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Encyclopedia > Professional wrestling

Professional wrestling, or pro wrestling, is the performance, management, and marketing of an athletic performing art which contains elements of catch wrestling, mock combat and theatre. It has origins in carnival sideshows in the late 19th century as part of displays of athletics and strength, and its staged aspects grew out of a need to heighten excitement and lessen the strain on performers. Modern professional wrestling usually features simulated striking and grappling techniques, which are modeled after diverse sets of wrestling and pugilistic styles from around the world. Realistic performance is very physical and requires intense specialized training. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... There is also a game called Pro Wrestling for the Sega Master System. ... The Sega Master System ) or SMS for short (1986 - 2000), is an 8-bit cartridge-based video game console that was manufactured by Sega. ... Pro Wrestling (Gokuaku Doumei Dump Matsumoto in Japan) is a professional wrestling video game released for the Sega Master System by Sega. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... Performance art is art where the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time, constitute the work. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... It has been suggested that Ritual fighting be merged into this article or section. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For other uses, see Sideshow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...


Professional wrestling has gradually become a pervasive form of entertainment globally, especially in Japan and North American countries. High-profile figures in the sport often become cultural icons, such as Ric Flair, Hulk Hogan, Rikidozan, and El Santo. Leading universities have developed courses of study on the cultural significance of professional wrestling.[1] North American redirects here. ... American cultural icons. ... Richard Morgan Fliehr[2] (born on February 25, 1949 in Minneapolis, Minnesota[2]) better known by his ring name Ric Flair , is a legendary American professional wrestler of iconic staus signed to World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) on its SmackDown! brand. ... Terrence Gene Bollea (born on August 11, 1953) is an American actor and semi-retired professional wrestler better known by his ring name Hulk Hogan. ... Rikidōzan (Japanese: 力道山, Korean: 역도산, November 14, 1924 - December 15, 1963) was a professional wrestler, known as the Father of Puroresu and one of the most influential men in wrestling history. ... Rodolfo Guzman Huerta (September 23, 1917 - February 5, 1984), more widely known as Santo, El Enmascarado de Plata, or Samson, the silver-masked man in English translations, was a Mexican wrestler, actor, and folk hero. ...


It is a billion-dollar industry, drawing revenue from ticket sales, television broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming. Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ... Official WrestleMania logo WrestleMania is an annual professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment since 1985. ...


Currently, the dominant professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based World Wrestling Entertainment, which absorbed many smaller regional companies in the late twentieth century, as well as its primary competitor, World Championship Wrestling. WWE's primary competitor differs from region to region; in the the United States, it's primary competitor is Total Nonstop Action Wrestling. In Mexico, it is Asistencia Asesoría y Administración, and in Japan, it is New Japan Pro Wrestling. World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... For the Australian professional wrestling promotion, see World Championship Wrestling (Australia). ... Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) is an American professional wrestling promotion founded by Jeff Jarrett and his father Jerry Jarrett in May 2002. ... Asistencia Asesoría y Administración (AAA) is a Lucha Libre Professional wrestling promotion based in Mexico. ... New Japan Pro Wrestling (新日本プロレス, shin nihon puroresu) is a major professional wrestling federation in Japan, founded by Antonio Inoki in 1972. ...

Contents

Types

There are many different types of professional wrestling.


Sports entertainment style combines colorful characters and dramatic storylines with a lesser focus on the sporting aspects. This is the style of product produced by World Wrestling Entertainment and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, and is arguably the most popular form of professional wrestling. Despite its popularity, it is decried by some critics as over the top and circus-like, due to frequent usage of melodrama, comedy, and intentional camp. Sports entertainment is a type of entertainment that takes the form of a sporting event, but with more emphasis on dramatic storylines, humor, spectacle or titillation than on a contest of athletic skills. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) is an American professional wrestling promotion founded by Jeff Jarrett and his father Jerry Jarrett in May 2002. ... For other uses, see Circus (disambiguation). ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Camp is an aesthetic in which something has appeal because of its bad taste or ironic value. ...


Southern style -- colloquially (sometimes mockingly) known as "wrasslin'" -- puts equal emphasis on theatrics and athleticism, and tends to favor traditional roles of hero and villain. It was wildly popular in the American South throughout the twentieth century, where it was produced by the National Wrestling Alliance, Jim Crockett Promotions, and early World Championship Wrestling. The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... The National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) is the largest governing body for a group of independent professional wrestling promotions and sanctions various NWA championships. ... Jim Crockett Promotions was the name of a professional wrestling promotion owned by Jim Crockett, Jr. ... For the Australian professional wrestling promotion, see World Championship Wrestling (Australia). ...


Puroresu -- Another type, rarely found in North America, is strong style wrestling, which forgoes elaborate characterizations in favor of athletic prowess. This is very popular in Japan as the fighters use martial arts strikes and complex submission holds and matches are treated as pure sport rather than sports entertainment. The Japanese crowd rely on sportsmanship and clean finishes. Promotions using this include Pro Wrestling NOAH and New Japan Pro Wrestling. An extension of this, with legitimate maneuvers actually applied, is known as shoot style, and was pioneered by Universal Wrestling Federation. Puroresu is Japanese professional wrestling, as seen in FMW, New Japan Pro Wrestling, and All Japan Pro Wrestling. ... North American redirects here. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Submissions are often done in grappling by tapping the opponent with the hand. ... Sports entertainment is a type of entertainment that takes the form of a sporting event, but with more emphasis on dramatic storylines, humor, spectacle or titillation than on a contest of athletic skills. ... It is sporting to shake the hand of ones opponent after the end of a game. ... Pro Wrestling NOAH is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion, founded in 2000. ... New Japan Pro Wrestling (新日本プロレス, shin nihon puroresu) is a major professional wrestling federation in Japan, founded by Antonio Inoki in 1972. ... Shoot style is a form of professional wrestling in which strikes and holds are real and still, however the matches are still predetermined. ... The original Japanese-based Universal Wrestling Federation (UWF) was a Japanese professional wrestling promotion from 1984 to 1986, formed by wrestlers who had left New Japan Pro Wrestling. ...


