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Encyclopedia > Programming language

A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages, like human languages, are defined through the use of syntactic and semantic rules, to determine structure and meaning respectively. An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... Look up control in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the machine. ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ...


Programming languages are used to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information, and to express algorithms precisely. Some authors restrict the term "programming language" to those languages that can express all possible algorithms;[1] sometimes the term "computer language" is used for more limited artificial languages. In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... The term computer language is a more expansive and alternate term for the more commonly-used term programming language. ...


Thousands of different programming languages[2] have been created, and new languages are created every year. The list of programming languages consists of all notable programming languages in existence, currently or since the dawn of computing, in alphabetical order. ...

Contents

Definitions

Traits often considered important when deciding whether a language is a programming language:

  • Target: Programming languages differ from natural languages in that natural languages are only used for interaction between people, while programming languages also allow humans to communicate instructions to machines. Some programming languages are used by one device to control another. For example PostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a computer printer or display.

Non-computational languages, such as markup languages like HTML or formal grammars like BNF, are usually not considered programming languages. Often a programming language is embedded in the non-computational (host) language. A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... This article is about the machine. ... Look up computation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies]]. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies]]. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to... A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... In computer science control flow (or alternatively, flow of control) refers to the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative or functional program are executed or evaluated. ... The theory of computation is the branch of computer science that deals with whether and how efficiently problems can be solved on a computer. ... The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... In computability theory a programming language or any other logical system is called Turing-complete if it has a computational power equivalent to a universal Turing machine. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... SQL (IPA: or IPA: ), commonly expanded as Structured Query Language, is a computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database management systems, database schema creation and modification, and database object access control management. ... Charity is a purely functional experimental programming language, developed at Calgary. ... A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ... The Backus–Naur form (also known as BNF, the Backus–Naur formalism, Backus normal form, or Panini–Backus Form) is a metasyntax used to express context-free grammars: that is, a formal way to describe formal languages. ...


Purpose

A prominent purpose of programming languages is to provide instructions to a computer. As such, programming languages differ from most other forms of human expression in that they require a greater degree of precision and completeness. When using a natural language to communicate with other people, human authors and speakers can be ambiguous and make small errors, and still expect their intent to be understood. However, computers do exactly what they are told to do, and cannot understand the code the programmer "intended" to write. The combination of the language definition, the program, and the program's inputs must fully specify the external behavior that occurs when the program is executed. A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ...


Many languages have been designed from scratch, altered to meet new needs, combined with other languages, and eventually fallen into disuse. Although there have been attempts to design one "universal" computer language that serves all purposes, all of them have failed to be accepted in this role.[7] The need for diverse computer languages arises from the diversity of contexts in which languages are used:

  • Programs range from tiny scripts written by individual hobbyists to huge systems written by hundreds of programmers.
  • Programmers range in expertise from novices who need simplicity above all else, to experts who may be comfortable with considerable complexity.
  • Programs must balance speed, size, and simplicity on systems ranging from microcontrollers to supercomputers.
  • Programs may be written once and not change for generations, or they may undergo nearly constant modification.
  • Finally, programmers may simply differ in their tastes: they may be accustomed to discussing problems and expressing them in a particular language.

One common trend in the development of programming languages has been to add more ability to solve problems using a higher level of abstraction. The earliest programming languages were tied very closely to the underlying hardware of the computer. As new programming languages have developed, features have been added that let programmers express ideas that are more removed from simple translation into underlying hardware instructions. Because programmers are less tied to the needs of the computer, their programs can do more computing with less effort from the programmer. This lets them write more programs in the same amount of time.[8] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... A supercomputer is a computer that led the world (or was close to doing so) in terms of processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation, at the time of its introduction. ... In computer science, abstraction is a mechanism and practice to reduce and factor out details so that one can focus on a few concepts at a time. ...


Natural language processors have been proposed as a way to eliminate the need for a specialized language for programming. However, this goal remains distant and its benefits are open to debate. Edsger Dijkstra took the position that the use of a formal language is essential to prevent the introduction of meaningless constructs, and dismissed natural language programming as "foolish."[9] Alan Perlis was similarly dismissive of the idea.[10] Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. ... Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (Rotterdam, May 11, 1930 – Nuenen, August 6, 2002; IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ... Alan Jay Perlis (April 1, 1922 - February 7, 1990) was a prominent U.S. computer scientist. ...


Elements

Syntax

Parse tree of Python code with inset tokenization
Syntax highlighting is often used to aid programmers in the recognition of elements of source code. The language you see here is Python

A programming language's surface form is known as its syntax. Most programming languages are purely textual; they use sequences of text including words, numbers, and punctuation, much like written natural languages. On the other hand, there are some programming languages which are more graphical in nature, using spatial relationships between symbols to specify a program. Image File history File links Python_add5_parse. ... Image File history File links Python_add5_parse. ... A parse tree or concrete syntax tree is a tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some formal grammar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... HTML syntax highlighting Syntax highlighting is a feature of some text editors that displays text—especially source code—in different colors and fonts according to the category of terms. ... Python is a high-level programming language first released by Guido van Rossum in 1991. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Visual Programming in Mindscript A Visual programming language (VPL) is any programming language that lets users specify programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. ...


