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Encyclopedia > Prohibition in the United States
Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era.

Prohibition in the United States refers to attempts to legally ban alcohol sales and consumption. The term often refers specifically to the period from 1920 to 1933, during which alcohol sale, manufacture and transportation were banned throughout the United States as mandated in the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Prohibition can also encompass the antecedent religious and political temperance movements calling for sumptuary laws to end or encumber alcohol use.[1] Detroit redirects here. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Prohibition redirects here. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) were laws that regulated and reinforced social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on clothing, food, and luxury expenditures. ...

Contents

History

Origins

In May 1657 the General Court of Massachusetts made illegal the sale of strong liquor "whether known by the name of rum, strong water, wine, brandy, etc., etc."[2] The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... This article is about the beverage. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ...


In general, informal social controls in the home and community helped maintain the expectation that the abuse of alcohol was unacceptable. There was a clear consensus that while alcohol was a gift from God, its abuse was from the Devil. "Drunkenness was condemned and punished, but only as an abuse of a God-given gift. Drink itself was not looked upon as culpable, any more than food deserved blame for the sin of gluttony. Excess was a personal indiscretion."[3] When informal controls failed, there were always legal ones. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... Gluttony can also refer to a character named Gluttony - a homonculus from the anime series Full Metal Alchemist Gluttony is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or intoxicants to the point of waste. ...


Explanation was sought by medical men. One suggestion had come from one of the foremost physicians of the late 18th century, Dr. Benjamin Rush. In 1784, he argued that the excessive use of alcohol was injurious to physical and psychological health (he believed in moderation rather than prohibition). Apparently influenced by Rush's widely discussed belief, about 200 farmers in a Connecticut community formed a temperance association in 1789. Similar associations were formed in Virginia in 1800 and New York in 1808. Within the next decade, other temperance organizations were formed in eight states, some being statewide organizations. Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Willson Peale, c. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Temperance may refer to: Temperance (virtue) Temperance movement Temperance (Tarot card) Temperance (band) See also Astrud Gilberto, for the album Temperance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ...


19th century

The prohibition or "dry" movement began in the 1840s, spearheaded by pietistic religious denominations, especially the Methodists. The late 1800s saw the temperance movement broaden its focus from abstinence to all behavior and institutions related to alcohol consumption. Preachers such as Reverend Mark A. Matthews linked liquor-dispensing saloons with prostitution. Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th century. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... This article is about Mark A. Matthews, Presbyterian Minister and Prohibitionist. ...


Some successes were registered in the 1850s, including Maine's total ban on the manufacture and sale of liquor, adopted in 1851. However, the movement soon lost strength, and prohibition was not a major political issue during the American Civil War (1861-1865). It revived in the 1880s, with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Prohibition Party. The Maine law, passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Womans Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is the oldest continuing non-sectarian womens organization in the U.S. and worldwide. ... National Prohibition Convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1892. ...


After the war, the Women's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1873. The organization did not promote moderation or temperance but rather prohibition. One of its methods to achieve that goal was education. It was believed that if it could "get to the children" it could create a dry sentiment leading to prohibition. As it turned out, nationwide Prohibition was enacted (by the 18th Amendment) before nationwide womens' suffrage was (by the 19th Amendment). The Womans Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is the oldest continuing non-sectarian womens organization in the US and worldwide. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives Amendment XIX (the Nineteenth Amendment) to the United States Constitution provides that neither the individual states of the United States nor its federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of the citizens sex. ...

