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Encyclopedia > Progressivism
Part of the Politics series on
Progressivism
Schools

American Progressivism
New Deal liberalism
Educational progressivism
Progressive libertarianism
For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... In the United States the term progressivism refers to two political movements: first, the original political progressive movement towards social and economic reform of the late 1800s and early 1900s; and second, the continuation of this movement/ideology in the form of modern progressivism which sees itself as a reform... Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... Educational progressivists believe that education must be based on the fact that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. ... Progressive Libertarianism is a political or philosophy whose adherents promote social change through voluntarism rather than government laws and regulation. ...

Ideas

Democracy
Freedom
Positive liberty
Women's suffrage
Economic progressivism
Economic intervention
Mixed economy
Social justice
Worker rights
Welfare of Society
Social progressivism
Conservation
Efficiency
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Economic Progressivism is a political Economic Ideology. ... Statism is a term to describe an economic system where a government implements a significant degree of centralized economic planning or intervention, as opposed to a system where the overwhelming majority of economic planning occurs at a decentralized level by private individuals in a relatively free market. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... Social progressivism is the view that as time progresses, society should disgregard morality in place of political correctness. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... The Efficiency Movement was a major dimension of the Progressive Era in the United States. ...

Programs

The Square Deal
The New Nationalism
The New Freedom
The New Deal
The Fair Deal
The New Frontier
The Great Society The Square Deal (1904) was the term used by Theodore Roosevelt and his associates for the domestic policies of his administration, particularly with regard to economic policies, such as enforcement. ... New Nationalism was Theodore Roosevelts Progressive political philosophy during the 1912 election. ... The New Freedom policy of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... In United States history, the Fair Deal was U.S. President Harry S Trumans policy of social improvement, outlined in his 1949 State of the Union Address to Congress on January 5, 1949. ... The term New Frontier was used by John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in 1960 to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic nominee and was used as a label for his administrations domestic and foreign programs. ... The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. ...

Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of international social and political philosophies. The term progressive was first widely used in late 19th century America, in reference to a general branch of political thought which arose as a response to the vast changes brought by industrialization, and as an alternative both to the traditional conservative response to social and economic issues and to the various more or less radical streams of socialism and anarchism which opposed them. Political parties such as the American Progressive Party organized at the start of the 20th century, and progressivism made great strides under American presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William H. Taft, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt.[1] Progressivism may refer to: Any political movement (especially, but not exclusively, of the left-wing) which favours social reform, such as liberalism, social democracy or green politics or alliance thereof. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Progressive Party 1912 (United States) was a political party created by a split in the Republicans Party in the 1912 election. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... William Howard Taft I (September 15, 1857–March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913), and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921 - 1930). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ...


Progressivism historically advocates the advancement of workers' rights and social justice. The progressives were early proponents of anti-trust laws and the regulation of large corporations and monopolies, as well as government-funded environmentalism and the creation of National Parks and Wildlife Refuges. A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... This article is about the economic term. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... This article is about national parks. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ...

Contents

Tenets

Most of the principles that were laid out by early progressives continue to be the hallmarks of contemporary progressive politics. While the precise criteria for what constitutes progressivism varies somewhat worldwide, below is a list of the most common tenets.[2]


Democracy

Many progressives hoped to make government in the U.S. more responsive to the direct voice of the American people by instituting the following institutional reforms:

Ballot initiative
A procedure whereby citizens could vote directly on whether to approve proposed laws.
Initiative
A procedure whereby ordinary citizens could propose laws for consideration by their state legislatures or by the voters directly.
Direct primary
A procedure whereby political party nominations for public office were made directly by a vote of rank-and-file members of the party rather than by party bosses.
Direct election of U.S. Senators
A procedure to allow the citizens in each state to directly elect their Senators. Previously, Senators were chosen by the state legislatures. Direct election of Senators was achieved with the addition of the Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1913).
Referendum
A procedure whereby citizens could vote directly to rescind a law which was passed by the legislature.
Recall
A procedure by which a public official could be removed from office by a direct vote of the citizens.
Secret ballot
A procedure by which citizens could keep their votes secret. Previously, voting was a public act witnessed by others. The voting records of individual citizens were recorded and made public. Many progressives argued that public voting allowed for voter intimidation. An employer, for instance, might require his employees to vote for certain candidates on pain of losing their jobs.
Women's suffrage
Granting to women the right to vote. Women's suffrage was achieved with the addition of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920).

