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Encyclopedia > Progressive Party (United States, 1912)
Progressive Party
Founder(s) Theodore Roosevelt
Founded 1912
Disbanded 1916
Political ideology Progressivism

The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. It was formed by Theodore Roosevelt when he lost the Republican nomination to Taft and pulled his delegates out of the convention. When reporters suggested that he was no longer fit for the office, he retorted that he was "fit as a buff man" (giving the party its nickname), and he called his own convention and nominated a national ticket with California Governor Hiram Johnson as his vice-presidential running mate. State parties also nominated slates in most northern states. Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In the United States the term progressivism refers to two political movements: first, the original political progressive movement towards social and economic reform of the late 1800s and early 1900s; and second, the continuation of this movement/ideology in the form of modern progressivism which sees itself as a reform... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a chaired professor at Yale Law... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Hiram Johnson Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866 – August 6, 1945) was a leading American progressive politician from California; he served as Governor from 1911 to 1917, and as a United States Senator from 1917 to 1945. ...


The great majority of Republican governors, congressmen, editors and local leaders refused to join the new party, even if they had supported Roosevelt before. Johnson, the Vice-Presidential nominee, who had been elected Governor in California in 1910, remained a member of the Republican Party because his supporters took control of the GOP in California. However, many independent reformers signed up. Two important activists were Gifford Pinchot and his brother Amos Pinchot. The Progressive Party also endorsed a number of sympathetic candidates from the Republican and Democratic parties in state and federal elections from 1912 to 1916. Gifford Pinchot Gifford Bryce Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ... Pinchot battled Perkins (who controlled the money) for control of the Progressive party Amos Pinchot (1872-1944) was an American political leader of the early 20th century. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ...


Only five of the 15 most prominent progressive Republicans in the Senate endorsed the new party and Roosevelt's candidacy for President; three came out for Wilson. Many of Roosevelt's closest political allies supported Taft, including his son-in-law, Nicholas Longworth. Roosevelt's daughter Alice Roosevelt Longworth stuck with her father, causing a permanent chill in her marriage. For men like Longworth, expecting a future in politics, bolting the Republican party ticket was simply too radical a step. Progressives who did not aspire to elective office often went with Woodrow Wilson. Cover of Time Magazine (March 9, 1925) Nicholas Longworth (November 5, 1869-April 9, 1931) was a prominent American politician in the Republican Party during the first third of the 20th century. ... Alice Roosevelt, taken about 1900. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson, PhD (December 28, 1856 - February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ...

pro-Roosevelt cartoon contrast the Republican Party bosses in back row and Progressive party reformers in front
pro-Roosevelt cartoon contrast the Republican Party bosses in back row and Progressive party reformers in front

The party was funded by publisher Frank A. Munsey and its executive secretary George W. Perkins, a leading financier. The platform called for women's suffrage, recall of judicial decisions, easier amendment of the U.S. Constitution, social welfare legislation for women and children, workers' compensation, limited injunctions in strikes, farm relief, revision of banking to assure an elastic currency, required health insurance in industry, new inheritance taxes and income taxes, improvement of inland waterways, and limitation of naval armaments. Pacifist Jane Addams, a leading supporter, was stunned to discover she had to endorse a platform that called for the building of two new battleships a year. Perkins, a board member of U.S. Steel, was blamed for blocking an anti-trust plank, thus shocking reformers like Gifford Pinchot who saw Roosevelt as a true trust-buster. The result was a deep split in the new party that was never resolved. Roosevelt's philosophy for the Progressive Party was based around New Nationalism, which was the belief in a strong government to regulate industry and protect the middle and working classes. New Nationalism was paternalistic in direct contrast to Woodrow Wilson's individualistic philosophy of "New Freedom". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (852x612, 83 KB) Summary 1912 US cartoon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (852x612, 83 KB) Summary 1912 US cartoon. ... Frank Andrew Munsey (21 August 1854 – 22 December 1925) was an American newspaper and magazine publisher and author. ... George Walbridge Perkins, Sr. ... The movement for womens suffrage is a social, economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage—the right to vote—to women. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... ... Workers compensation systems (colloquially known as workers comp in North American English or compo in Australian English) provides compensation for employees who are injured in the course of employment. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income of persons, corporations, or other legal entities. ... Jane Addams Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) won the Nobel Peace Prize and was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement. ... The United States Steel Corporation NYSE: X is an integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States and Central Europe. ... Gifford Pinchot Gifford Bryce Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ... In a speech in Osawatomie, Kansas, in August 1910, Theodore Roosevelt made the case for what he called the New Nationalism. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson, PhD (December 28, 1856 - February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ...