"Who does not love wine, wife and song, will be a fool for his lifelong!" — a vigorous 1873 assertion of cultural values of German-American immigrants

In 1881, Kansas became the first state to outlaw alcoholic beverages in its Constitution, with Carrie Nation gaining notoriety for enforcing the provision herself by walking into saloons, scolding customers, and using her hatchet to destroy bottles of liquor. Other activists enforced the cause by entering saloons, singing, praying, and urging saloon keepers to stop selling alcohol.[4] Many other states, especially in the South, also enacted prohibition, along with many individual counties. Hostility to saloons and their political influence was characteristic of the Progressive Era. Supported by the anti-German mood of World War I, the Anti-Saloon League, through intense lobbying, pushed the Constitutional amendment through Congress and the states, and it went into effect in 1920. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (898x1272, 308 KB) A more natural phrasing in 21st-century English would be He who does not love wine, wife, and song will be a fool his whole life long. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (898x1272, 308 KB) A more natural phrasing in 21st-century English would be He who does not love wine, wife, and song will be a fool his whole life long. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Kansas Constitution was originally known as the Wyandotte Constitution to distinguish it from three proposed constitutions that preceded it. ... Temperance advocate Carrie Nation with her bible, and her hatchet. ... Historic Southern United States. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Anti-Saloon League was the leading organization lobbying for prohibition in the United States in the early 20th century. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Prohibition was an important force in state and local politics from the 1840s through the 1930s. The political forces involved were ethnoreligious in character, as demonstrated by numerous historical studies.[5] Prohibition was demanded by the "dries" -- primarily pietistic Protestant denominations, especially the Methodists, Northern Baptists, Southern Baptists, Presbyterians, Disciples, Congregationalists, Quakers, and Scandinavian Lutherans. They identified saloons as politically corrupt and drinking as a personal sin. They were opposed by the "wets" -- primarily liturgical Protestants (Episcopalians, German Lutherans) and Roman Catholics, who denounced the idea that the government should define morality.[6] Even in the wet stronghold of New York City there was an active prohibition movement, led by Norwegian church groups and African-American labor activists who believed that Prohibition would benefit workers, especially African-Americans. Tea merchants and soda fountain manufacturers generally supported Prohibition, thinking a ban on alcohol would increase sales of their products.[7] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Presbyterianism is a Christian denomination following Jesus which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...


National Prohibition

Main article: Volstead Act

National Prohibition was accomplished by means of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified January 16, 1919) and the Volstead Act (passed October 28, 1919). Prohibition began on January 16, 1920, when the Eighteenth Amendment went into effect. Federal Prohibition agents (police) were given the task of enforcing the law. Principal impetus for the accomplishment of Prohibition were members of the Republican Party, the Democratic Party, and the Prohibition Party. The main force for prohibition came from pietistic Protestants, who comprised majorities in the Republican party in the North, and the Democratic party in the South. Catholics and German-Americans were prohibition's main detractors; however, German-Americans were discredited by World War I, and their protests were ignored. The Volstead Act is the popular name for the National Prohibition Act (1919). ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Volstead Act is the popular name for the National Prohibition Act (1919). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... National Prohibition Convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1892. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


The 65th Congress met in 1917, and the Democratic dries outnumbered the wets by 140 to 64, while Republican dries outnumbered the wets 138 to 62. In the 1916 presidential election, both Democratic incumbent Woodrow Wilson and Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes ignored the Prohibition issue, as was the case with both parties' political platforms. Both Democrats and Republicans had strong wet and dry factions, and the election was expected to be close, with neither candidate wanting to alienate any part of their political base. The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ...


Although it was highly controversial, Prohibition was widely supported by diverse groups. Progressives believed that it would improve society and the Ku Klux Klan strongly supported its strict enforcement [2] as generally did women, southerners, those living in rural areas, and African-Americans. There were a few exceptions such as the Woman’s Organization for Prohibition Reform who fought against it. Will Rogers often joked about the southern pro-prohibitionists: "The South is dry and will vote dry. That is, everybody sober enough to stagger to the polls." Supporters of the Amendment soon became quite confident that it would not be repealed, to the point that one of its creators, Senator Morris Sheppard, joked that "there is as much chance of repealing the Eighteenth Amendment as there is for a humming-bird to fly to the planet Mars with the Washington Monument tied to its tail."[8] Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... William Penn Adair Rogers (November 4, 1879 – August 15, 1935) was a Cherokee-American cowboy, comedian, humorist, social commentator, vaudeville performer, and actor. ... John Morris Sheppard (May 28, 1875 - April 9, 1941) was a United States Congressman and a Senaor from Texas. ...