The syntax of a language describes the possible combinations of symbols that form a syntactically correct program. The meaning given to a combination of symbols is handled by semantics. Since most languages are textual, this article discusses textual syntax.


Programming language syntax is usually defined using a combination of regular expressions (for lexical structure) and Backus-Naur Form (for grammatical structure). Below is a simple grammar, based on Lisp: In computing, a regular expression is a string that is used to describe or match a set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. ... In computer science, lexical analysis is the process of converting a sequence of characters into a sequence of tokens. ... The Backus-Naur form (BNF) (also known as Backus normal form) is a metasyntax used to express context-free grammars: that is, a formal way to describe formal languages. ... In linguistics and computer science, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a formal grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a nonterminal symbol and w is a string consisting of terminals and/or non-terminals. ... Lisp is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive fully-parenthesized syntax. ...


expression ::= atom | list
atom  ::= number | symbol
number  ::= [+-]?['0'-'9']+
symbol  ::= ['A'-'Z''a'-'z'].*
list  ::= '(' expression* ')'


This grammar specifies the following:

  • an expression is either an atom or a list;
  • an atom is either a number or a symbol;
  • a number is an unbroken sequence of one or more decimal digits, optionally preceded by a plus or minus sign;
  • a symbol is a letter followed by zero or more of any characters (excluding whitespace); and
  • a list is a matched pair of parentheses, with zero or more expressions inside it.

The following are examples of well-formed token sequences in this grammar: '12345', '()', '(a b c232 (1))'


Not all syntactically correct programs are semantically correct. Many syntactically correct programs are nonetheless ill-formed, per the language's rules; and may (depending on the language specification and the soundness of the implementation) result in an error on translation or execution. In some cases, such programs may exhibit undefined behavior. Even when a program is well-defined within a language, it may still have a meaning that is not intended by the person who wrote it. In computer science, undefined behavior is a feature of some programming languages — most famously C. In these languages, to simplify the specification and allow some flexibility in implementation, the specification leaves the results of certain operations specifically undefined. ...


Using natural language as an example, it may not be possible to assign a meaning to a grammatically correct sentence or the sentence may be false: The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ...

  • "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously." is grammatically well-formed but has no generally accepted meaning.
  • "John is a married bachelor." is grammatically well-formed but expresses a meaning that cannot be true.

The following C language fragment is syntactically correct, but performs an operation that is not semantically defined (because p is a null pointer, the operations p->real and p->im have no meaning): Approximate X-Bar representation of Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. ... In the C Programming Language, a null pointer is a special pointer which is guaranteed to compare unequal to a pointer to any object or function. ...

 complex *p = NULL; complex abs_p = sqrt (p->real * p->real + p->im * p->im); 

The grammar needed to specify a programming language can be classified by its position in the Chomsky hierarchy. The syntax of most programming languages can be specified using a Type-2 grammar, ie, they are context-free grammars.[11] The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. ... In linguistics and computer science, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a formal grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a nonterminal symbol and w is a string consisting of terminals and/or non-terminals. ...


Type system

For more details on this topic, see Type system.
For more details on this topic, see Type safety.

A type system defines how a programming language classifies values and expressions into types, how it can manipulate those types and how they interact. This generally includes a description of the data structures that can be constructed in the language. The design and study of type systems using formal mathematics is known as type theory. In computer science, a type system defines how a programming language classifies values and expressions into types, how it can manipulate those types and how they interact. ... In computer science, a programming language is type safe when the language does not permit the programmer to treat a value as a type to which it does not belong. ... A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... At the broadest level, type theory is the branch of mathematics and logic that first creates a hierarchy of types, then assigns each mathematical (and possibly other) entity to a type. ...


Internally, all data in modern digital computers are stored simply as zeros or ones (binary). The data typically represent information in the real world such as names, bank accounts and measurements, so the low-level binary data are organized by programming languages into these high-level concepts as data types. There are also more abstract types whose purpose is just to warn the programmer about semantically meaningless statements or verify safety properties of programs. For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... A data type is a constraint placed upon the interpretation of data in a type system in computer programming. ...


Most languages can be classified with respect to their type systems, though some such as Visual Basic allow the programmer to choose the system employed.


Typed vs untyped languages

A language is typed if operations defined for one data type cannot be performed on values of another data type.[12] For example, "this text between the quotes" is a string. In most programming languages, dividing a number by a string has no meaning. Most modern programming languages will therefore reject any program attempting to perform such an operation. In some languages, the meaningless operation will be detected when the program is compiled ("static" type checking), and rejected by the compiler, while in others, it will be detected when the program is run ("dynamic" type checking), resulting in a runtime exception. Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ...


A special case of typed languages are the single-type languages. These are often scripting or markup languages, such as Rexx or SGML, and have only one data type — most commonly character strings which are used for both symbolic and numeric data. REXX (REstructured eXtended eXecutor) is an interpreted programming language which was developed at IBM. It is a structured high-level programming language which was designed to be both easy to learn and easy to read. ... The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. ...