The progressives achieved their greatest and most enduring successes in the effort to make governments more democratic. initiative, see Initiative (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... A primary election is an election in which registered voters in a jurisdiction select the candidates who will enter a subsequent election (nominating primary). ... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Amendment XVII in the National Archives Amendment XVII (the Seventeenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the Senate on June 12, 1911 and by the House on May 13, 1912. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The term recall has a number of meanings: Product recall A recall election Recall to employment after a layoff Recall from memory. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Amendment XIX (the Nineteenth Amendment) to the United States Constitution grants voting rights regardless of the voters sex: The amendment prohibits both the federal government and the states from using a persons sex as a qualification to vote; it was specifically intended to extend suffrage to women. ...


Efficiency

Many progressives hoped to make American governments better able to serve the people's needs by making governmental operations and services more efficient and rational. Reforms included:

Professional administrators
Many progressives argued that governments would function better if they were placed under the direction of trained, professional administrators. One example of progressive reform was the rise of the city manager system, in which paid, professional administrators ran the day-to-day affairs of city governments under guidelines established by elected city councils.
Centralization of decision-making process
Many progressives sought to make government more rational through centralized decision-making. Governments were reorganized to reduce the number of officials and to eliminate overlapping areas of authority between departments. City governments were reorganized to reduce the power of local wards within the city and to increase the powers of the city council. Governments at every level began developing budgets to help them plan their expenditures (rather than spending money haphazardly as needs arose and revenue became available). The drive for centralization was often associated with the rise of professional administrators.
Movements to eliminate governmental corruption
Corruption represented a source of waste and inefficiency in government. Many progressives worked to clean up local governments by eliminating the power of machine politicians and urban political bosses. Often this was associated with the effort to restructure the ward system. Power was transferred from urban bosses to professional administrators.

The progressives' quest for efficiency was sometimes at odds with the progressives' quest for democracy. Taking power out of the hands of elected officials and placing that power in the hands of professional administrators reduced the voice of the people in government. Centralized decision-making and reduced power for local wards made government more distant and isolated from the people it served. Progressives who emphasized the need for efficiency sometimes argued that an elite class of administrators knew better what the people needed than did the people themselves. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The council-manager government is one of 2 main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ... In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods...


Regulation of large corporations and monopolies

Many progressives hoped that by regulating large corporations they could liberate human energies from the restrictions imposed by industrial capitalism. Yet the progressive movement was split over which of the following four solutions should be used to regulate corporations: For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...

Trust-busting
Some progressives argued that industrial monopolies were unnatural economic institutions which suppressed the competition which was necessary for progress and improvement. The federal government should intervene by breaking up monopolies into smaller companies, thereby restoring competition. The government should then withdraw and allow marketplace forces once again to regulate the economy. President Woodrow Wilson supported this idea.
Regulation
Some progressives argued that in a modern economy, large corporations and even monopolies were both inevitable and desirable. With their massive resources and economies of scale, large corporations offered the U.S. advantages which smaller companies could not offer. Yet, these large corporations might abuse their great power. The federal government should allow these companies to exist but regulate them for the public interest. President Theodore Roosevelt generally supported this idea.
Socialism
Some progressives believed that privately owned companies could never be made to serve the public interest. Therefore, the federal government should acquire ownership of large corporations and operate them for the public interest.
Laissez-Faire
Some progressives argued that marketplace forces were the best regulators. A company which paid low wages or maintained an unsafe work environment would be forced to change its policies by the loss of workers. A company which made an unsafe product would eventually lose customers and go bankrupt. In the long run, a free market would best protect the public interest.

The laissez-faire and socialist approaches were less popular among American progressives than the trust-busting and regulatory approaches. Trust-busting refers to government activities designed to break up trusts or monopolies. ... A federal government is the common government of a federation. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


Social justice

Author Gary Sauer-Thompson argues that contemporary progressives see a flexible, open market economy supported by strong public services as the best means to achieving social justice. In common with the liberal tradition, modern progressivism aspires to a society that is also open – economically, intellectual and culturally – in which individuals and their families can progress on the basis of their aspirations and hard work, and are not held back by family background or circumstance.[3]


Many progressives have supported both private and governmental action to help people in need (social justice). Social justice reforms have included: Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ...