Another style which emphasizes high levels of brutality, focusing on use of weapons and unusual environment elements for heightened violence, is called extreme, hardcore, combat, 'garbage' or ultra-violent wrestling. It also incorporates legitimately dangerous stunts, such as falls from high places onto folding tables, sometimes lit on fire. For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ...


King's Road is a variant of Japanese puroresu which features long matches filled with dramatic tension built up from the physical struggles. This style was pioneered by All Japan Pro Wrestling. All Japan Pro Wrestling ) (AJPW) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion established in 1972. ...


While some promotions specialize in one specific style, others produce events with a more diverse array that appeals to varied tastes. Extreme Championship Wrestling, for instance, is commonly known as a pioneer of the hardcore style, but its product is best described as Southern style with less emphasis on the hero/villain dichotomy. Lucha libre has elements of sports entertainment (masks and midget wrestlers) but also puts focus on a wrestler's athletic prowess and matches can often have dire results, including loss of hair. This article is about the independent promotion from 1992-2001. ... One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers (luchadores), Rey Mysterio. ...


Staged nature of professional wrestling

Throughout the history of professional wrestling, the utmost care was taken to ensure that the staged nature of professional wrestling was kept secret to the audience, a concept known as kayfabe or "working the marks". Kayfabe was largely broken down by the steroid trials of the World Wrestling Federation (now referred to as World Wrestling Entertainment, after the organization brought and lost a trademark infringement case against the World Wildlife Fund) and the advent of the worldwide web in the 1990s. However, this changed little of how wrestling is produced. Like those of film and theatre, the professional wrestling audience overlooks the inner workings of the performance, invoking suspension of disbelief and allowing for dramatic license.[2] [3] In professional wrestling, kayfabe (pronounced KAY-fayb) refers to the portrayal of events within the industry as real, that is, the portrayal of professional wrestling as unstaged or not worked. ... In professional wrestling, a shoot refers to any unplanned event – that is, the event is real and not staged. ... In professional wrestling, kayfabe (pronounced KAY-fayb) refers to the portrayal of events within the industry as real, that is, the portrayal of professional wrestling as unstaged or not worked. ... In professional wrestling, a work is slang for a staged event (that is, one that enforces kayfabe). ... The victim of a confidence game or magic trick is often called the mark, or the vic. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Artistic licence or license (US), also known as dramatic license/licence, is a colloquial term used to denote the liberties an artist may take in the name of art — for example, if an artist decided it was more artistically correct to portray St. ...


Occasionally a performer will deviate from the intended sequence of events. This is known as a shoot. Sometimes shoot-like elements are included in wrestling stories to blur the line between performance and reality. These are known as "worked-shoots". However, the vast majority of events in professional wrestling are entirely preplanned. In professional wrestling, a shoot refers to any unplanned event – that is, the event is real and not staged. ...


Rules

The simulated nature of professional wrestling is only one of the many differences it has with traditional wrestling. There is no governing authority for professional wrestling rules, although there is a general standard which has developed. Each promotion has their own variation, but all are similar enough to avoid confusion. Any rule described here is simply a standard, and may or may not correspond exactly with any given promotion's ruleset. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


General structure

Matches are held between two or more sides ("corners"). Each corner may consist of one wrestler, or a team of two or more. Most team matches are held by tag team rules (see below). Other matches are free-for-alls, with multiple combatants but no teams. In all variants, there can be only one winning team or wrestler.


The standard method of scoring is the "fall", which is a accomplished by:

  • pinning the opponent's shoulders to the mat for three seconds,
  • knocking out or otherwise incapacitating the opponent,
  • forcing the opponent to submit,
  • a forfeit via a disqualified opponent,
  • or the opponent remaining outside the ring for too long (count-out).

These are each explained in greater detail below. Typically, falls must occur within the ring area. This article is about the pinfall (or pin) as it is defined in professional wrestling. ... Knockout (also referred to as a K.O. or knock), is a winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, Muay Thai and others sports involving striking. ... For the NES video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... For the NES video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... For the NES video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ...


Most wrestling matches last for a set number of falls, with the first side to achieve that number of pinfalls, submissions, or countouts being the winner. Historically, matches were wrestled to 3 falls ("best 2 out of 3") or 5 falls ("best 3 out of 5"). The standard for modern matches is one fall. These matches are given a time limit; if not enough falls are scored by the end of the time limit, the match is declared a draw. Modern matches are generally given a 10- to 30- minute time limit for standard matches; title matches can go for up to one hour.


An alternative is a match set for a prescribed length of time, with a running tally of falls. The entrant with the most falls at the end of the time limit is declared the winner. This is usually for 20, 30 or 60 minutes, and is commonly called an Ironman match.


In matches with multiple competitors, an elimination system may be used. Any wrestler who has a fall scored against them is forced out of the match, and the match continues until only one remains.