In contrast, an untyped language, such as most assembly languages, allows any operation to be performed on any data, which are generally considered to be sequences of bits of various lengths.[12] High-level languages which are untyped include BCPL and some varieties of Forth. See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) is a computer programming language that was designed by Martin Richards of the University of Cambridge in 1966; it was originally intended for use in writing compilers for other languages. ... Forth is a programming language and programming environment, initially developed by Charles H. Moore at the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the early 1970s. ...


In practice, while few languages are considered typed from the point of view of type theory (verifying or rejecting all operations), most modern languages offer a degree of typing.[12] Many production languages provide means to bypass or subvert the type system. At the broadest level, type theory is the branch of mathematics and logic that first creates a hierarchy of types, then assigns each mathematical (and possibly other) entity to a type. ...


Static vs dynamic typing

In static typing all expressions have their types determined prior to the program being run (typically at compile-time). For example, 1 and (2+2) are integer expressions; they cannot be passed to a function that expects a string, or stored in a variable that is defined to hold dates.[12] On computer science, a datatype (often simply type) is a name or label for a set of values and some operations which can be performed on that set of values. ...


Statically-typed languages can be manifestly typed or type-inferred. In the first case, the programmer must explicitly write types at certain textual positions (for example, at variable declarations). In the second case, the compiler infers the types of expressions and declarations based on context. Most mainstream statically-typed languages, such as C++ and Java, are manifestly typed. Complete type inference has traditionally been associated with less mainstream languages, such as Haskell and ML. However, many manifestly typed languages support partial type inference; for example, Java and C# both infer types in certain limited cases.[13] Dynamic typing, also called latent typing, determines the type-safety of operations at runtime; in other words, types are associated with runtime values rather than textual expressions.[12] As with type-inferred languages, dynamically typed languages do not require the programmer to write explicit type annotations on expressions. Among other things, this may permit a single variable to refer to values of different types at different points in the program execution. However, type errors cannot be automatically detected until a piece of code is actually executed, making debugging more difficult. Ruby, Lisp, JavaScript, and Python are dynamically typed. Type inference is a feature present in some strongly statically typed programming languages. ... In computer science, a declaration specifies a variables dimensions, identifier, type, and other aspects. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: /siː pləs pləs/) is a general-purpose computer programming language. ... “Java language” redirects here. ... Haskell is a standardized purely functional programming language with non-strict semantics, named after the logician Haskell Curry. ... ML is a general-purpose functional programming language developed by Robin Milner and others in the late 1970s at the University of Edinburgh, whose syntax is inspired by ISWIM. Historically, ML stands for metalanguage as it was conceived to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover (the language of... “Java language” redirects here. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ruby is a reflective, dynamic, object-oriented programming language. ... Lisp is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive fully-parenthesized syntax. ... It has been suggested that Client-side JavaScript be merged into this article or section. ... Python is a high-level programming language first released by Guido van Rossum in 1991. ...


Weak and strong typing

Weak typing allows a value of one type to be treated as another, for example treating a string as a number.[12] This can occasionally be useful, but it can also allow some kinds of program faults to go undetected at compile time. In computer science, compile time, as opposed to runtime, is the time when a compiler compiles code written in a programming language into an executable form. ...


Strong typing prevents the above. Attempting to mix types raises an error.[12] Strongly-typed languages are often termed type-safe or safe. Type safety can prevent particular kinds of program faults occurring (because constructs containing them are flagged at compile time). In computer science, a programming language is type safe when the language does not permit the programmer to treat a value as a type to which it does not belong. ...


An alternative definition for "weakly typed" refers to languages, such as Perl, JavaScript, and C++ which permit a large number of implicit type conversions; Perl in particular can be characterized as a dynamically typed programming language in which type checking can take place at runtime. See type system. This capability is often useful, but occasionally dangerous; as it would permit operations whose objects can change type on demand. Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... It has been suggested that Client-side JavaScript be merged into this article or section. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... In computer science, a type system defines how a programming language classifies values and expressions into types, how it can manipulate those types and how they interact. ...


Strong and static are generally considered orthogonal concepts, but usage in the literature differs. Some use the term strongly typed to mean strongly, statically typed, or, even more confusingly, to mean simply statically typed. Thus C has been called both strongly typed and weakly, statically typed.[14][15]. C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ...


Execution semantics

Once data has been specified, the machine must be instructed to perform operations on the data. The execution semantics of a language defines how and when the various constructs of a language should produce a program behavior.


For example, the semantics may define the strategy by which expressions are evaluated to values, or the manner in which control structures conditionally execute statements. In computer science, an evaluation strategy is a set of (usually deterministic) rules for determining the evaluation of expressions in a programming language. ... In computer science and in computer programming, statements in pseudocode or in a program are normally obeyed one after the other in the order in which they are written (sequential flow of control). ...


Core library

For more details on this topic, see Standard library.

Most programming languages have an associated core library (sometimes known as the 'Standard library', especially if it is included as part of the published language standard), which is conventionally made available by all implementations of the language. Core libraries typically include definitions for commonly used algorithms, data structures, and mechanisms for input and output. In C++, the Standard Library is a collection of classes and functions, which are written in the core language. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ...