Development of professional social workers
The idea that welfare and charity work should be undertaken by professionals who are trained to do the job.
The building of Settlement Houses
These were residential, community centers operated by social workers and volunteers and located in inner city slums. The purpose of the settlement houses was to raise the standard of living of urbanites by providing schools, day care centers, and cultural enrichment programs.
The enactment of child labor laws
Child labor laws were designed to prevent the overworking of children in the newly emerging industries. The goal of these laws was to give working-class children the opportunity to go to school and to mature more naturally, thereby liberating the potential of humanity and encouraging the advancement of humanity.
Support for the goals of organized labor
Progressives often supported such goals as the eight-hour work day, improved safety and health conditions in factories, workers compensation laws, minimum wage laws, and unionization.
Prohibition laws
Some of the progressives adopted the cause of prohibition. They claimed the consumption of alcohol limited mankind's potential for advancement. Progressives achieved success in this area with the enactment of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1919.

A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ... Welfare has several meanings: Welfare, the good fortune, health, happiness, prosperity, etc. ... The settlement movement started in London. ... Slums in Delhi, India. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Day care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the childs parents or legal guardians, often someone outside the childs immediate family. ... is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ... Statue of a coal miner in Charleston, WV, USA. Working class is a term used in academic sociology and in ordinary conversation. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... Workers compensation programs and laws exist to protect employees who are injured while on the job. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... Salting is the preparation of food with salt. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ...

Environmentalism

During the term of the progressive Republican President Theodore Roosevelt (1901 – 1909), the largest government-funded environmentalism-related projects in U.S. history were undertaken:

National parks and wildlife refuges
On March 14, 1903, President Roosevelt created the first National Bird Preserve, (the beginning of the Wildlife Refuge system), on Pelican Island, Florida. In all, by 1909, the Roosevelt administration had created an unprecedented 42 million acres (170,000 km²) of national forests, 53 national wildlife refuges and 18 areas of "special interest", including the Grand Canyon.

In addition, Roosevelt passed the Newland Act of 1902, which gave subsidies for irrigation in sixteen western states. Another conservation-oriented bill was the Antiquities Act of 1906 that protected large areas of land. The Inland Waterways Commission was established in 1907 to control the United States' rivers and streams.[4] is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... This article is about the canyon in the southwestern United States. ... The Antiquities Act of 1906 is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt giving the President of the United States authority to place certain lands under control of the federal government by executive order, bypassing Congressional oversight. ...


Worldwide impact

Americas

Canada

Western Canada at the turn of the 20th century began to receive an influx of radical political ideas. From the United States came progressivism. The Progressive Party of Canada was founded in 1920 by Thomas Crerar, a former Minister of Agriculture in the Unionist government of Robert Borden. Crerar quit the Borden cabinet in 1919 because Minister of Finance Thomas White introduced a budget that did not pay sufficient attention to farmers' issues. Crerar became the first leader of the Progressive Party, and led it to win 65 seats in the 1921 general election. The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Thomas Alexander Crerar (June 17, 1876-April 11, 1975) was a western Canadian politician and a leader of the short lived Progressive Party of Canada. ... In the Cabinet of Canada, The Minister of Agriculture is responsible for overseeing the federal governments agriculture department, currently known as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. ... The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by Members of Parliament (MPs) in Canada who supported the Union government formed by Sir Robert Borden during World War I. In May 1917, Conservative Prime Minister Borden proposed the formation of a national unity government or coalition government to Liberal leader Sir... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC, DCL, LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1921 election The Canadian federal election of 1921 was held on December 6, 1921 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