While the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol was illegal in the U.S., it was not illegal in surrounding countries. Distilleries and breweries in Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean flourished as their products were either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally imported to the U.S. Chicago became known notoriously as a haven for disobeying Prohibition during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Many of Chicago's most notorious gangsters, including Al Capone and his enemy Bugs Moran, made millions of dollars through illegal alcohol sales. By the end of the decade Capone controlled all 10,000 speakeasies in Chicago and ruled the bootlegging business from Canada to Florida. Numerous other crimes, including theft and murder, were directly linked to criminal activities in Chicago and elsewhere in violation of prohibition. Ironically, Capone's elder brother Vincenzo Capone worked as Revenuer in Nebraska. West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... For the film, see The Roaring Twenties. ... “Capone” redirects here. ... George Clarence Bugs Moran (August 21, 1891 – February 25, 1957) was a Chicago Prohibition-era gangster. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... James Vincenzo Capone, 1920. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ...


Repeal

Main article: Repeal of Prohibition

As Prohibition became increasingly unpopular, especially in the big cities, "Repeal" was eagerly anticipated. On March 23, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law an amendment to the Volstead Act known as the Cullen-Harrison Act, allowing the manufacture and sale of "3.2 beer" (3.2% alcohol by weight, approximately 4% alcohol by volume) and light wines. The original Volstead Act had defined "intoxicating beverage" as one with greater than 0.5% alcohol.[9] Upon signing the amendment, Roosevelt made his famous remark; "I think this would be a good time for a beer." The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed later in 1933 with ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, on December 5. In 1919, the requisite number of legislatures of the States ratified The 18th Amendment to the Federal Constitution, enabling national Prohibition within one year of ratification. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Amendment XXI in the National Archives The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Twenty-first Amendment explicitly gives states the right to restrict or ban the purchase or sale of alcohol; this has led to a patchwork of laws, in which alcohol may be legally sold in some but not all towns or counties within a particular state. After the repeal of the national constitutional amendment, some states continued to enforce prohibition laws. Mississippi, which had made alcohol illegal in 1907, was the last state to repeal Prohibition, in 1966. Kansas did not allow sale of liquor "by the drink" (on-premises) until 1987. There are numerous "dry" counties or towns where no liquor is sold, even though liquor can be brought in for private consumption. A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Many social problems have been attributed to the Prohibition era. A profitable, often violent, black market for alcohol flourished. Racketeering happened when powerful gangs corrupted law enforcement agencies. Stronger liquor surged in popularity because its potency made it more profitable to smuggle. The cost of enforcing Prohibition was high, and the lack of tax revenues on alcohol (some $500 million annually nationwide) affected government coffers. When repeal of Prohibition occurred in 1933, organized crime lost nearly all of its black market alcohol profits in most states (states still had the right to enforce their own laws concerning alcohol consumption), because of competition with low-priced alcohol sales at legal liquor stores. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


Prohibition had a notable effect on the alcohol brewing industry in the United States. When Prohibition ended, only half the breweries that had previously existed reopened. The post-Prohibition period saw the introduction of the American lager style of beer, which dominates today. Wine historians also note that Prohibition destroyed what was a fledgling wine industry in the United States. Productive wine quality grape vines were replaced by lower quality vines growing thicker skinned grapes that could be more easily transported. Much of the institutional knowledge was also lost as wine makers either emigrated to other wine producing countries or left the business altogether.[10] (North) American lagers, as defined by the Association of Brewers, are a family of very pale to golden colored beers with light body and low to medium bitterness. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ...