Many modern specialty matches have been devised, with unique winning conditions. See Professional wrestling match types. Many types of matches can be found in professional wrestling. ...


Each match is assigned a referee, who is the final arbitrator. (In multi-man lucha libre matches, two referees are used, one inside the ring and one outside.) Generally an action must be seen by a referee to be declared for a fall or disqualification. This is commonly exploited to great dramatic effect. Referees are expected to be fair, neutral and unbiased, although special guest referees may be used from time to time, who usually display personal favoritism and heavily influence the outcome of the match. A professional wrestling referee is the official figure that makes sure that wrestling matches move smoothly in an attempt to maintain kayfabe. ... One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers (luchadores), Rey Mysterio. ... A professional wrestling referee is the official figure that makes sure that wrestling matches move smoothly in an attempt to maintain kayfabe. ...


Matches are held within a wrestling ring, an elevated square (or hexagonal) canvas mat with posts on each corner. A cloth apron hangs over the edges of the ring. Three horizontal ropes or cables surround the ring, suspended with turnbuckles which are connected to the posts. For safety, the ropes are padded at the turnbuckles and cushioned mats surround the floor outside the ring (though in kayfabe, the mats do not offer much protection. Jerry "the King" Lawler once mentioned at Royal Rumble 2005 "Those mats are more to protect the floor than they are the wrestlers that are out there."). Guardrails or a similar barrier enclose this area from the audience. Wrestlers are generally expected to stay within the confines of the ring, though matches sometimes end up outside the ring, and even in the audience, to added excitement. For other uses, see Square. ... A regular hexagon A hexagon (also known as sexagon) is a polygon with six edges and six vertices. ... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In professional wrestling, kayfabe (pronounced KAY-fayb) refers to the portrayal of events within the industry as real, that is, the portrayal of professional wrestling as unstaged or not worked. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the professional wrestling pay-per-view event. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tag rules

Main article: Tag team

In some team matches, only one entrant from each team may be designated as the 'legal' or 'active' wrestler at any given moment. Two wrestlers must make physical contact (typically palm-to-palm) in order to transfer this legal status. This is known as a tag, with the participants tagging out and tagging in. A professional wrestling tag-team consists of two or occasionally three wrestlers who are working together as a team. ...


The non-legal wrestlers must remain outside the ring or other legal area at all times (and avoid purposeful contact with the opposing wrestlers) or face reprimand from the referee. In most promotions, the wrestler to be tagged in must be touching the turnbuckle on his corner, or a cloth strap attached to the turnbuckle.


Some multi-wrestler matches allow for a set number of legal wrestlers, and a legal wrestler may tag out to any other wrestler, regardless of team. In these matches, the tag need not be a mutual effort, and this results in active wrestlers being tagged out against their will.


Techniques

Wrestlers may grab, hold, twist, or strike any part of an opponent's body, except the throat, groin, or eye. An opponent's hair or clothing may not be grabbed. For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... The groin is the crease at the junction of the torso with the legs and the adjacent region that includes the external genitals. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ...


Wrestlers may strike an opponent using any part of their own limbs, head or body, with the following exceptions: punching requires an open fist and kicking must use the flat of the foot. Biting is not allowed, nor is spitting in the eyes. In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is a thrusting blow, esp. ... Kicker redirects here. ... A bite is a wound received from the mouth (and in particular, the teeth) of an animal. ... Asian mist refers to the illegal maneuver of spitting a colored liquid in the face of an opponent in professional wrestling. ...


Wrestlers may lift an opponent and throw them, drop them, or otherwise force them to the mat. Such techniques which land an opponent on the head or neck, such as the piledriver, may be disallowed by some promotions. A piledriver is a professional wrestling driver move in which the wrestler grabs his opponent, turns him upside-down, and drops into a sitting or kneeling position, driving the opponents head into the mat. ...


A wrestler may jump onto an opponent, whether standing or lying down, in any manner.


A wrestler may entangle an opponent in the ropes, turnbuckles, or corner posts, but the referee will usually attempt to free him or her.


Any legal wrestler is open to attack from any direction at any time, including when they are downed, as long as they are not in contact with the ring ropes. If either wrestler is in contact with the ropes or if any part of the wrestler is underneath the ropes, all grappling contact between the wrestlers must be broken within five seconds. This rule is often used strategically in order to escape from a submission hold, and a wrestler can place his foot on (or under) the ropes to avoid losing by pinfall. This is commonly referred to as a rope break. Two wrestlers clinching. ...


Scoring conditions

Pinfall

In order to score by pinfall, a wrestler must pin both his opponent's shoulders against the mat while the referee slaps the mat three times. This is the most common form of defeat. If a wrestler's shoulders are down (both shoulders touching the mat) and any part of the opponent's body is lying over the opponent, it is completely legal for the three count to be made. Illegal pinning methods include using the ropes for leverage and hooking the opponent's clothing, therefore they are popular cheating methods for heels, unless certain stipulations make such an advantage legal. Such pins as these are rarely seen by the referee and are subsequently often used by heels and on occasion by cheating faces to win matches. This article is about the pinfall (or pin) as it is defined in professional wrestling. ... In professional wrestling, a heel is a villain character. ...


Occasionally, there are instances where a pinfall is made where both wrestler's shoulders were on the mat for the three count. This situation will most likely lead to a draw, and in some cases a continuation of the match or a future match to determine the winner.


Submission

John Cena applying his submission move, the STFU, on Batista.