Dating back to 1854, Canada's oldest political party was the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, until it was dissolved in 2003. The PC Party generally followed a centre-right agenda, with conservative pro-business policies, but was progressive in its opposition to the Apartheid regime of South Africa and support for the introduction of the Canadian Bill of Rights and the Ontario Code of Human Rights. The PC party adopted the "Progressive Conservative" party name in 1942 when Manitoba Premier John Bracken, a long-time leader of that province's Progressive Party, agreed to become leader of the Conservatives on condition that the party add Progressive to its name. Despite the name change, most former Progressive supporters continued to support the Liberal Party or the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. After defeat and scandal plagued the PCs in the election of 1993, they lost their position as Canada's main conservative party to the populist and social conservative Reform Party of Canada. In 2003, Canada's oldest political party was dissolved along with the much larger Canadian Alliance (which had been formed by the Reform Party in 1999) to create the new Conservative Party of Canada. The Progressive Canadian Party, composed mostly of anti-merger Progressive Conservatives, was formed several months prior to the 2004 general election. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote political parties or organizations (such as think tanks) that stretch from the centre to the right on the left-right spectrum, excluding far right stances. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... John Diefenbaker holds the Bill of Rights The Canadian Bill of Rights is a federal statute and bill of rights enacted by Prime Minister John Diefenbakers government on August 10, 1960. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... The Honourable Professor John Bracken, PC (June 22, 1883-March 18, 1969) was an agronomist, Premier of Manitoba (1922-1943) and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1942-1948). ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... The 1993 Canadian federal election, which took place on October 25th, 1993, was one of the most eventful in Canadian history. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party that existed from 1987 to 2000. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Progressive Canadian Party (PC Party) is a minor federal political party in Canada. ... The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...

United States 

Progressive political parties were created in the United States on three different occasions. The first of these - the Progressive Party, founded in 1912 by President Theodore Roosevelt - was the most successful third party in modern American history. The other two were the Progressive Party founded in 1924 and the Progressive Party founded in 1948, which were less successful. In the United States the term progressivism refers to two political movements: first, the original political progressive movement towards social and economic reform of the late 1800s and early 1900s; and second, the continuation of this movement/ideology in the form of modern progressivism which sees itself as a reform... Progressive Party 1912 (United States) was a political party created by a split in the Republicans Party in the 1912 election. ... Progressive Party 1924 (United States) was a national ticket created by Robert LaFollette, Sr. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1948 was a new political party that ran Henry A. Wallace for president in 1948. ...


From the New Deal to the 1960s, the progressive movement was largely subsumed into modern American liberalism. After the 1960s, however, progressives grew increasingly unhappy with the direction of the liberal movement and the leadership of the Democratic Party. On the one hand, progressives agreed with many of the concerns of the New Left, such as environmental conservation. On the other hand, they preserved their commitment to the original progressive issues, such as workers' rights, which liberals grew less interested in. And finally, progressives also began advocating entirely new ideas - for example electoral reform (including proportional representation) and campaign finance reform. As many American progressives felt disenfranchised from the contemporary American liberal movement, they sought to establish their own separate political organizations. One prominent example is the Vermont Progressive Party. The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... Modern American liberalism is a form of liberalism that began in America in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Conservation may refer to the following: Politics and policy Ethical Conservation, Moral or legislative progress toward freedom through advanced conduct - socially, fiscally or otherwise; based on governments and ideas Conservation movement, movement seeking to protect plant and animal species as well as the habitats they live in Conservation ethic in... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... Electoral reform projects seek to change the way that public desires are reflected in elections through electoral systems. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... The Vermont Progressive Party is perhaps the United States most consistently successful current third party, although it is active in only one state. ...


Asia

While the term "progressive" is not as popular in most parts of Asia as it is in North America and Europe, there are political parties and organizations that advocate for many of the tenets of progressivism, such as the Progressive Writers' Movement. The Anjuman Tarraqi Pasand Mussanafin-e-Hind or Progressive Writers Movement was a literary movement in the pre-partition British India, which came into existence in 1936. ...

China 

In the People's Republic of China (PRC), individuals are elected to government via a series of indirect elections in which one people's congress appoints the members of the next higher congress, and in which only the lowest people's congresses are subject to direct popular vote. This means that although independent members can theoretically, and occasionally in practice, get elected to the lowest level of people's congresses, it is impossible for them to organize to elect members to the next higher people's congress without the approval of the ruling party, or to even exercise oversight over executive positions at the lowest level in the hierarchy. This lack of effective power also discourages outsiders from contesting the people's congress elections even at the lowest level. As well, control is often maintained over the civilian population through regulation of information, propaganda and censorship (see Propaganda in the People's Republic of China). These aspects of China's government run counter to many of the fundamental tenets of progressivism, and thus there is no major contemporary progressive party in power there.[5] In 1998, Chinese activists formed the Chinese Democracy Party which advocated for progressive government reforms. Since then, founding members of the party, such as Zha Jianguo, have been rounded up and imprisoned by the Chinese government for allegedly "subverting the state".[6] For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Chinese poster saying: Chairman Mao is the Red sun in our hearts. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

