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Encyclopedia > Prohibition

The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. The term also applies to the periods in the histories of the countries during which the prohibition was enforced. Usually the term as referred to a historical period is applied to countries of European culture. In the Muslim World, consumption of alcoholic beverages is sometimes forbidden according to Islamic Law. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


In the early t h of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from Protestant wariness of alcohol. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of alcoholic beverages in several countries:

Contents

Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The Small Protected By The Great) Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th - Total 5... Prohibition in Russian Empire and Soviet Union existed during 1914-1925. ...

United States

See Prohibition in the United States. Prohibition In the United States (1920-1933) was the era during which the United States Constitution outlawed the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages. ...


Nordic countries

The Nordic countries, with the exception of Denmark, have had a long temperance tradition. Prohibition was enforced in Iceland from 1915 to 1922 (with beer prohibited until 1989), in Norway from 1916 to 1927 and in Finland between 1919 and 1932. Sweden utilized a rationing system (Brattsystemet or "motboken") between 1914 and 1955; a referendum on total prohibition held in 1922 failed. Alcohol was still prohibited in the Faroe Islands until 1992. Nordic countries today, with the exception of Denmark, strictly control the sale of alcohol. There are government monopolies in place for selling liquors, wine and stronger beers to consumers, in Norway (Vinmonopolet), Sweden (Systembolaget), Iceland (Vínbúðin) and Finland (Alko). Corporations, like bars and restaurants, may import alcoholic beverages directly or through other companies. The temperance movement in Scandinavia (parts of which are affiliated with the International Organisation of Good Templars), which advocates strict government regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol, have seen a decline in membership numbers and activity during the past decades but are now on the rise again, in example Swedish IOGT-NTO having a net gain of 12,500 members in 2005. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... A referendum on prohibition of alcohol was held in Sweden on the 27 of August, 1922. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with alcoholic beverage control state. ... Vinmonopolet (Lit. ... Systembolaget (colloquially known as systemet or bolaget, the literal English translation would be The System Company) is a government owned chain of liquor stores in Sweden. ... Vínbúð is a chain of 46 stores run by the Icelandic alcohol & tobacco monopoly - ÁTVR, locally called “ríkið” which litterally means “The State”. It is the only place on Iceland where it is possible to buy alcohol legally. ... Alko is the national alcoholic beverage retailing monopoly in Finland. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... IOGT INTERNATIONAL is an organisation of men and women of all ages who promote the ideals of temperance, peace and brotherhood. ... The International Organisation of Good Templars (formerly known as the International Order of Good Templars and the Independent Order of Good Templars) describe themselves as the largest international non-governmental organisation working in the field of temperance. Their base is in Sweden, a country which has had very strict alcohol...


See also alcoholic beverages in Sweden. Absolut Vodka, the most successful product of government-owned manufacturer Vin&Sprit. ...


Russia and Soviet Union

In the Russian Empire, a variant of the Dry Law was introduced in 1914. It continued through the turmoil of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War into the period of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union until 1925. Prohibition in Russian Empire and Soviet Union existed during 1914-1925. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ...


Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia

Saudi Arabia completely bans the production, importation or consumption of alcohol and imposes strict penalties on those violating the ban, including weeks to months of imprisonment, and possible lashes, as does Kuwait. While this is Saudi Arabia's official position, there is widespread violation of the law by Saudi citizens rich enough to flout the law. There are also establishments in the country where pork can be purchased, as well as alcohol. During the Gulf War in 1991, the Coalition banned its troops in Saudi Arabia from drinking alcohol in order to show respect for local beliefs. Two halves of pork being delivered Pork is the culinary name for meat from pigs. ...


Qatar bans the importation of alcohol and it is a punishable offense to drink alcohol or be drunk in public. Offenders may incur a prison sentence or deportation. Alcohol is, however, available at licensed hotel restaurants and bars, and expatriates living in Qatar can obtain alcohol on a permit system.