 Roosevelt concocted a heady brew in 1912 speeches
Roosevelt concocted a heady brew in 1912 speeches

Roosevelt had the satisfaction of outpolling Taft in the popular vote and by a large margin of 88–8 in the electoral vote, but the split engendered in the Republican vote allowed Woodrow Wilson to win the presidency. Some historians argue that even without the split, Wilson would have won (as he did in 1916). The Progressive party did poorly in the 1914 elections and faded away. Most members, including Roosevelt returned to the Republican Party after the Republicans nominated the more progressively-minded Charles Evans Hughes for President in 1916. From 1916 to 1932 the Taft wing controlled the Republican party and refused to nominate any prominent 1912 Progressives to the Republican national ticket. Finally, Frank Knox was nominated for Vice President in 1936. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1005x927, 169 KB) Summary US editorial cartoon 1912 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1005x927, 169 KB) Summary US editorial cartoon 1912 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ...


Historians speculate that if the Bull Moose Party had run only the Roosevelt presidential ticket, it might have attracted many more Republicans willing to split their ballot. But the progressive movement was strongest at the state level, and, therefore, the new party had to field candidates for governor and state legislature. In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the local Republican boss, at odds with state party leaders, joined Roosevelt's cause. Nickname: Steel City, Iron City, City of Champions, City of Bridges, City of Colleges, P-Burgh, The Burgh Motto: Benigno Numine Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Allegheny County Founded 1758 Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area    - City 151. ...


The central problem faced by Progressive Party was that the Democrats were more united and optimistic than they had been in decades. The Bull Moosers fancied they had a chance to elect Roosevelt by drawing out progressive elements from both the Republican and Democratic parties. That dream evaporated in July, when the Democrats nominated their most articulate and prominent progressive, Woodrow Wilson. As a leading educator and political scientist, he qualified as the ideal "expert" to handle affairs of state. At least half the nation's independent progressives flocked to Wilson's camp, both because of Wilson's policies and the expectation of victory. Roosevelt haters, such as LaFollette, also voted for Wilson instead of wasting their vote on Taft who could never win.[1] The most serious problem faced by Roosevelt's third party was money. The business interests who usually funded Republican campaigns distrusted Roosevelt and either did not vote or supported Taft. Lacking a strong party press, the Bull Moosers had to spend most of their money on publicity.


Roosevelt failed to move the political system in his direction. He did win 4.1 million votes (27%), compared to Taft's 3.5 million (23%). However, Wilson's 6.3 million votes (42%) were enough to garner 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt had only 88 electoral votes; Pennsylvania was his only Eastern state; in the Midwest he carried Michigan, Minnesota and South Dakota; in the West, California and Washington; in the South, he did not win any states. Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... “Washington State” redirects here. ...


The Democrats gained ten seats in the Senate, just enough to form a majority, and 63 new House seats to solidify their control there. Progressive statewide candidates trailed about 20% behind Roosevelt's vote. Almost all of the Progressive candidates, including Albert Beveridge of Indiana, went down to defeat; the only governor elected was Hiram Johnson, who ran on the regular Republican Party ticket. Only seventeen Bull Moosers were elected to Congress, and perhaps 250 to local office. Outside California, there was no real base to the party beyond the personality of Roosevelt himself. Albert Jeremiah Beveridge ( October 6, 1862 – April 27, 1927 ) was an historian and United States Senator from Indiana. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ...