A language's core library is often treated as part of the language by its users, although the designers may have treated it as a separate entity. Many language specifications define a core that must be made available in all implementations, and in the case of standardized languages this core library may be required. The line between a language and its core library therefore differs from language to language. Indeed, some languages are designed so that the meanings of certain syntactic constructs cannot even be described without referring to the core library. For example, in Java, a string literal is defined as an instance of the java.lang.String class; similarly, in Smalltalk, an anonymous function expression (a "block") constructs an instance of the library's BlockContext class. Conversely, Scheme contains multiple coherent subsets that suffice to construct the rest of the language as library macros, and so the language designers do not even bother to say which portions of the language must be implemented as language constructs, and which must be implemented as parts of a library. “Java language” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Small talk. ... An anonymous function is a function (or a subroutine) defined, and possibly called, without being bound to a name. ... Scheme is a multi-paradigm programming language. ...


Practice

A language's designers and users must construct a number of artifacts that govern and enable the practice of programming. The most important of these artifacts are the language specification and implementation.


Specification

For more details on this topic, see Programming language specification.

The specification of a programming language is intended to provide a definition that language users and implementors can use to interpret the behavior of programs when reading their source code. A programming language specification is an artifact that defines a programming language so that users and implementors can agree on what programs in that language mean. ... A programming language implementation is a system for executing programs written in a programming language. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


A programming language specification can take several forms, including the following:

  • An explicit definition of the syntax and semantics of the language. While syntax is commonly specified using a formal grammar, semantic definitions may be written in natural language (e.g., the C language), or a formal semantics (e.g., the Standard ML [16]and Scheme[17] specifications).
  • A description of the behavior of a translator for the language (e.g., the C++ and Fortran). The syntax and semantics of the language has to be inferred from this description, which may be written in natural or a formal language.
  • A model implementation, sometimes written in the language being specified (e.g., Prolog). The syntax and semantics of the language are explicit in the behavior of the model implementation.

The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... The C Programming Language, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the original edition that served for many years as an informal specification of the language The C programming language is a low_level standardized programming language developed in the early 1970s by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie for use on the UNIX... In theoretical computer science formal semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages and models of computation. ... Standard ML (SML) is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference. ... Scheme is a multi-paradigm programming language. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... Prolog is a logic programming language. ...

Implementation

For more details on this topic, see Programming language implementation.

An implementation of a programming language provides a way to execute that program on one or more configurations of hardware and software. There are, broadly, two approaches to programming language implementation: compilation and interpretation. It is generally possible to implement a language using either technique. A programming language implementation is a system for executing programs written in a programming language. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that executes, or performs, instructions written in a computer programming language. ...


The output of a compiler may be executed by hardware or a program called an interpreter. In some implementations that make use of the interpreter approach there is no distinct boundary between compiling and interpreting. For instance, some implementations of the BASIC programming language compile and then execute the source a line at a time. A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ...


Programs that are executed directly on the hardware usually run several orders of magnitude faster than those that are interpreted in software.


One technique for improving the performance of interpreted programs is just-in-time compilation. Here the virtual machine monitors which sequences of bytecode are frequently executed and translates them to machine code for direct execution on the hardware. For other uses, see Just In Time. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... Bytecode is a binary representation of an executable program designed to be executed by a virtual machine rather than by dedicated hardware. ...


History

A selection of textbooks that teach programming, in languages both popular and obscure. These are only a few of the thousands of programming languages and dialects that have been designed in history.
For more details on this topic, see History of programming languages.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2577x1756, 573 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Programming language ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2577x1756, 573 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Programming language ... It has been suggested that the section History from the article Programming language be merged into this article or section. ...

Early developments

The first programming languages predate the modern computer. The 19th century had "programmable" looms and player piano scrolls which implemented what are today recognized as examples of domain-specific programming languages. By the beginning of the twentieth century, punch cards encoded data and directed mechanical processing. In the 1930s and 1940s, the formalisms of Alonzo Church's lambda calculus and Alan Turing's Turing machines provided mathematical abstractions for expressing algorithms; the lambda calculus remains influential in language design.[18] For other uses, see Loom (disambiguation). ... The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ... A domain-specific programming language (domain-specific language, DSL) is a programming language designed to be useful for a specific set of tasks. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The lambda calculus is a formal system designed to investigate function definition, function application, and recursion. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... An artistic representation of a Turing Machine . ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ...


In the 1940s, the first electrically powered digital computers were created. The computers of the early 1950s, notably the UNIVAC I and the IBM 701 used machine language programs. First generation machine language programming was quickly superseded by a second generation of programming languages known as Assembly languages. Later in the 1950s, assembly language programming, which had evolved to include the use of macro instructions, was followed by the development of three modern programming languages: FORTRAN, LISP, and COBOL. Updated versions of all of these are still in general use, and importantly, each has strongly influenced the development of later languages.[19] At the end of the 1950s, the language formalized as Algol 60 was introduced, and most modern programming languages are, in many respects, descendants of Algol.[19] The format and use of the early programming languages was heavily influenced by the constraints of the interface. [20] UNIVAC I Central Complex, containing the central processor and main memory unit. ... The IBM 701, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was announced to the public on April 29, 1952, and was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer. ... Machine code or machine language is a system of instructions and data directly understandable by a computers central processing unit. ... A first-generation programming language is a machine-level programming language. ... A second-generation programming language is a term usually used to refer to some form of assembly language. ... See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... A macro instruction is a line of computer program coding that results in one or more lines of program coding in the target programming language. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... Lisp is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive fully-parenthesized syntax. ... COBOL (pronounced //) is a third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming languages still in active use. ... ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a programming language originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ... Punch card from a Fortran program. ...