The United Arab Emirates restricts the purchase of alcohol from a liquor store to non-Muslim foreigners who have UAE residence permits and who have an Interior Ministry liquor license. However bars, clubs, and other establishments with liquor licenses do not face the same restrictions. Alcohol was first permitted in Bahrain, known to be the most progressive Gulf state and the earliest to prosper, popular with those crossing the causeway from Saudi Arabia. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Iran began restricting alcohol consumption and production soon after the 1979 Revolution, with harsh penalties meted out for violations of the law. However, officially recognized non-Muslim minorities are allowed to produce wine for their own private consumption and for religious rites such as the Eucharist. 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Alcohol was banned in Afghanistan during the rule of the Taliban. In the wake of the ousting from power of the Taliban, the ban was lifted for foreigners, who can buy alcohol in certain shops on presentation of their passport to prove they are foreigners. For the position of women during the Talibans rule, see Taliban treatment of women. ...


Libya bans the import, sale and consumption of alcohol, with heavy penalties for offenders. Tunisia has a selective ban on alcohol products other than wine, with consumption and sale being allowed in special zones or bars "for tourists" and in big cities [1]. Wine, however, is widely available. Morocco prohibits the sale of alcohol during Ramadan [2] The fourth pillar of Islam, which is fasting, is practiced during the month of Ramadan. ...


Sudan has banned all alcohol consumption and extends serious penalties to offenders.[citation needed]


South Asia

Some states of India are dry, for example the states of Gujarat and Mizoram. Certain national holidays such as Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti (birthdate of Mahatma Gandhi) are meant to be dry nationally. The state of Andhra Pradesh had imposed Prohibition under the Chief Ministership of N.T.Rama Rao but this was thereafter lifted. , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... Gandhi, taken in 1931. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhÄ«, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... , Andhra Pradesh  : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in southern India. ...


Pakistan allowed the free sale and consumption of alcohol for three decades from 1947, but restrictions were introduced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto just weeks before he was removed as prime minister in 1977. Since then, only members of non-Muslim minorities such as Hindus, Christians and Zoroastrians are allowed to apply for permits for alcohol. The monthly quota depends on their income but is usually about five bottles of liquor or 100 bottles of beer. In a country of 140 million, only about 60 outlets are allowed to sell alcohol and has only one legal brewery, Murree Brewery in Rawalpindi. Enforced by the country's Islamic Ideology Council, the ban is strictly policed. However, members of religious minorities often sell their liquor permits to Muslims and a black market trade in alcohol continues. [1] Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Makers of Pakistans Premier beer brand, Murree Beer. ... Rawalpindi (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ...


Bangladesh has also imposed prohibition, though some hotels and restaurants are licensed to sell alcohol to foreigners. Foreigners (but not locals) are allowed to import small quantities of alcohol for personal use.


The Maldives ban the import of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are available only to foreign tourists on resort islands and may not be taken off the resort. The Republic of Maldives is a country consisting territorially of a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ...


Southeast Asia

Thailand bans the selling of alcohol during the afternoon to prevent schoolkids from buying alcohol. The electronic cashiers of supermarkets and convenience stores are programmed to not accept alcoholic beverage during this time.


Australia

The first consignment of liquor for Canberra, following the repeal of prohibition laws in 1928.

Alcohol is prohibited in many remote indigenous communities across Australia. Penalties for transporting alcohol into these "dry" communities are severe and can result in confiscation of any vehicles involved; in dry areas within the Northern Territory, all vehicles used to transport alcohol are seized and there is no right of appeal. Image File history File linksMetadata Prohibition_lifted_in_Canberra_1928. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Prohibition_lifted_in_Canberra_1928. ... Indigenous Australians or Aborigines[1][2] are the first human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ... Capital Darwin Government Const. ...