To score by submission, the wrestler must make his opponent give up, usually, but not necessarily, by putting him in a submission hold (i.e., figure four leg-lock, arm-lock, etc.). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John Felix Anthony Cena, Jr. ... Professional wrestling holds include a number of set moves and pins used by competitors to immobilize their opponents or lead to a submission. ... David Michael Bautista (born January 18, 1969),[1] better known as Dave Batista or by the ring name Batista, is an American professional wrestler. ...


Passing out in a submission hold constitutes a loss by knockout. To determine if a wrestler has passed out in WWE, the referee usually picks up and drops his hand. If it drops three consecutive times without the wrestler having the strength to stop it from falling, the wrestler is considered to have passed out. At one point this was largely ignored, however the rule is now much more commonly observed for safety reasons. If the wrestler has considered to have passed out, the opponent then scores by submission. A boxer is knocked down and receives the 10-count. ...


A wrestler may voluntarily submit by verbally informing the referee. Also, a wrestler can indicate a voluntary submission by "tapping out"[4], that is, tapping a free hand against the mat or against an opponent. Submission was initially a large factor in professional wrestling, but following the decline of the submission-oriented catch-as-catch-can style from mainstream professional wrestling, the submission largely faded. Despite this, some wrestlers, such as Ric Flair, Kurt Angle, Chris Benoit, Ken Shamrock, and Bret Hart, became famous for winning matches via submission. A wrestler with a signature submission technique is portrayed as better at applying the hold, making it more painful or more difficult to get out of than others who use it. A submission (depending on the context also referred to as a tap out or tapping out) is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat. ... An idiomatic phrase in English describing a situation in which an ad hoc solution must be improvised due to the lack of ideal conditions. ... Richard Morgan Fliehr[2] (born on February 25, 1949 in Minneapolis, Minnesota[2]) better known by his ring name Ric Flair , is a legendary American professional wrestler of iconic staus signed to World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) on its SmackDown! brand. ... Kurt Steven Angle (born December 9, 1968) is an American professional wrestler and former Olympic amateur wrestler. ... Christopher Michael Benoit (IPA: ) (May 21, 1967 – June 24, 2007) was a Canadian professional wrestler who wrestled for Extreme Championship Wrestling, World Championship Wrestling, and World Wrestling Entertainment. ... Ken Shamrock (born Kenneth Wayne Kilpatrick on February 11, 1964 in Macon, Georgia) is an American mixed martial arts fighter. ... This article is about the professional wrestler. ...


Countout

A countout (alternatively "count-out" or "count out") happens when a wrestler is out of the ring long enough for the referee to count to ten (or twenty), and thus disqualified. The count is broken and re-started when a wrestler in the ring exits the ring. A wrestler entering the ring does not break the count for a wrestler outside the ring. If both wrestlers are outside the ring, the count refers to both. A common tactic, to buy more time outside the ring, is for one wrestler to re-enter the ring to restart the count and then immediately re-exit it (referred to as "breaking the count"). If both wrestlers remain outside at the count of ten, both are counted out in what is known as a "double countout" or "impossible draw".


If both wrestlers are lying on the mat and not moving, the referee may issue a ten count for them to get back to their feet. Either wrestler reaching their knees will break the count. If neither wrestler reaches their knees or feet, it is considered a draw, known as a double knockout or, incorrectly, an "in ring count-out."


The countout rule also indicates that a wrestler cannot score by standard methods while any part of his opponent's body is not in the ring. This allows escape from pinfalls and submission holds by putting any part of the body on the ring ropes (a rope break). A pin, a fall, or a pinfall (the last term most commonly used in professional wrestling) is a victory condition in various forms of wrestling that is met by holding an opponents shoulders or scapulae (shoulder blades) on the wrestling mat for a prescribed period of time. ...


The referee, in certain promotions, does not instigate a count despite wrestler's being out of the ring. This is usually after a large bump, where both wrestlers are taken down. This is, in kayfabe, to allow the contest to continue as neither wrestler would benefit from the count due to both wrestlers being incapacitated temporarily. In professional wrestling, kayfabe (pronounced KAY-fayb) refers to the portrayal of events within the industry as real, that is, the portrayal of professional wrestling as unstaged or not worked. ...


Disqualification

Disqualification from a match is called for a number of reasons:

  • Performing any illegal holds or maneuvers, such as refusing to break a hold when an opponent is in the ropes, hair-pulling, choking or biting an opponent, or repeatedly punching with a closed fist. These violations are usually subject to a referee-administered five count and will result in disqualification if not released before.
  • Attacking an opponent's eye, such as raking it, poking it, gouging it, punching it out or other severe attacks to the eye.
  • Any outside interference involving a person not involved in the match striking or holding a wrestler. If a heel attempts to interfere but is ejected from the ring by a wrestler or referee before this occurs, there is usually no disqualification. In this disqualification method, the wrestler being attacked by the foreign member is awarded the win.
  • Striking an opponent with a foreign object (unless the rules of the match specifically allow this).
  • A direct low blow to the groin (unless the rules of the match specifically allow this).
  • Intentionally laying hands on the referee or to an extreme case, often in special referee matches, touching the referee with any body parts.
  • Pulling an opponent's wrestling trunks for a pinfall during a match (although this usually only results in nullification of the pinfall).
  • Pulling an opponent's mask off during a match (this is illegal in Mexico).
  • Throwing your opponent over the top rope (this was once illegal in the National Wrestling Alliance, but is rarely enforced now).
  • In a Royal Rumble, it is illegal to enter the ring before your due entrance.