Refinement

The period from the 1960s to the late 1970s brought the development of the major language paradigms now in use, though many aspects were refinements of ideas in the very first Third-generation programming languages: A third generation language (3GL) is a programming language designed to be easier for a human to understand, including things like named variables. ...

Each of these languages spawned an entire family of descendants, and most modern languages count at least one of them in their ancestry. APL (for A Programming Language) is an array programming language based on a notation invented in 1957 by Kenneth E. Iverson while at Harvard University. ... Array programming languages (also known as vector or multidimensional languages) generalize operations on scalars to apply transparently to vectors, matrices, and higher dimensional arrays. ... Functional programming is a programming paradigm that conceives computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. ... Simula introduced the object-oriented programming paradigm and thus can be considered the first object-oriented programming language and a predecessor to Smalltalk, C++, Java, and all modern class-based object-oriented languages. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... Smalltalk is a dynamically typed object oriented programming language designed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Ted Kaehler, Adele Goldberg, and others during the 1970s. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... System programming (or systems programming) is the activity of building and maintaining, low-level, system software for computers, including operating systems, system utilities, compilers, and so forth. ... Prolog is a logic programming language. ... Logic programming (which might better be called logical programming by analogy with mathematical programming and linear programming) is, in its broadest sense, the use of mathematical logic for computer programming. ... ML is a general-purpose functional programming language developed by Robin Milner and others in the late 1970s at the University of Edinburgh, whose syntax is inspired by ISWIM. Historically, ML stands for metalanguage as it was conceived to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover (the language of... On computer science, a datatype (often simply type) is a name or label for a set of values and some operations which can be performed on that set of values. ... Functional programming is a programming paradigm that conceives computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. ...


The 1960s and 1970s also saw considerable debate over the merits of structured programming, and whether programming languages should be designed to support it. [23] Edsger Dijkstra, in a famous 1968 letter published in the Communications of the ACM, argued that GOTO statements should be eliminated from all "higher level" programming languages. [24] Structured programming can be seen as a subset or subdiscipline of procedural programming, one of the major programming paradigms. ... Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (May 11, 1930 – August 6, 2002); IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ... Communications of the ACM (CACM) is the flagship monthly magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery. ... GOTO is a statement found in many computer programming languages. ...


The 1960s and 1970s also saw expansion of techniques that reduced the footprint of a program as well as improved productivity of the programmer and user. The card deck for an early 4GL was a lot smaller for the same functionality expressed in a 3GL deck. Punch card from a Fortran program. ... b fourth-generation programming language(1970s-1990) (abbreviated 4GL) is a programming language or programming environment designed with a specific purpose in mind, such as the development of commercial business software. ... A third generation language (3GL) is a programming language designed to be easier for a human to understand, including things like named variables. ...


Consolidation and growth

The 1980s were years of relative consolidation. C++ combined object-oriented and systems programming. The United States government standardized Ada, a systems programming language intended for use by defense contractors. In Japan and elsewhere, vast sums were spent investigating so-called "fifth generation" languages that incorporated logic programming constructs[25]. The functional languages community moved to standardize ML and Lisp. Rather than inventing new paradigms, all of these movements elaborated upon the ideas invented in the previous decade. C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: /siː pləs pləs/) is a general-purpose computer programming language. ... Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ... The Fifth Generation Computer Systems project (FGCS) was an initiative by Japans Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begun in 1982, to create a fifth generation computer (see history of computing hardware) which was supposed to perform much calculation utilizing massive parallelism. ...


One important trend in language design during the 1980s was an increased focus on programming for large-scale systems through the use of modules, or large-scale organizational units of code. Modula-2, Ada, and ML all developed notable module systems in the 1980s, although other languages, such as PL/I, already had extensive support for modular programming. Module systems were often wedded to generic programming constructs.[26] Modula-2 is a computer programming language invented by Niklaus Wirth at ETH around 1978, as a successor to Modula, an intermediate language by him. ... PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced pee el one) is an imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, and business applications. ... Generic programming is a style of computer programming where algorithms are written in an extended grammar and are made adaptable by specifying variable parts that are then somehow instantiated later by the compiler with respect to the base grammar. ...


The rapid growth of the Internet in the mid-1990's created opportunities for new languages. Perl, originally a Unix scripting tool first released in 1987, became common in dynamic Web sites. Java came to be used for server-side programming. These developments were not fundamentally novel, rather they were refinements to existing languages and paradigms, and largely based on the C family of programming languages. Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ... “Java language” redirects here. ...