Despite the efforts of Heber J. Grant and the LDS Church, a Utah convention helped ratify the 21st Amendment.[11] While Utah can be considered the deciding 36th state to ratify the 21st Amendment and make it law, the day Utah passed the Amendment, both Pennsylvania and Ohio passed it as well. All 38 states that decided to hold conventions passed the Amendment, while only 36 states were needed (three fourths of the 48 that existed). So, even if Utah had not passed it, it would have become law. Heber Jeddy Grant (November 22, 1856 – May 14, 1945) was the seventh President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church; see also Mormonism). ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


At the end of Prohibition some supporters openly admitted its failure. A quote from a letter, written in 1932 by wealthy industrialist John D. Rockefeller, Jr., states:

When Prohibition was introduced, I hoped that it would be widely supported by public opinion and the day would soon come when the evil effects of alcohol would be recognized. I have slowly and reluctantly come to believe that this has not been the result. Instead, drinking has generally increased; the speakeasy has replaced the saloon; a vast army of lawbreakers has appeared; many of our best citizens have openly ignored Prohibition; respect for the law has been greatly lessened; and crime has increased to a level never seen before. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Portrayal in media

Literature

  • In F. Scott Fitzgerald's book The Great Gatsby, Tom Buchanan suspects Gatsby of making money by illegally selling alcohol.
  • In the Autobiography of Malcolm X, he tells of his stint working for a moonshiner on Long Island.
  • In Sinclair Lewis's Babbitt, the title character prides himself as a progressive who supports Prohibition, but does not follow it and drinks moderately.
  • D.J. MacHale's novel The Never War refers to Maximillian Rose, a gangster, who made millions by selling booze during Prohibition. Later, he made money selling bombs to the Germans during World War II.
  • Many of Dashiell Hammett's works (which occur between 1923-1934) contain casual references to the prohibition of alcohol. Hammett's detectives often come up against men who are, or have connections to, bootleggers of some form or another, and there are very few (if any) characters in Hammett's fiction that do not drink or purchase alcohol, in spite of Prohibition.

This article is about the novel. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1972 books | Books starting with A | Autobiographies ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Babbitt is a classic novel by the American novelist and playwright Sinclair Lewis, first published in 1922. ... The Never War is a book in the Pendragon series by D.J. MacHale. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ...

Film

  • The film The Untouchables chronicled the prohibition period, and the efforts of law enforcement during that period.
  • Once Upon a Time in America also depicted prohibition.
  • The sweep of politics from the Indian Wars, through World-War I and prohibition forms the basis of Legends of the Fall (1994), which also comments on the effects on Prohibition on the influence in politics and corruption in law enforcement during that period.
  • The Roaring Twenties, released in 1939 - one of only three films to feature both James Cagney and Humphrey Bogart.
  • The 1930 science fiction comedy, Just Imagine, depicted a 1980s America in which Prohibition was still in effect.
  • The comedy Some Like it Hot (1959), starring Marilyn Monroe, Tony Curtis and Jack Lemmon, was set during the Prohibition Era.
  • The 1932 movie Scarface was originally about a fictionalized Al Capone during the prohibition era, and his downfall.
  • The 2002 film Road to Perdition portrays the life of a gangster hit-man, Michael Sullivan, during the Prohibition Era.
  • The 1930 film Blotto Starring Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy was during the Prohibition Era and includes a Prohibition Theme.
  • The 1948 film Call Northside 777 Starring James stewart was investigating murder of Police Inspector Bundy on December 9, 1932 during the Prohibition.

The Untouchables is a 1987 film, directed by Brian De Palma, based on the 1959 ABC television series, which, in turn, was based on Eliot Nesss autobiographical account of his efforts to bring Al Capone to justice. ... Once Upon a Time in America (Italian title Cera una volta in America) is a 1984 crime film directed by Sergio Leone, starring Robert De Niro and James Woods. ... Legends of the Fall is a 1994 film based on the 1979 novella of the same title by Jim Harrison. ... The Roaring Twenties is a 1939 crime thriller starring James Cagney, Priscilla Lane & Humphrey Bogart. ... Just Imagine was a humorous science-fiction movie musical presented by 20th Century Fox in 1930, directed by David Butler, to console audiences distressed by the Great Depression. ... Some Like It Hot is a 1959 comedy film directed by Billy Wilder. ... Scarface (also known as Scarface, the Shame of the Nation and The Shame of a Nation) is a 1932 gangster film of the Pre-Code era which tells the story of gang warfare and police intervention when rival gangs fight over control of a city. ... Road to Perdition is a graphic novel written by Max Allan Collins and illustrated by Richard Piers Rayner that was made into a motion picture of the same name in 2002. ... This article or section should be merged with intoxication Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with alcohol (i. ... Call Northside 777 is a 1948 documentary-style drama film directed by Henry Hathaway. ...