In practice, the rules of the fight are often violated without disqualification due to the referee being distracted and not seeing the offense, or the referee seeing the offense but allowing the match to continue. In WWE, a referee must see the violation with his own eyes to rule that the match end in a disqualification and the referee's ruling is almost always final. It is not uncommon for the referees themselves to get knocked out during a match. While the referee remains "unconscious", rules are often violated at will. In some cases, a referee might disqualify a person under the presumption that it was that wrestler who knocked him out; most referee knockouts are arranged to allow a wrestler, usually a heel, to gain an advantage. For example, a wrestler may get whipped into a referee at a slower speed, knocking the ref down for short amount of time; during that interim period, one wrestler may pin his opponent for a three-count and would have won the match but for the referee being down. Also, the referee rarely disqualifies the wrestler who knocked him down when the referee recovers. Eye-gouging using the thumb Eye-gouging is the act of pressing or tearing the eye using the fingers, other bodyparts, or instruments. ... // Foreign object is a professional wrestling term for an object introduced into the match. ... A groin attack is an attempt to cause pain to the groin area of ones opponent, either through punching, kicking, grappling, squeezing or biting. ... The National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) is the largest governing body for a group of independent professional wrestling promotions and sanctions various NWA championships. ... This article is about the professional wrestling pay-per-view event. ...


If all participants in a match continue to breach the referee's instructions, the match may end in a double disqualification, where both wrestlers or teams (in a tag team match) have been disqualified. The match is essentially nullified, and called a draw or in some cases a restart or the same match being held at a Pay Per View or next nights show. A professional wrestling tag-team consists of two or occasionally three wrestlers who are working together as a team. ...


In most wrestling promotions, a championship cannot change hands as a result of a disqualifications, often referred to as the "champions advantage." Playing into this, some heel wrestlers will attempt to "get themselves disqualified" to "protect" their championships. The WWE Championship belt, an example of a championship belt in professional wrestling. ...


A relatively recent trend in wrestling has been the development of the no-disqualification (or Hardcore) match. This type of match became increasingly prominent during the 1990s, and was a particular feature of the Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW) promotion. When WWE (then WWF) unveiled its new 'Attitude' era in 1997, the no-disqualification match was used as a centerpiece for this new design of wrestling, and a Hardcore Title was offered between 1998 and 2002. Completely new matches developed from the Hardcore/no-DQ match, including: Christian Cage after being chokeslammed onto a pile of thumbtacks. ... This article is about the independent promotion from 1992-2001. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE, is a professional wrestling promotion, currently the largest in North America. ... World Wrestling Entertainments Hardcore Championship was a championship defended under hardcore rules: No Disqualifications, meaning all weapons and interference are legal. ...

  • Ladder match (participants must post a ladder in the middle of the ring and climb it to grasp a hanging object - usually a title belt).
  • Tables, Ladders, and Chairs (a ladder match where all three items may be used as a weapon against an opponent).
  • Hardcore match (a no-disqualification match where falls count anywhere, even out of the venue).

Draw

A professional wrestling match can end in a draw. A draw occurs if both opponents are simultaneously disqualified (as via count-out), neither opponent is able to answer a ten-count, or both opponents simultaneously win the match. The latter can occur if, for example, one opponent's shoulders touch the mat while maintaining a submission hold against another opponent. If the opponent in the hold begins to tap out at the same time a referee counts to three for pinning the opponent delivering the hold, both opponents have legally achieved scoring conditions simultaneously. Traditionally, a championship may not change hands in the event of a draw, though some promotions such as TNA Wrestling have endorsed rules where the champion may lose a title by disqualification. A variant of the draw is the time-limit draw, where the match does not have a winner by a specified time period (a one-hour draw, which was once common, is known in wrestling circles as a "Broadway"). For the NES video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... A submission (depending on the context also referred to as a tap out or tapping out) is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat. ... // Total Nonstop Action Wrestling is an American professional wrestling promotion founded by Jeff Jarrett and his father Jerry Jarrett in May 2002. ...


"No Contest"

A wrestling match may be declared a "No Contest" if the winning conditions are unable to occur. This can be due to excessive interference, loss of referee's control over the match, one or more participants sustaining debilitating injury not caused by the opponent, or the inability of a scheduled match to even begin. A No Contest is a state separate and distinct from a draw -- a draw indicates winning conditions were met. Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably in practice, this usage is technically incorrect.


Dramatic elements

While each wrestling match is ostensibly a competition of athletics and strategy, the goal of each match from a business standpoint is to excite and entertain the audience. Although the competition is staged, dramatic emphasis can be utilized to draw out the most intense reaction from the audience. Heightened interest results in higher attendance rates, increased ticket sales, higher ratings on television broadcasts (which result in greater ad revenue), higher pay-per-view buyrates, and sales of branded merchandise and recorded video footage. All of these contribute to the profit of the promotion company. For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... From the earliest days of the medium, television has been used as a vehicle for advertising in some countries. ... Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Character

In Japan, most matches are treated as pure sport with seriousness of purpose (See puroresu). Puroresu is Japanese professional wrestling, as seen in FMW, New Japan Pro Wrestling, and All Japan Pro Wrestling. ...