India 

In India there are a large number of political parties which exist on either a state-wide or national basis. The United Progressive Alliance, as the current ruling political alliance in India, comprises leftist political parties which lean towards socialism and/or communism. Thus, the definition of "progressivism" may be interpreted differently in India, as communism was not a branch of thought that played any major role in the original western progressive movement. The alliance is externally supported (supporters are not part of the government) by the four main leftist parties; Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, Revolutionary Socialist Party and All India Forward Bloc. In order to coordinate the cooperation, a UPA-Left Coordination Committee has been formed. The Indian National Congress is currently the chief member of the United Progressive Alliance coalition. United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... Party flag Announcement of the 17th RSP National Conference in Pondicherry RSP-UTUC flagpole in Allepey, Kerala RSP poster in Kerala, honouring historical RSP leader T.K. Divakaran RSP mural in Agartala RSP election propaganda in Amarpur, Tripura Revolutionary Socialist Party is a Marxist-Leninist political party in India. ... The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ...


Europe

Republic of Ireland
Main article: Progressive Democrats

In 1985, the Progressive Democrats was founded in the Republic of Ireland. It adopts liberal positions on both economic issues and social or moral matters. The Progressive Democrats (Irish An Páirtí Daonlathach, lit. ... The Progressive Democrats (Irish An Páirtí Daonlathach, lit. ...


Pacific

Australia 

In the past few years in Australia, the term "progressive" has been used to refer to what used to be called "The Third Way". The term is popular in Australia, and is often used in place of "social liberal". The term "liberalism" has become associated with free markets, small government, and personal freedom; in other words "classical liberalism". Progressivism, however, means in part advocating big government that does not involve central planning.[7] Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam...

New Zealand 

The current Prime Minister of New Zealand - Helen Clark, leader of the Labour Party - announced in 2005 that she had come to a complex arrangement that led to a formal coalition consisting of the Labour Party and Jim Anderton, the New Zealand Progressive Party's MP. A further arrangement has been made with the Green Party, which has given a commitment not to vote against the government on confidence and supply. James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Progressive Party is a political party in New Zealand. ...


Jim Anderton formed the Progressive Party after splitting from the Alliance Party. The Progressive Party states a particular focus on the creation of jobs, and has said that it is committed to achieving full employment. They seek to raise the legal age of alcohol consumption to 20. They are pro-environment, and list free education and free healthcare as other policy objectives.[8] James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... Current Alliance logo The Alliance, when referring to New Zealand politics, refers to a left-wing political party. ...


The Progressive Green Party was formed in 1995 but has now disbanded. Progressive Greens logo The Progressive Green Party was an environmentalist political party in New Zealand. ...


Relation to other political ideologies

Liberalism

The term "progressive" is today often used in place of "liberal". Although the two are related in some ways, they are separate and distinct political ideologies. According to John Halpin, senior advisor on the staff of the Center for American Progress, "Progressivism is an orientation towards politics, It's not a long-standing ideology like liberalism, but an historically-grounded concept... that accepts the world as dynamic." Progressives see progressivism as an attitude towards the world of politics that is broader than conservatism vs. liberalism, and as an attempt to break free from what they consider to be a false and divisive dichotomy.[9][10] Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The Center for American Progress is a progressive American political policy research and advocacy organization. ...


Liberalism is ultimately founded on a concept of natural rights and civil liberties, and the belief that the major purpose of the government is to protect those rights. Liberals are often called "left-wing", as opposed to "right-wing" conservatives. The progressive school, as a unique branch of contemporary political thought, tends to advocate certain center-left or left-wing views that may conflict with mainstream liberal views, despite the fact that modern liberalism and progressivism may still both support many of the same policies (such as the concept of war as a general last resort). For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


