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Encyclopedia > Project

A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service[1]. This article is about a term used in economics. ...

Contents

Origin

The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, "to throw something forwards" which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in time (paralleling the Greek πρό) and jacere, "to throw". The word "project" thus actually originally meant "something that comes before anything else is done". When the word was initially adopted, it referred to a plan of something, not to the act of actually carrying this plan out. Something performed in accordance with a project was called an object. This use of "project" changed in the 1950s when several techniques for project management were introduced. With this advent the word slightly changed meaning to cover both projects and objects. However in certain projects there may still exist so called objects and object leaders. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... An object in this meaning is the same thing as an objective or task. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... The word leadership can refer to: the process of leading. ...


Characteristics

  • Temporary means that any project will have a start date and end date (but it has nothing to do with short duration).
  • Projects are characterized by progressive elaboration: due to uniqueness and greater uncertainty projects cannot be understood entirely at or before project start, and therefore planning and execution of projects is happening many times in separate steps or phases. As project progresses, project team understands next steps, deliverables and way of execution much better. Based on this knowledge team members elaborate initial draft plans, and execute next phase of the project based on these detailed plans.

Projects differ from operations, because operations are continuous and repeating (projects are temporary), and operations deliver the same or almost the same results (project results are in contrast unique).


A project usually needs resources to deliver its results. Most of the time project execution is based on detailed plan, which considers also external factors and constraints. Planning, execution and controlling of project is the primary field of project management. For major projects it is necessary sometimes to set up a special temporary organization, consisting of a project team and one or more work teams. In economics, factors of production are resources used in the production of goods and services. ... A constraint is a limitation of possibilities. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ... A project team is a team used for grouping people based on a common function. ...


Major projects can be divided into subprojects, and program denotes collection of related projects. Typically, collaboration between project team members is needed for a successful outcome. A program or programme (in management) has at least two senses: A collection of projects that is directed toward a common goal. ...


Advantages

Project based approach is particularly liked by Western business, which are characterized by a modern matrix organization and a cooperative culture. In case of authoritarian, bureaucratic organizations with rigid, hierarchical structure project based work is less popular, or does not work as expected due to the conflict between different cultures. Matrix management is a type of organizational management in which people with similar skills are pooled for work assignments. ... Organizational culture, or corporate culture, comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. ...


Notable projects

The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... // The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project to de-code (i. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...

See also

Look up project in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Association for Project Management (APM) is an independent organization for project management. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Illustration of a physical process: a geyser in action. Process (lat. ... Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ... The term Project governance is used in industry, especially in the information technology (IT) sector, to describe the processes that need to exist for a successful project. ... A program or programme (in management) has at least two senses: A collection of projects that is directed toward a common goal. ... Incorporated in 1969 and situated outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was founded by five volunteers. ... Aggregate planning Agile software development Critical path method Critical chain Cost overrun Dependency Duration (project management) Dynamic Systems Development Method Earned Schedule Earned value management Estimation Estimation in software engineering Event chain diagram Event chain methodology Extreme project management Float (project management) Focused improvement Fordism Gantt, Henry Gantt chart Goal... Project planning is part of project management, which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment. ... Enterprise Project Management, in broad terms, is the field of organizational development that supports organizations in managing integrally and adapting themselves to the changes of a transformation. ... Project management software is a term covering many types of software, including scheduling, resource allocation, collaboration software, communication and documentation systems, which are used to deal with the complexity of large projects. ... Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. ... Software Projects was the name of a computer game development company run by Manic Miner developer Matthew Smith. ...

External links

Wikibooks has more on the topic of
Project
  • Computer and Electronics Project Guidance

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

References

  1. ^ A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), Third Edition, Project Management Institute.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project (447 words)
AnatQuest: the overall goal of the AnatQuest project is to explore and implement new visually and compelling ways to bring anatomic images from the Visible Human dataset to the general public.
The Visible Human Project ATLAS of Functional Human Anatomy, version 1.0 The Head and Neck, developed under contract to the NLM by the University of Colorado Center for Human Simulation.
Banvard, Richard A., The Visible Human Project® Image Data Set From Inception to Completion and Beyond, Proceedings CODATA 2002: Frontiers of Scientific and Technical Data, Track I-D-2: Medical and Health Data, Montréal, Canada, October, 2002.
Project - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (392 words)
The planning, execution and monitoring of major projects sometimes involves setting up a special temporary organization, consisting of a project team and one or more work teams.
The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, "to throw something forwards" which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in time (paralleling the Greek πρό) and jacere, "to throw".
This use of "project" changed in the 1950s when several techniques for project management were introduced: with this advent the word slightly changed meaning to cover both projects and objects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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