In Latin America and English-speaking countries, most wrestlers (and other on-stage performers) portray character roles, sometimes with personalities wildly different from their own. These personalities are a gimmick intended to heighten interest in a wrestler without regard to athletic ability. Some can be unrealistic and cartoon-like, while others carry more verisimilitude. In lucha libre, many characters wear masks, adopting a secret identity akin to a super hero, a near-sacred tradition. A gimmick is a unique or quirky special feature that makes something stand out from its contemporaries. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers (luchadores), Rey Mysterio. ... For other uses of this term, please see Secret identity (disambiguation). ... A superhero is a fictional character who is noted for feats of courage and nobility and who usually has a colorful name and costume and abilities beyond those of normal human beings. ...


An individual wrestler may keep one persona for his entire career, or may change from time to time to better suit the demands of the audience or company. Sometimes a character is owned and trademarked by the company, forcing the wrestler to find a new one when he leaves, and sometimes a character is owned by the wrestler. Many wrestlers are strongly identified with their character, even responding to the name in public or between friends. A professional wrestling character's popularity can grow to the point that it makes appearances in other media (see Hulk Hogan, El Santo) or even give the performer enough visibility to enter politics (Antonio Inoki and Jesse Ventura, among others). Terrence Gene Bollea (born on August 11, 1953) is an American actor and semi-retired professional wrestler better known by his ring name Hulk Hogan. ... Rodolfo Guzman Huerta (September 23, 1917 - February 5, 1984), more widely known as Santo, El Enmascarado de Plata, or Samson, the silver-masked man in English translations, was a Mexican wrestler, actor, and folk hero. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Antonio Inoki (アントニオ猪木), real name Kanji Inoki[1] (猪木寛至 Inoki Kanji), born February 20, 1943) is a Professional Wrestling Promoter and retired Japanese professional wrestler and mixed martial artist who now resides in New York City. ... Jesse Ventura (born July 15, 1951), also known as The Body, The Star, and The Governing Body, is an American politician, retired professional wrestler, Navy UDT veteran, actor, and former radio and television talk show host. ...


Typically, matches are staged between a protagonist (historically an audience favorite, known as a face, or "the good guy") and an antagonist (historically a villain with arrogance, a tendency to break rules, or other unlikable qualities, called a heel). In recent years, however, anti-heroes have also become prominent in professional wrestling. There is also a less common role of a "tweener", who is neither fully face nor fully heel yet able to play either role effectively. A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... In professional wrestling, a face or babyface is a character who is portrayed as heroic relative to the heel wrestlers, who are analagous to villains. ... For other uses, see Antagonist (disambiguation). ... In professional wrestling, a heel is a villain character. ... In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ...


At times a character may "turn", altering their face/heel alignment. This may be an abrupt, surprising event, or it may slowly build up over time. It almost always is accomplished with a markable change in behavior on the part of the character. Some turns become defining points in a wrestler's career, as was the case when Hulk Hogan turned heel after being a top face for over a decade. Others may have no noticeable effect on the character's status. If a character repeatedly switches between being a face and heel, this lessens the effect of such turns, and may result in apathy from the audience. Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable amount of slang, in-references and jargon. ... The New World Order was a stable of wrestlers, originally in World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and later in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


As with personas in general, a character's face or heel alignment may change with time, or remain constant over its lifetime.


Story

While true exhibition matches are not uncommon, most matches tell a story analogous to a scene in a play or film, or an episode of a serial drama: The face will win (triumph) or lose (tragedy). Longer story arcs can result from multiple matches over the course of time. Since most promotions have a championship title, competition for the championship is a common impetus for stories. Also, anything from a character's own hair to his job with the promotion can be wagered in a match. An exhibition game is a sporting event in which there is no gain or loss from whether the competitors are victorious are not in any competition. ... A scene is an episode in a story. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... An episode is a part of a dramatic work such as a serial television or radio program. ... Serial drama is a television genre defining a weekly prime time television series that has a continuing plot that enfolds in a serial fashion, episode by episode. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A story arc is a term in episodic storytelling media such as television, comic books and comic strips that refers to a continuing storyline. ... Gamble redirects here. ...


Some matches are designed to further a story of only one participant. It could be intended to portray him or her as a strong unstoppable force, a lucky underdog, a sore loser, or any other characterization. Sometimes non-wrestling vignettes are shown in order to enhance a character's image without the need for matches. In theater and script writing, vignettes are short, impressionistic scenes that focus on one moment or give one impression about a character, an idea, or a setting. ...


Other stories result from a natural rivalry between two or more characters. Outside of performance, these are referred to as feuds. A feud can exist between any number of participants and can last for a few days up to multiple decades. The feud between Ric Flair and Ricky "The Dragon" Steamboat is considered the greatest in professional wrestling history and lasted from the late 70's into early 90's. The career-spanning history between characters Mike Awesome and Masato Tanaka is another example of a long-running feud. A professional wrestling feud is a staged disagreement between two wrestlers or factions of wrestlers over a purported slight or insult. ... Richard Morgan Fliehr[2] (born on February 25, 1949 in Minneapolis, Minnesota[2]) better known by his ring name Ric Flair , is a legendary American professional wrestler of iconic staus signed to World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) on its SmackDown! brand. ... Michael Lee Alfonso (January 24, 1965 – February 17, 2007) better known by his ring name Mike Awesome, was an American professional wrestler best known in America for his work in Extreme Championship Wrestling, World Championship Wrestling, and in World Wrestling Entertainment and also in Japan for his work with Frontier... Masato Tanaka (born February 23, 1973 in Wakayama City, Wakayama Prefecture) is a Japanese professional wrestler, best known for his appearances with Frontier Martial Arts Wrestling in Japan and in Extreme Championship Wrestling in the United States. ...