Roosevelt had scored a second-place finish, but he trailed so far behind Wilson that everyone realized his party would never win the White House. With the poor performance at state and local levels in 1912, the steady defection of top supporters, the failure to attract any new support, and a pathetic showing in 1914, the Bull Moose party disintegrated. Some leaders, such as Harold Ickes of Chicago, supported Wilson in 1916. Most followed Roosevelt back into the Republican Party, which in 1916 nominated Charles Evans Hughes. The ironies were many: Taft had been Roosevelt's hand-picked successor in 1908 and the split between the two men was ideological. No compromise was possible on issues like the independence of the judiciary. Roosevelt's schism allowed the conservatives to gain control of the Republican party and left Roosevelt and his followers drifting in the wilderness for decades. Harold Ickes may refer to one of two American political figures, father and son: Harold L. Ickes: United States Secretary of the Interior in Franklin D. Roosevelts administration. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ...


Robert LaFollette broke bitterly with Roosevelt in 1912, but he ran for President on his own ticket in 1924, also named the Progressive Party. Robert M. La Follette can refer to two United States politicians. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1924 was a national ticket created by Robert M. La Follette, Sr. ...

Contents

Office holders from the Progressive Party

The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... “Washington State” redirects here. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... NY redirects here. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... John Morton Eshleman (June 14, 1876-February 28, 1916) was an American lawyer and California politician who was that states twenty-sixth lieutenant governor from 1915 to 1916. ... This a List of Lieutenant Governors of the State of California, 1850-present. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... “Washington State” redirects here. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866–August 6, 1945) was a leading American Progressive politician from California; he served as Governor from 1911-1917, and as a United States Senator from 1917-1945. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Melville Clyde Kelly (August 4, 1883 – April 29, 1935) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... William MacDonald is an icecream. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city Baton Rouge [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Miles Poindexter Miles Poindexter was an American politician. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... “Washington State” redirects here. ... William Dennison Stephens (b. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Henry Wilson Temple (March 31, 1864–January 11, 1955) was a Progressive and a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...

See also

The United States Progressive Party of 1924 was a national ticket created by Robert M. La Follette, Sr. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1948 was a political party that ran former Vice President Henry A. Wallace of Iowa for president and U.S. Senator Glen H. Taylor of Idaho for vice president in 1948. ...

References

  • Benjamin P. De Witt, The Progressive Movement (1915)
  • Howland, Harold (July 2001). Theodore Roosevelt and His Times,a Chronicle of the Progressive Movement (TXT, ZIP). Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  • George E. Mowry, Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement (1946)
  • John A. Gable, The Bullmoose Years: Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Party (1978).
  • Jensen, Richard. "Theodore Roosevelt: 1912" in Encyclopedia of Third Parties (M E Sharpe, 2000)

Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ...

External link

  • TeddyRoosevelt.com: Bull Moose Information
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The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party is a one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Democratic Party. ... In United States politics, the Green Party has been active as a third party since the 1980s. ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded in 1971. ... United States Peace and Freedom Party logo The Peace and Freedom Party (PFP) is a United States political party founded in 1967 as a leftist organization opposed to the Vietnam War. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 who said Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics – as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues – and... The Socialist Party USA (SP USA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ... The Socialist Workers Party is a communist political party in the United States. ... The Vermont Progressive Party is perhaps the United States most consistently successful current third party, although it is active in only one state. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s. ... Farmer-Labor Party was a political party of Minnesota. ... The Federalist Party was an American political party during the First Party System, in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... -1... The Non-Partisan League was a political organization that was founded in 1915 in the United States by socialist A. C. Townley. ... The Populist Party (also known as the Peoples Party) was a short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. ... The name Progressive Party has been assigned to a collection of parties in the United States over the past century or so. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... The Dixiecrats were a white supremacist splinter-party of the Democratic Party in the mid-20th century who were determined to protect what they saw as the southern way of life against an oppressive United States federal government. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      This list of political parties in the United States contains past and present political parties in... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of contemporary international social and political philosophies. ...

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