Programming language evolution continues, in both industry and research. Current directions include security and reliability verification, new kinds of modularity (mixins, delegates, aspects), and database integration. [citation needed] In object-oriented programming languages, a mixin is an approach to implementing classes that differs from the most widely-used approach coming from the programming language Simula. ... In object-oriented programming there are two notions of delegation. ... In software engineering, the programming paradigms of aspect-oriented programming (AOP), and aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) attempt to aid programmers in the separation of concerns, specifically cross-cutting concerns, as an advance in modularization. ...


The 4GLs are examples of languages which are domain-specific, such as SQL, which manipulates and returns sets of data rather than the scalar values which are canonical to most programming languages. Perl, for example, with its 'here document' can hold multiple 4GL programs, as well as multiple JavaScript programs, in part of its own perl code and use variable interpolation in the 'here document' to support multi-language programming[27]. A fourth-generation programming language (or 4GL) is a programming language designed with a specific purpose in mind such as the development of commercial business software. ... SQL (IPA: or IPA: ), commonly expanded as Structured Query Language, is a computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database management systems, database schema creation and modification, and database object access control management. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... A here document (also called a here-document or a heredoc), is a way of specifying a string literal in shells such as Bash, Windows PowerShell and the Bourne Shell, as well as programming languages such as Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby. ...


Taxonomies

For more details on this topic, see Categorical list of programming languages.

There is no overarching classification scheme for programming languages. A given programming language does not usually have a single ancestor language. Languages commonly arise by combining the elements of several predecessor languages with new ideas in circulation at the time[citation needed]. Ideas that originate in one language will diffuse throughout a family of related languages, and then leap suddenly across familial gaps to appear in an entirely different family. This is a list of programming languages grouped by category. ...


The task is further complicated by the fact that languages can be classified along multiple axes. For example, Java is both an object-oriented language (because it encourages object-oriented organization) and a concurrent language (because it contains built-in constructs for running multiple threads in parallel). Python is an object-oriented scripting language. For the form of code consisting entirely of subroutine calls, see Threaded code. ... Python is a high-level programming language first released by Guido van Rossum in 1991. ... Scripting languages (commonly called scripting programming languages or script languages) are computer programming languages that are typically interpreted and can be typed directly from a keyboard. ...


In broad strokes, programming languages divide into programming paradigms and a classification by intended domain of use. Paradigms include procedural programming, object-oriented programming, functional programming, and logic programming; some languages are hybrids of paradigms or multi-paradigmatic. An assembly language is not so much a paradigm as a direct model of an underlying machine architecture. By purpose, programming languages might be considered general purpose, system programming languages, scripting languages, domain-specific languages, or concurrent/distributed languages (or a combination of these).[citation needed] Some general purpose languages were designed largely with educational goals. [28] A programming paradigm is a paradigmatic style of programming (compare with a methodology, which is a paradigmatic style of doing software engineering). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... Functional programming is a programming paradigm that conceives computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. ... Logic programming (which might better be called logical programming by analogy with mathematical programming and linear programming) is, in its broadest sense, the use of mathematical logic for computer programming. ... See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ...


A programming language may also be classified by factors unrelated to programming paradigm. For instance, most programming languages use English language keywords, while a minority do not. Other languages may be classified as being esoteric or not. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This is a list of programming languages grouped by category. ... An esoteric programming language (sometimes shortened to esolang[1]) is a programming language designed as a test of the boundaries of computer programming language design, as a proof of concept, or as a joke. ...


See also

Computer science Portal
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Look up programming language in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... There are a lot of kinds of listing. ... Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer). ... Literate programming is the writing of computer programs primarily for human beings to read, similar to a work of literature; hence the name literate programming. ... A dialect of a programming language is a (relatively small) variation or extension of the language that does not change its intrinsic nature. ... Programming language theory (commonly known as PLT) is a branch of computer science which deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and programming language features. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... These should be the most basic topics in the field--topics about which wed like to have articles soon. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... This list complements the software engineering article, giving more details and examples. ...