In theory, the longer a feud is built up, the more audience interest (aka heat) will exist. The main event of a wrestling show is generally the one with the most heat behind it. Commonly, a heel will hold the upper hand over a face until a final showdown, heightening dramatic tension as the face's fans desire to see him win. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Main Event is Australias only pay-per-view channel. ...


Since the advent of television, many other elements have been utilized to tell story within a professional wrestling setting: pre- and post-match interviews, "backstage" skits, positions of authority, division rankings (typically the #1-contendership spot), contracts, lotteries, and even news stories on promotion websites. For other uses, see Interview (disambiguation). ... Sketch Show redirects here. ...


Also, anything that can be used as an element of drama can exist in professional wrestling stories: romantic relationships (including love triangles and marriage), racism, classism, nepotism, favoritism, family bonds, personal histories, grudges, theft, cheating, assault, betrayal, bribery, seduction, stalking, confidence tricks, extortion, blackmail, substance abuse, self-doubt, self-sacrifice; even kidnapping, paedophilia, sexual fetishism, misogyny, rape and death have been portrayed in wrestling. Some promotions have included supernatural elements such as magic, curses, the undead and satanic imagery. Romantic love is a form of love that is often regarded as different from simply sexual love, or lust. ... A love triangle is a romantic relationship involving three people. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elitism is a belief or attitude that an elite— a selected group of persons whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field (see below)— are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... A young waif steals a pair of boots Stealing redirects here. ... Cheat redirects here. ... Betrayal, as a form of deception or dismissal of prior presumptions, is the breaking or violation of a presumptive social contract (trust, or confidence) that produces moral and psychological conflict within a relationship amongst individuals, between organizations or between individuals and organizations. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... // In sociology, seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person into an act. ... Stalking means criminally following or similarly harassing a person over an extended period. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the... Pedophilia (American English), pædophilia/paedophilia (Commonwealth English), or pedosexuality is the paraphilia of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to prepubescent children. ... Two women in handcuffs and latex miniskirts and tops - Latex and PVC fetishism Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Sexual fetishism is the sexual attraction for material and terrestrial objects while in reality the essence of the object is inanimate and sexless. ... In Eva Prima Pandora, by Jean Cousin (Louvre Museum), Eve, the equivalent of Pandora embodies Original Sin Misogyny (pronounced ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Undead (disambiguation). ... Peter H. Gilmore, High Priest of the Church of Satan. ...


Commentators have become important in communicating the relevance of the characters' actions to the story at hand, filling in past details and pointing out subtle actions that may otherwise go unnoticed. A sportscaster is an announcer on radio or television who specializes in reporting or commenting on sports events. ...


Championship titles

Professional wrestling mimics the structure of title match combat sports. Participants compete for a championship title, and must defend it after winning it. These titles are represented physically by a belt that can be worn by the champion. In the case of team wrestling, there is a belt for each member of the team. The WWE Championship belt, an example of a championship belt in professional wrestling. ... The WWE Championship belt, an example of a championship belt in professional wrestling. ... A Championship Belt is used primarily in combat sports such as boxing, mixed martial arts and professional wrestling to signify the champions of the promotion or company, much like the Vince Lombardi Trophy or The Stanley Cup. ...


Almost all professional wrestling promotions have one major title, and some have more. Titles are designated by divisions of weight, height, gender, wrestling style and other qualifications.


Typically, each promotion only recognizes the 'legitimacy' of their own titles, although cross-promotion does happen. Also, when one promotion absorbs or purchases another, the titles from the defunct promotion may continue to be defended in the new promotion.


Behind the scenes, the decision makers in a company will decide to give a title to the most accomplished performer, or the one with the most popular or exciting character. Lesser titles may also be awarded to those performers who show potential, thus allowing them greater exposure to the audience. Sometimes, though, a title will be given to a performer out of necessity, nepotism, politics, a desire for controversy, or other unmerited circumstance. A combination of a championship's lineage, the caliber of performers as champion, and the frequency and manner of title changes, dictates the audience's perception of the title's quality, significance and reputation. Stage has several meanings: In rocketry, a stage is one of several independent rockets used to reduce the need for fuel. ...


A wrestler's championship accomplishments can be central to their career, becoming a measure of their performance ability and drawing power. The most decorated wrestlers tend to be revered as legends. American wrestler Ric Flair has had multiple world title reigns spanning over three decades. Japanese wrestler Ultimo Dragon once held and defended a record 10 titles simultaneously. Richard Morgan Fliehr[2] (born on February 25, 1949 in Minneapolis, Minnesota[2]) better known by his ring name Ric Flair , is a legendary American professional wrestler of iconic staus signed to World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) on its SmackDown! brand. ... Yoshihiro Asai (born December 12, 1966 in Nagoya, Aichi), better known as Último Dragón, is a Japanese professional wrestler. ...


Non-standard matches

Often a match will take place under additional rules, usually serving as a special attraction or a climactic point in a feud or storyline. Sometimes this will be the culmination of an entire feud, ending it for the immediate future (known as a blowoff match).


Perhaps the most well-known non-standard match is the cage match, in which the ring is surrounded by a fence or similar metal structure, with the express intention of preventing escape or outside interference -- and with the added bonus of the cage being a potentially brutal weapon or platform for launching attacks. Many types of matches can be found in professional wrestling. ...