American progressives tend to support interventionist economics: they advocate income redistribution, and they oppose the growing influence of corporations. Conversely, European and Australian progressives tend to be more pro-business, and will often have policies that are soft on taxation of large corporations. Progressives are in agreement on an international scale with left-liberalism in that they support organized labor and trade unions, they usually wish to introduce a living wage, and they often support the creation of a universal health care system. Yet progressives tend to be more concerned with environmentalism than mainstream liberals, and are often more skeptical of the government, positioning themselves as whistleblowers and advocates of governmental reform. Finally, liberals are more likely to support the Democratic Party in America and the Labour party in Europe and Australia, while progressives tend to feel disillusioned with any two-party system, and vote more often for third-party candidates. Income redistribution, or the redistribution of wealth, is a political policy usually promoted by members of the political left, and opposed, or less strongly supported, by members of the political right. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... Living wage refers to the minimum hourly wage necessary for a person to achieve a basic standard of living. ... Universal health care is a situation in which all residents of a geographic or political region have access to most types of health care. ... A whistleblower is someone in an organization who witnesses behavior by members that is either contrary to the mission of the organization, or threatening to the public interest, and who decides to speak out publicly about it. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ...


Libertarianism

Libertarians do not advocate social change per se but rather support a hands-off approach to government, advocating that people form voluntary associations with other, like-minded people to influence the direction of society. For other uses, see Libertarianism (disambiguation). ...


Some libertarians also argue that attempts to produce social justice are inherently flawed. For example, Brink Lindsey, an economist working with the Cato Institute, argues in favor of free market capitalism and claims that progressive economic policies (such as minimum wages, most social safety nets, and trade barriers) help to increase unemployment among the poor and unskilled, as well as increase costs for all members of society. Brink Lindsey is Cato Institutes vice president for research. ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... A trade barrier is general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade, the barriers can take many forms, including: Import duties Import licenses Export licenses Quotas Tariffs Subsidies Non-tariff barriers to trade Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some...


Conservatism

Conservatives, by default, advocate established traditions and social stability. They are skeptical of notions of "progress" and social change -- in any direction -- believing that it is best to retain social relations that have been proven stable by past experience. Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ...


Conservative economist Bruce Bartlett believes that today's conservatives have forgotten that big business is often the enemy of free markets. He argues that big business seeks special privileges from the state to protect their market, create new demands for their product, or make the taxpayers subsidize their operating costs. Therefore, the trust-busting and anti-monopoly policies of progressivism serve to help the marketplace.[11] Bruce Bartlett (b. ...


Socialism

Socialism (in the strict or radical sense) aims to establish a fundamentally different society from the one that currently exists in most countries. While there are different schools of socialism, which often tend to have differing views of the ideal socialist society, some general examples of socialist concepts are: The desire to abolish capitalism, to place the means of production under the collective ownership of the people, and to achieve a very high degree of economic and political equality. Socialists argue that capitalism exploits the working class, and they desire for workers to play a vital role in moving society from capitalism to socialism (either by rising up in a revolution or general strike, or by voting en masse for socialist political parties). Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ... Exploitation means many different things. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... A communist revolution is a social revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, normally with socialism (public ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ...


In contrast, by definition progressivism aims to achieve gradual social change, and most progressives are outright opposed to any form of radical revolution. When the progressive movement split on economic principles, some progressives moved towards the socialist camp, advocating a planned economy. Other progressives moved towards the regulated mixed economy camp, with both public and private ownership of companies. Between these two extremes is social democracy (not a term in popular U.S. usage), a branch of socialism that became increasingly moderate and moved towards the political center. Regulated-capitalism progressives and socialist progressives still tend to support similar progressive social policies, outside of economic principles. This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ...


However, the relationship between progressivism and socialism as described here has often been a tense one. An example of this tension can be seen in the conflict between the Progressive Party of Theodore Roosevelt and the Socialist Party of Eugene V. Debs in the United States. The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ...