There have been various places proclaimed alcohol free in the past, including Australia's capital city, Canberra, which was dry from 1910 to 1928. The politician King O'Malley ran legislation through Federal Parliament in Melbourne at the time the capital territory was established. When Federal Parliament moved from Melbourne to Canberra in 1927, one of the first pieces of legislation passed in the new Parliament House was the repeal of O'Malley's prohibition laws. For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... King OMalley King OMalley (July 1858 - 20 December 1953), Australian politician, was one of the more colourful characters of the early federal period of Australian political history. ...


A number of Melbourne's suburbs had a long running prohibition on the sale (though not consumption) of alcohol. One or two still exist, including the Camberwell region of Boroondara. Ascot Vale was founded as a dry suburb, but hotels were soon built at the outside corners of the settlement. Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ...


Similarly, the irrigation settlement of Mildura was also founded with a prohibition on the sale of alcohol in 1887. This was inaugurated by its founders, the Chaffey brothers. However, the brothers also operated a winery, even producing fortified wine. Alcohol was readily available from nearby Wentworth however, and the ban was eventually lifted. Mildura is a city in Victoria, Australia. ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... Wentworth is a small town in the far south west of New South Wales, Australia. ...


Brunei

Non-Muslims may bring small quantities of alcohol into Brunei for personal consumption.


Further reading

  • Susanna Barrows, Robin Room, and Jeffrey Verhey (eds.), The Social History of Alcohol: Drinking and Culture in Modern Society (Berkeley, Calif: Alcohol Research Group, 1987)
  • Susanna Barrows and Robin Room (eds.), Drinking: Behavior and Belief in Modern History University of California Press, 1991
  • Jack S. Blocker, David M. Fahey, and Ian R. Tyrrell eds. Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia 2 Vol. (2003)
  • JS Blocker, Jr. "Did prohibition really work? Alcohol prohibition as a public health innovation." Am J Public Health. 2006 Feb;96(2):233-43. Epub 2005 Dec 27.
  • Ernest Cherrington, ed., Standard Encyclopaedia of the Alcohol Problem 6 volumes (1925-1930), comprehensive international coverage to late 1920s
  • Jessie Forsyth Collected Writings of Jessie Forsyth 1847-1937: The Good Templars and Temperance Reform on Three Continents ed by David M. Fahey (1988)
  • Gefou-Madianou. Alcohol, Gender and Culture (European Association of Social Anthropologists) (1992)
  • Dwight B. Heath, ed; International Handbook on Alcohol and Culture Greenwood Press, 1995
  • Patricia Herlihy; The Alcoholic Empire: Vodka & Politics in Late Imperial Russia Oxford University Press, 2002
  • Sulkunen, Irma. History of the Finnish Temperance Movement: Temperance As a Civic Religion (1991)
  • Tyrrell, Ian; Woman's World/Woman's Empire: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union in International Perspective, 1880-1930 U of North Carolina Press, 1991
  • White, Helene R. (ed.), Society, Culture and Drinking Patterns Reexamined (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1991).
  • White, Stephen.Russia Goes Dry: Alcohol, State and Society (1995)
  • Robert S. Walker and Samuel C. Patterson, OKLAHOMA GOES WET: THE REPEAL OF PROHIBITION (McGraw-Hill Book Co. Eagleton Institute Rutgers University 1960).
  • Samuel C. Patterson and Robert S. Walker, "The Political Attitudes of Oklahoma Newspapers Editors: The Prohibition Issue," The Southwestern Social Science Quarterly 1961.

See also

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... Prohibition In the United States (1920-1933) was the era during which the United States Constitution outlawed the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages. ... Shine Road The name tells the history of this back road in Hemingway, South Carolina Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or before Moonshine (sometimes known as Poitín, mooney, moon, creek water, hooch, Portuguese grape juice, white lightning, and many others) is a common slang... // A go-fast is the preferred boat of many smugglers. ... Rum-running is the business of smuggling or transporting of alcoholic beverages illegally, usually to circumvent taxation or prohibition. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ...

External links


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