References

  1. ^ In mathematical terms, this means the programming language is Turing-complete MacLennan, Bruce J. (1987). Principles of Programming Languages. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511306-3. 
  2. ^ As of May 2006 The Encyclopedia of Computer Languages by Murdoch University, Australia lists 8512 computer languages.
  3. ^ ACM SIGPLAN (2003). Bylaws of the Special Interest Group on Programming Languages of the Association for Computing Machinery. Retrieved on 2006-06-19., The scope of SIGPLAN is the theory, design, implementation, description, and application of computer programming languages - languages that permit the specification of a variety of different computations, thereby providing the user with significant control (immediate or delayed) over the computer's operation.
  4. ^ Dean, Tom (2002). Programming Robots. Building Intelligent Robots. Brown University Department of Computer Science. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  5. ^ Digital Equipment Corporation. Information Technology - Database Language SQL (Proposed revised text of DIS 9075). ISO/IEC 9075:1992, Database Language SQL. Retrieved on June 29, 2006.
  6. ^ The Charity Development Group (December 1996). The CHARITY Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-06-29., Charity is a categorical programming language..., All Charity computations terminate.
  7. ^ IBM in first publishing PL/I, for example, rather ambitiously titled its manual The universal programming language PL/I (IBM Library; 1966). The title reflected IBM's goals for unlimited subsetting capability: PL/I is designed in such a way that one can isolate subsets from it satisfying the requirements of particular applications. (Encyclopaedia of Mathematics » P  » PL/I. SpringerLink. Retrieved on June 29, 2006.). Ada and UNCOL had similar early goals.
  8. ^ Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.: The Mythical Man-Month, Addison-Wesley, 1982, pp. 93-94
  9. ^ Dijkstra, Edsger W. On the foolishness of "natural language programming." EWD667.
  10. ^ Perlis, Alan, Epigrams on Programming. SIGPLAN Notices Vol. 17, No. 9, September 1982, pp. 7-13
  11. ^ Michael Sipser (1997). Introduction to the Theory of Computation. PWS Publishing. ISBN 0-534-94728-X.  Section 2.2: Pushdown Automata, pp.101–114.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Andrew Cooke. An Introduction to Programming Languages. Retrieved on June 30, 2006.
  13. ^ Specifically, instantiations of generic types are inferred for certain expression forms. Type inference in Generic Java—the research language that provided the basis for Java 1.5's bounded parametric polymorphism extensions—is discussed in two informal manuscripts from the Types mailing list: Generic Java type inference is unsound (Alan Jeffrey, 17 Dec 2001) and Sound Generic Java type inference (Martin Odersky, 15 Jan 2002). C#'s type system is similar to Java's, and uses a similar partial type inference scheme.
  14. ^ Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme (February 20, 1998). Retrieved on June 9, 2006.
  15. ^ Luca Cardelli and Peter Wegner. On Understanding Types, Data Abstraction, and Polymorphism. Manuscript (1985). Retrieved on June 9, 2006.
  16. ^ Milner, R.; M. Tofte, R. Harper and D. MacQueen. (1997). The Definition of Standard ML (Revised). MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-63181-4. 
  17. ^ Kelsey, Richard; William Clinger and Jonathan Rees (February 1998). Section 7.2 Formal semantics. Revised5 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme. Retrieved on 2006-06-09.
  18. ^ Benjamin C. Pierce writes:
    ". . . the lambda calculus has seen widespread use in the specification of programming language features, in language design and implementation, and in the study of type systems."
    Pierce, Benjamin C. (2002). Types and Programming Languages. MIT Press, 52. ISBN 0-262-16209-1. 
  19. ^ a b O'Reilly Media. History of programming languages. Retrieved on October 5, 2006.
  20. ^ Frank da Cruz. IBM Punch Cards Columbia University Computing History.
  21. ^ Richard L. Wexelblat: History of Programming Languages, Academic Press, 1981, chapter XIV.
  22. ^ François Labelle. Programming Language Usage Graph. Sourceforge. Retrieved on June 21, 2006.. This comparison analyzes trends in number of projects hosted by a popular community programming repository. During most years of the comparison, C leads by a considerable margin; in 2006, Java overtakes C, but the combination of C/C++ still leads considerably.
  23. ^ Hayes, Brian (2006), "The Semicolon Wars", American Scientist 94 (4): pp. 299-303
  24. ^ Dijkstra, Edsger W. (March 1968). "Go To Statement Considered Harmful". Communications of the ACM 11 (3): 147–148. Retrieved on 2006-06-29. 
  25. ^ Tetsuro Fujise, Takashi Chikayama Kazuaki Rokusawa, Akihiko Nakase (December 1994). "KLIC: A Portable Implementation of KL1" Proc. of FGCS '94, ICOT Tokyo, December 1994. KLIC is a portable implementation of a concurrent logic programming language KL1.
  26. ^ Jim Bender (March 15th, 2004). Mini-Bibliography on Modules for Functional Programming Languages. ReadScheme.org. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  27. ^ Wall, Programming Perl ISBN 0-596-00027-8 p.66
  28. ^ Wirth, Niklaus (1993). "Recollections about the development of Pascal". Proc. 2nd ACM SIGPLAN conference on history of programming languages: 333–342. Retrieved on 2006-06-30. 