Television

For other possible meanings, see Slider (disambiguation). ... The Untouchables is the name of a television series that ran from 1959 to 1963 on the American Broadcasting Company. ... Eliot Ness Eliot P. Ness (April 19, 1903 – May 16, 1957) was an American Prohibition agent, famous for his efforts to enforce Prohibition in Chicago, Illinois as the leader of a legendary team nicknamed The Untouchables. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Homer vs. ... Springfield is the fictional city in which the animated American sitcom The Simpsons is set. ... Animé redirects here. ... Serialized in Comic Dragon, Dragon Age Original run November 1998 – 2004 No. ...

See also

For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ... This list of alcohol laws of the United States by state provides an overview of alcohol-related laws by state throughout the United States. ... The American Whiskey Trail[1] is a cultural heritage and tourism initiative of the Distilled Spirits Council in cooperation with historic Mount Vernon. ... The Bureau of Prohibition (or Prohibition Unit) was the federal law enforcement agency formed to enforce the National Prohibition Act of 1919, commonly known as the Volstead Act, which backed up the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution regarding the prohibition of the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic... Jesus making wine in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th century fresco from the Visoki Dečani monastery. ... The legal drinking age is a limit assigned by governments to restrict the access of children and youth to alcoholic beverages. ... As increasing numbers of people became disillusioned with the negative effects of national prohibition in the United States, a variety of repeal organizations emerged. ... Rum-running is the business of smuggling or transporting of alcoholic beverages illegally, usually to circumvent taxation or prohibition. ... The Webb-Kenyon Act was passed by the United States Congress in 1913 to enable states to enforce their individual alcohol prohibition laws within their borders. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). War, Peace, and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press, 16-20. 
  2. ^ Blue, Anthony Dias (2004). The Complete Book of Spirits : A Guide to Their History, Production, and Enjoyment. HarperCollins, p. 73. ISBN 0-06-054218-7. 
  3. ^ Aaron, Paul, and Musto, David. Temperance and Prohibition in America: An Historical Overview. In: Moore, Mark H., and Gerstein, Dean R. (eds.) Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. pp. 127-181.
  4. ^ www.kshs.org/exhibits/carry/carry1.htm.
  5. ^ Paul Kleppner, The Third Electoral System 1853�"1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures. (1979) pp 131-39; Paul Kleppner, Continuity and Change in Electoral Politics, 1893�"1928. (1987); Ballard Campbell, "Did Democracy Work? Prohibition in Late Nineteenth-century Iowa: a Test Case." Journal of Interdisciplinary History (1977) 8(1): 87-116; and Eileen McDonagh, "Representative Democracy and State Building in the Progressive Era." American Political Science Review 1992 86(4): 938-950.
  6. ^ Jensen (1971) ch 5.
  7. ^ Lerner (2007)
  8. ^ Kyvig, David E: "Women Against Prohibition." American Quarterly. 28, no. 4(Autumn, 1976), 465-482.
  9. ^ "Beer: A History of Brewing in Chicago", Bob Skilnik, Baracade Books, 2006 and The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, [1]
  10. ^ For a discussion of the long term effect of Prohibition on the US wine industry, see Karen MacNeil, The Wine Bible, pp 630-631.
  11. ^ Reeve, W. Paul, "Prohibition Failed to Stop the Liquor Flow in Utah". Utah History to Go. (First published in History Blazer, February 1995)

HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ...