List of progressive advocates

Laura Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement and the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Eric Alterman is a liberal American journalist, author, media critic, blogger, and educator, possibly best known for the political weblog named Altercation, which was hosted by MSNBC.com from 2002 until 2006, and now is hosted by Media Matters for America. ... Ross C. Rocky Anderson (born September 9, 1951) is the current mayor of Salt Lake City, Utah. ... Susan Brownell Anthony (February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was a prominent, independent and well-educated American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century womens rights movement to secure womens suffrage in the United States. ... Ray Stannard Baker Ray Stannard Baker (April 17, 1870–July 12, 1946), American journalist and author, was born in Lansing, Michigan. ... William Edgar Borah (NSHC statue) William Edgar Borah (June 29, 1865 – January 19, 1940) was an American politician. ... Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. ... Alan Brinkley is the Allan Nevins Professor of History at Columbia University. ... Sherrod Campbell Brown (born November 9, 1952) is the Democratic Junior United States Senator from the state of Ohio. ... Peter Miguel Camejo Peter Miguel Camejo (born December 31, 1939) is an American financier, businessman, political activist, author, and one of the founders of the socially responsible investment movement. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... This article is about the economist and senator; Paul Douglas. ... Theodore Dreiser, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1933 Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (August 27, 1871 – December 28, 1945) was an American naturalist author known for dealing with the gritty reality of life. ... Barbara Ehrenreich (born August 26, 1941, in Butte, Montana) is a prominent liberal American writer, columnist, feminist, socialist and political activist. ... Russell Dana Russ Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Thomas Frank Thomas Frank (born 1965) is an American author who writes about what he calls cultural politics. He is the founder and editor of The Baffler and the author of several books, most recently Whats the Matter with Kansas?. Other writings include essays for Harpers Magazine, Le... Alan Stuart Al Franken (born May 21, 1951) is an Emmy Award–winning American comedian, actor, author, screenwriter, political commentator, radio host and, recently, politician. ... Amy Goodman on Democracy Now! Amy Goodman b. ... David Goodman may refer to: David Goodman, Mother Jones magazine reporter and brother of journalist Amy Goodman. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Tom Hayden outside the 2004 Democratic National Convention Thomas Emmett Tom Hayden (born December 11, 1939) is an American social and political activist and politician, most famous for his involvement in the anti-war and civil rights movements of the 1960s. ... Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ... Alfie Kohn is an American lecturer and author in the fields of education, psychology and parenting, residing in Belmont, Massachusetts. ... Dennis John Kucinich (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... William Wild Bill Langer (September 30, 1886–November 8, 1959) was a prominent American politician from North Dakota. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... Robert McChesney is a media critic, academic, and activist. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ... David McReynolds David McReynolds (born October 25, 1929) is an American socialist politician. ... Wayne Lyman Morse (October 20, 1900 – July 22, 1974) was a United States Senator from Oregon from 1945 to 1969. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... George William Norris (July 11, 1861 - September 2, 1944) was a U.S. political figure. ... John Bertram Oakes (b. ... Floyd Björnstjerne Olson (November 13, 1891–August 22, 1936) American politician. ... Greg Palast is a New York Times-bestselling author[1] and a journalist for the British Broadcasting Corporation[2] as well as the British newspaper The Observer. ... Christian Parenti is an American investigative journalist who has written extensively about the United States prison industry. ... John Pilger John Pilger (born October 9, 1939) is an Australian journalist and documentary filmmaker from Sydney, primarily based in London, UK. // Life and career Pilgers career in journalism began in 1958, and he has developed his reputation through both his reporting and the various books and documentary films... Walter Rauschenbusch (October 4, 1861-1918) was a progressive American Baptist minister, known as a leader in the social gospel movement. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt known as Eleanor (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her influence as an active First Lady from 1933 to 1945 to promote the New Deal policies of her husband, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as taking a prominent... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Bernard Bernie Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is the current big willy floppah junior United States Senator from big blob of brown poo Vermont. ... Margaret Higgins Sanger (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist, an advocate of negative eugenics, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). ... Upton Sinclair Jr. ... Norman Solomon (1952 - ) is a Jewish American journalist and antiwar activist from Maryland who writes frequently about media and politics. ... Springsteen redirects here. ... Elizabeth Cady Stanton, (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902), was an American social activist and leading figure of the early womans movement . ... Eric Parker is the most amazing kid alive and he will go on the win a national title at SYracuse University--71. ... William Howard Taft I (September 15, 1857–March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913), and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921 - 1930). ... Ida M. Tarbell, 1904 Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857–January 6, 1944) was a teacher, an author and journalist. ... Glen Hearst Taylor (April 12, 1904 - April 28, 1984) was a United States Senator from Idaho and the vice presidential candidate on the Progressive Party ticket in the 1948 election. ... Thorstein Bunde Veblen (born Tosten Bunde Veblen July 30, 1857 – August 3, 1929) was a Norwegian-American sociologist and economist and a founder, along with John R. Commons, of the Institutional economics movement. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Please choose between: James Allen Ward (1919-1941), New Zealand pilot and war hero, awarded the Victoria Cross. ... Ida Wells-Barnett Ida B. Wells, (Holly Springs, Mississippi, July 16, 1862 – Chicago, Illinois, March 25, 1931), later known as Ida Wells-Barnett and Ida B. Wells-Barnett, was an African American civil rights advocate and womens rights activist. ... Paul David Wellstone (July 21, 1944 – October 25, 2002) was an American politician and two-term U.S. Senator from Minnesota. ... credited to the United States Senate Historical Office Burton Kendall Wheeler (February 27, 1882 – January 6, 1975) was a Montana politician of the Democratic Party and a United States Senator from 1923 until 1947. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ...