In computability theory a programming language or any other logical system is called Turing-complete if it has a computational power equivalent to a universal Turing machine. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Murdoch University is a university with its main campus at Murdoch, south of Perth, Western Australia, along South Street near the Kwinana Freeway ( ). It commenced operations as WAs second university in 1973, and accepted its first students in 1975. ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ... UNCOL, UNiversal Computer Oriented Language, was a proposed universal intermediate language for compilers. ... Michael Sipser Michael Sipser is a professor of Applied Mathematics in the Theory of Computation Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Generic programming is a style of computer programming where algorithms are written in an extended grammar and are made adaptable by specifying variable parts that are then somehow instantiated later by the compiler with respect to the base grammar. ... Polymorphism refers to features of various programming languages which allow a single piece of source code to operate on a variable whose type is not fixed. ... Alan Samuel Jeffrey (born 18 October 1963 in Derry, Northern Ireland)[1] is an Irish former cricketer. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Italian computer scientist, currently working for Microsoft Research in Cambridge. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robin Milner is a prominent British computer scientist. ... Robert Harper in 2006. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Benjamin C. Pierce is a professor of computer science at the University of Pennsylvania. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Programming Perl is a classic OReilly book. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SourceForge is a collaborative revision control and software development management system. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (Rotterdam, May 11, 1930 – Nuenen, August 6, 2002; IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... KL1, or Kernel Language 1 is an experimental AND-parallel version of KL0 for the ICOT project. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Niklaus E. Wirth (born February 15, 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist, best known for designing several programming languages, including Pascal, and for pioneering several classic topics in software engineering. ... SIGPLAN is the Association for Computing Machinerys Special Interest Group on programming languages. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Daniel P. Friedman, Mitchell Wand, Christopher Thomas Haynes: Essentials of Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2001.
  • David Gelernter, Suresh Jagannathan: Programming Linguistics, The MIT Press 1990.
  • Shriram Krishnamurthi: Programming Languages: Application and Interpretation, online publication.
  • Bruce J. MacLennan: Principles of Programming Languages: Design, Evaluation, and Implementation, Oxford University Press 1999.
  • John C. Mitchell: Concepts in Programming Languages, Cambridge University Press 2002.
  • Benjamin C. Pierce: Types and Programming Languages, The MIT Press 2002.
  • Ravi Sethi: Programming Languages: Concepts and Constructs, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley 1996.
  • Michael L. Scott: Programming Language Pragmatics, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers 2005.
  • Richard L. Wexelblat (ed.): History of Programming Languages, Academic Press 1981.

External links

Array programming languages (also known as vector or multidimensional languages) generalize operations on scalars to apply transparently to vectors, matrices, and higher dimensional arrays. ... See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... A compiled language is a programming language whose implementations are typically compilers (translators which generate machine code from source code), and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no translation takes place). ... Concurrent computing is the concurrent (simultaneous) execution of multiple interacting computational tasks. ... Curly brace or bracket programming languages are those which use balanced brackets ({ and }, also known as brace brackets or simply braces) to make blocks in their syntax or formal grammar, mainly due to being C-influenced. ... A Data-structured language is a programming language in which the data structure is a main organizing principle, representation, model, for data and logic (code) alike, in which both are stored and operated upon, i. ... A declarative programming language is a high-level language that describes a problem rather than defining a solution — it makes use of declarative programming. ... An esoteric programming language (sometimes shortened to esolang[1]) is a programming language designed as a test of the boundaries of computer programming language design, as a proof of concept, or as a joke. ... Functional programming is a programming paradigm that conceives computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. ... In computer programming, an interpreted language is a programming language whose programs may be executed from source form, by an interpreter. ... Logic programming (which might better be called logical programming by analogy with mathematical programming and linear programming) is, in its broadest sense, the use of mathematical logic for computer programming. ... Machine code or machine language is a system of instructions and data directly understandable by a computers central processing unit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Metaprogramming is the writing of computer programs that write or manipulate other programs (or themselves) as their data or that do part of the work during compile time that is otherwise done at run time. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Non-English-based programming languages are computer programming languages that, unlike most well-known programming languages, do not use keywords taken from, or inspired by, the English vocabulary. ... An object-oriented programming language (also called an OO language) is one that allows or encourages, to some degree, object-oriented programming techniques such as encapsulation, inheritance, interfaces, and polymorphism. ... Prototype-based programming is a style of object-oriented programming in which classes are not present, and behaviour reuse (known as inheritance in class-based languages) is performed via a process of cloning existing objects that serve as prototypes. ... A computer programming language is said to adhere to the off-side rule if in it the scope of declarations (a statement block) is expressed by their indentation, i. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In computer science, reflection is the process by which a computer program of the appropriate type can be modified in the process of being executed, in a manner that depends on abstract features of its code and its runtime behavior. ... A synchronous programming language is a programming language optimized for programming reactive systems, systems that are often interrupted and must respond quickly. ... Scripting languages (commonly called scripting programming languages or script languages) are computer programming languages that are typically interpreted and can be typed directly from a keyboard. ... A domain-specific programming language (domain-specific language, DSL) is a programming language designed to be useful for a specific set of tasks. ... Visual Programming in Mindscript A Visual programming language (VPL) is any programming language that lets users specify programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. ... In computer programming, dataflow programming implements dataflow principles and architecture, and models a program, conceptually if not physically, as a directed graph of the data flowing between operations. ... In computer science, imperative programming, as opposed to declarative programming, is a programming paradigm that describes computation in terms of a program state and statements that change the program state. ... The term computer language is a more expansive and alternate term for the more commonly-used term programming language. ... A specification language is a formal language used in computer science. ... Query languages are computer languages used to make queries into databases and information systems. ... A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... A transformation language is a computer language designed to transform some input text in a certain formal language into a modified output text that meets some specific goal. ... A diagram illustrating all of the basic elements and processing flow of a template engine. ... In electronics, a hardware description language or HDL is any language from a class of computer languages for formal description of electronic circuits. ... A stylesheet language is a computer language used to describe the presentation of structured documents. ...


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Programming language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2161 words)
A programming language is a stylized communication technique intended to be used for controlling the behaviour of a machine (often a computer).
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