References

  • Kingsdale, Jon M. "The 'Poor Man's Club': Social Functions of the Urban Working-Class Saloon," American Quarterly vol. 25 (October, 1973): 472-89.
  • Kyvig; David E. Law, Alcohol, and Order: Perspectives on National Prohibition Greenwood Press, 1985.
  • Mark Lender, editor, Dictionary of American Temperance Biography Greenwood Press, 1984
  • Lerner, Michael A. Dry Manhattan: Prohibition in New York City, Harvard University Press, 2007.
  • Miron, Jeffrey A. and Jeffrey Zwiebel. “Alcohol Consumption During Prohibition.” American Economic Review 81, no. 2 (1991): 242-247.
  • Miron, Jeffrey A. "Alcohol Prohibition" Eh.Net Encyclopedia (2005) online
  • Moore, L.J. Historical interpretation of the 1920s Klan: the traditional view and the popular revision. Journal of Social History, 1990, 24 (2), 341-358.
  • Sellman; James Clyde. "Social Movements and the Symbolism of Public Demonstrations: The 1874 Women's Crusade and German Resistance in Richmond, Indiana" Journal of Social History. Volume: 32. Issue: 3. 1999. pp 557+.
  • Rumbarger; John J. Profits, Power, and Prohibition: Alcohol Reform and the Industrializing of America, 1800–1930, State University of New York Press, 1989.
  • Sinclair; Andrew. Prohibition: The Era of Excess 1962.
  • Timberlake, James. Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900–1920 Harvard University Press, 1963.
  • Tracy, Sarah W. and Caroline Jean Acker; Altering American Consciousness: The History of Alcohol and Drug Use in the United States, 1800–2000. University of Massachusetts Press, 2004
  • Victor A. Walsh, "'Drowning the Shamrock': Drink, Teetotalism and the Irish Catholics of Gilded-Age Pittsburgh," Journal of American Ethnic History vol. 10, no. 1-2 (Fall 1990-Winter 1991): 60-79.
  • Hakim, Joy (1995). War, Peace, and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press, 25-28. 

American Quarterly (sometimes abbreviated AQ), is an academic journal and the official publication of the American Studies Association. ... Greenwood Press, based in Connecticut, is an imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group and owned by Reed Elsevier. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The American Economic Review (AER) is a quarterly journal of economics published by the American Economic Association. ... The Journal of Social History, was founded in 1967 and covers social history in all regions and time periods. ... The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), founded in 1966, is a university press that is part of State University of New York system. ... The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

External links

Economic history is the study of economic change, and of economic phenomena in the past. ... The Alcohol and Drugs History Society is a scholarly organization whose members study the history of a variety of illegal, regulated, and unregulated drugs such as opium, alcohol, and coffee. ... Harry Browne (17 June 1933 – 1 March 2006) was an American libertarian writer, politician, and free-market investment analyst. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... American history redirects here. ... This is a timeline of United States history. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For colonies not part of the 13 colonies see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquisitions within the continental United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Peoples Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11 2001. ... For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ... // 2000 282,338,631 2010 309,162,581 2020 336,031,546 2030 363,811,435 2040 392,172,658 2050 420,080,587 2060 450,505,985 2070 480,568,004 2080 511,442,859 2090 540,405,985 2100 571,440,474 The US population in 1900 was... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... theSeparation of powers is a political doctrine under which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are kept distinct, to prevent abuse of power. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... “NSA” redirects here. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Union Jack. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... Political Compass. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The list of mountains of the United States shows the location of mountains in a given state. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... USD redirects here. ... This is a list of companies from the United States: #Current companies #Former companies, including acquired and merged ones #By industry #By location #See also Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... The Fed redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. ... Population of the United States, 1790 to 2000 The demographics of the United States depict a largely urban nation, with 57 percent of its population living in places more than 100 miles away from the ocean (2003). ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was also known as the New Negro Movement, named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 37 of the 50 states of the United States, as well as by the federal government and the military. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... The Statue of Liberty. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ...

 
 

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