of a Saturn I launch vehicle and was part of the Apollo Program. ... SA-2 was the second flight Saturn I launch vehicle, the first flight of Project High Water and was part of the Apollo Program. ... SA-3 was the third flight Saturn I launch vehicle, the second flight of Project High Water and was part of the Apollo Program. ... SA-4 was the fourth flight of a Saturn I launch vehicle and the last of the initial test phase of the first stage. ... Little Joe II QTV was the first, Qualification Flight Test of the Apollo Little Joe II rocket. ... Pad Abort Test 1 was the first abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... SA-5 was the first launch of the Block II Saturn I rocket and was part of the Apollo Program. ... A-001 was the second abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... A-101 was the first Saturn rocket launch to carry a boilerplate Apollo spacecraft. ... A-102 was the first Saturn rocket launch to carry a boilerplate Apollo spacecraft. ... A-002 was the third abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... A-103 (SA-9) launch. ... A-003 was the fourth abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... A-104 was the ninth test flight of the Saturn I. This mission was the second flight in the Saturn I operational series and the fourth vehicle to carry an Apollo boilerplate spacecraft. ... Pad Abort Test 2 was the second pad abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... A-105 was the third flight of an operational Saturn I and was the last in the series of Saturn I flights. ... A-004 was the sixth and final abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... AS-201 (or SA-201) was the first flight of the Saturn IB launch vehicle. ... AS-203 (or SA-203) was an unmanned flight Saturn IB launch vehicle. ... AS-202 (or SA-202) was a sub-orbital test flight of the Saturn IB and Command and Service Module. ... Apollo One is the official name given to the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) spacecraft, destroyed by fire during a training exercise on January 27, 1967, at Pad 34 (Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral - then known as Cape Kennedy) atop a Saturn IB rocket. ... Apollo 4 was the first unmanned flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle. ... Apollo 5 was the first unmanned flight of the Apollo Lunar Module, which would later carry astronauts to the lunar surface. ... Apollo 6, launched in April 1968, was the Apollo programs second and last unmanned test flight of its Saturn V launch vehicle. ... Apollo 7 was the first manned mission in the Apollo program to be launched. ... Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the Apollo program, a ten day earth-orbital mission launched 3 March 1969. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 13 was the third manned lunar-landing mission, part of Project Apollo under the NASA in the United States. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Human spaceflight Mercury program Gemini program Apollo program Apollo-Soyuz (Soviet Union partnership) Skylab Space Shuttle Shuttle-Mir Program (Russian partnership) International Space Station (working together with Russia, Canada, ESA, and JAXA along with co-operators, ASI and Brazil) Orion Program Satellite and Robotic space missions Earth Observing Explorer I... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ... The X-15 in flight, early 1960s The North American X-15 rocket plane was perhaps the most important of the USAF/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, after only possibly the Bell X-1. ... Mercury program monument Project Mercury was the United States first manned spaceflight program. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ... The Shuttle-Mir program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian Space Station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the Shuttle and American astronauts staying aboard Mir for long periods of time. ... Man In Space Soonest was a American program to put an astronaut into outer space before the Soviet Union would be able to. ... An artists conception of the NASA reference design for the Project Orion spacecraft powered by nuclear propulsion. ... Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a USAF program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... // Background The Orbital Space Plane program (now defunct and replaced by the Spiral series of CEV — Crew Exploration Vehicles) was designed to support the International Space Station requirements for crew rescue, crew transport and contingency cargo such as supplies, food and other needed equipment. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Contact Light - a personal retrospective of Project Apollo (3583 words)
Project Mercury concluded in 1963 after six successful Earth-orbital and sub-orbital flights, and Project Gemini continued paving the way to the Moon in March of 1965.
The Apollo project was dealt a major setback in early 1967 with the tragic Apollo 1 fire and death of its crewmen during training, and it wasn't until October of 1968 (23 months after the final Gemini flight) that manned missions resumed with the launch of earth orbital mission Apollo 7.
Apollo 17 set records for total duration of lunar EVA's (22 hours), distance driven with the LRV (36 km.) and lunar samples collected (254 lbs.), and brought the manned lunar landing missions to conclusion in grand fashion with a spectacular televised lunar liftoff.
Apollo Project (2084 words)
The success of the Apollo Project rested on the development of the Saturn series of launch vehicles, and, in particular the Saturn V moon rocket.
President Eisenhower initially opposed this development beyond the Mercury Project, but Apollo was given the green light by his successor on May 21, 1961, when President Kennedy declared America’s goal of placing humans on the Moon by the end of the decade.
Apollo 7 and 9 were Earth-orbiting missions to test the CM and LM.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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