See also

The following is a list of progressive organizations; that is, organizations which promote progressive political and/or social values. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Progressivism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  2. ^ Progressivism 1900 - 1920. Georgetown College. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  3. ^ Progressivism + Liberalism. Gary Sauer-Thompson 3-19-07.. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  4. ^ "Conservationist - Life of Theodore Roosevelt". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  5. ^ Boum, Aomar (1999). Journal of Political Ecology: Case Studies in History and Society. Retrieved April 18, 2006.
  6. ^ Zha, Jianying "Enemy of the State", "The New Yorker" (April 23, 2007)
  7. ^ Gary Sauer-Thompson weblog 3-17-07
  8. ^ Policies. New Zealand Progressive Party. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  9. ^ "What Is Progressivism?". Andrew Garib. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  10. ^ "Progressive versus Liberal". Untergeek.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  11. ^ Bravo Bruce Bartlett. Lew Rockwell 2007.. Retrieved on 2007-03-22.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Tindall, George and Shi, David E.. America: A Narrative History. W W Norton & Co Inc (Np); Full Sixth edition, 2003. ISBN 0-393-92426-2
  • Lakoff, George. Don't Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. Chelsea Green Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-931498-71-7
  • Kelleher, William J.. Progressive Logic: Framing A Unified Field Theory of Values For Progressives. The Empathic Science Institute, 2005. ISBN 0-9773717-1-9
  • Link, Arthur S. and McCormick, Richard L.. Progressivism (American History Series). Harlan Davidson, 1983. ISBN 0-88295-814-3
  • Kloppenberg, James T.. Uncertain Victory: Social Democracy and Progressivism in European and American Thought, 1870-1920. Oxford University Press, USA, 1988. ISBN 0-19-505304-4

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dr. Kelleher was granted his Ph. ... Arthur S. Link was a leading American historian. ... Richard Levis McCormick (born 26 December 1947 in New Brunswick, New Jersey) is a historian, professor and university administrator currently serving as the nineteenth president of Rutgers University. ...

External links

  • A list of popular Progressive websites - From CommonDreams.org
  • American Progressivism and Reform - online article from Encarta
  • Air America Radio - Liberal radio network
  • American Prospect - Progressive magazine and non-profit think-tank
  • Breaking News & Commentary for the Progressive Community
  • Campaign for America's Future A progressive non-profit thinktank
  • Center for American Progress - A progressive think tank in Washington, DC
  • New Progressive Coalition - Wiring progressive politics, for investors, entrepreneurs, and organizations
  • Rockridge Institute - Think-tank dedicated to better presenting progressive ideas
  • Roosevelt Institution Progressive student think tank
  • "What Is Progressive?", AlterNet opinion piece, July 25th 2005
  • IMC, the Independent Media Center
  • University of Montevallo Progressive Alliance - Progressive Students
  • Third Coast Press- Progressive Chicago media outlet

  Results from FactBites:
 
progressivism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (726 words)
Progressivism began in the cities, where the problems were most acute.
Urban reformers were often frustrated, however, because state legislatures, controlled by railroads and large corporations, obstructed the municipal struggle for home rule.
Its legacy endured, however, in the political reforms that it achieved and the acceptance that it won for the principle of government regulation of business.
What is Progressivism? (930 words)
Progressivism is a political movement that represents the interests of ordinary people in their roles as taxpayers, consumers, employees, citizens, and parents.
In general Progressivism stands most truly at the opposite pole from economic elitism, and has enjoyed its greatest support and successes precisely when the injustice, exploitation, arrogance, and greed of economic elites become intolerable — to both liberals and conservatives alike.
This study emphasizes the connection between Progressivism, core American values, and the difficulties confronting attempts to bring those values to bear on politics in the face of a recalcitrant and corrupting business sector.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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