Another example is the WWE's Royal Rumble match, which involves thirty participants in a random and unknown order. The Rumble match is itself a spectacle in that it is a once-yearly event with multiple participants, including individuals who might not interact otherwise. But it also serves as a catalyst for the company's ongoing feuds, as well as a springboard for new storylines -- most importantly determining the main event at the following WrestleMania. This article is about the professional wrestling pay-per-view event. ...


Ring entrance

Triple H performing his iconic ring entrance pose, mounting the second rope and displaying his muscularity with the arena darkened and strobing colored lights

While the wrestling matches themselves are the primary focus of professional wrestling, a key dramatic element of the business can be entrances of the wrestlers to the arena and ring. It is typical for a wrestler to get their biggest crowd reaction (or 'pop') for their ring entrance, rather than for anything they do in the wrestling match itself. Paul Michael Levesque[4] (born July 27, 1969)[4] is an American professional wrestler, better known by the ring name Triple H, an abbreviation of his former Hunter Hearst Helmsley moniker. ...


All notable wrestlers now enter the ring accompanied by music, and regularly add other elements to their entrance. The music played during the ring entrance will usually mirror the wrestler's personality. Many wrestlers, particularly in America, have music and lyrics especially written for their ring entrance. While invented long before, the practice of including music with the entrance gained rapid popularity during the 1980s, largely as a result of the huge success of Hulk Hogan and the WWF, and their Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection. Terrence Gene Bollea (born on August 11, 1953) is an American actor and semi-retired professional wrestler better known by his ring name Hulk Hogan. ... The 1980s wrestling boom (sometimes referred to as the 2nd Golden Age of Wrestling) was a surge in the popularity of professional wrestling in the United States of America throughout the 1980s. ...


Other dramatic elements of a ring entrance can include:

  • a distinct sound or opening note in the music (used to elicit a Pavlovian response from the crowd)
  • pyrotechnics or smoke
  • complete darkening of the arena, often accompanied by mood lighting or strobe lighting
  • entering in a manner in keeping with their character traits, such as a fast, highly energetic entrance, or a slow, stoic entrance
  • driving a motor vehicle into the arena
  • acting out a trademark behavior, such as posing to display their muscularity, mounting the ring ropes, or sitting in the corner
  • talking to the crowd using a distinctive patter
  • coming through the audience, such The Sandman's beer drinking and can smashing entrance, or Diamond Dallas Page's exit through the crowd.
  • accompaniment by a ringside crew or personal security

Another method of entry involves descending from the ceiling with a zip line or rappel line and stunt harness. This has been done by Sting and Shawn Michaels, and gained some controversy over its role in the death of wrestler Owen Hart. Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ... This is a current Stagecraft collaboration! Please help improve it to good article standard. ... An animation illustrating the effect of strobe light A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light. ... Professional Bodybuilder Gustavo Badell posing Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing muscle hypertrophy through the combination of weight training, sufficient caloric intake, and rest. ... Patter is a glib rapid speech, that accompanies and comments some actions, e. ... James (Jim) Fullington (born June 16, 1963) better known by his ring name The Sandman, is an American professional wrestler, best known for his career with Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), where he was dubbed The Hardcore Icon. ... For the 1930s cricketer, see Dallas Page (cricketer) Page Joseph Falkinburg, Jr. ... A cornerman giving instructions. ... A zip-line (also known as a flying fox, zip wire, aerial runway, death slide or tyrolean crossing) consists of a pulley suspended on a cable mounted on an incline. ... Australian rappel demonstrated at a dam in Norway Abseiling (from the German: abseilen, to rope down) is the process of descending on a fixed rope. ... This article is about the musician. ... Michael Shawn Hickenbottom (born July 22, 1965) is an American professional wrestler, better known by the ring name Shawn Michaels. ... Owen James Hart (May 7, 1965 – May 23, 1999) was a Canadian professional wrestler who was most known for his time in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). ...


Some of the bigger stars in the industry, such as Triple H, The Undertaker, and The Sandman, can perform ring entrances lasting up to three minutes or more. It is not uncommon for ring entrances to sometimes last longer than the match itself, especially in matches involving a mismatch.


Special ring entrances are also developed for big occasions, most notably the WrestleMania event. WrestleMania III for example saw all wrestlers enter the arena on motorized miniature wrestling rings. Live bands are sometimes hired to perform live entrance music at special events. Official WrestleMania logo WrestleMania is an annual professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment since 1985. ... WrestleMania III was the third annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). ...


Wrestlers

Men's wrestling

Georg Hackenschmidt, first recognized World Heavyweight Champion.

The vast majority of professional wrestlers are men, especially in the North American WWE, where they are usually large in size, often to extremes. Notable examples include André the Giant, Hulk Hogan, Paul "Big Show" Wight, The Undertaker, Yokozuna, Giant Gonzales, The Great Khali, Umaga, and Kane. Usually, competitions or divisions are set up for men of similar wrestling styles, such as technical, brawling, high flying, lucha and hardcore. However, matches involving different weight divisions are often created and are never referred to as unusual or against any rules, despite large differences in height or strength. Rarely, men and women will sometimes wrestle each other. 1903 photograph. ... 1903 photograph. ... Hackenschmidt in 1903 Georg Karl Julius Hackenschmidt (August 2, 1878 in Tartu, Estonia - February 19, 1968 in London, England) was an early 20th-century strongman and professional wrestler. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... André René Roussimoff (May 19, 1946 – January 27, 1993), best known as André the Giant, was a French professional wrestler and actor. ... Terrence Gene Bollea (born on August 11, 1953) is an American actor and semi-retired professional wrestler better known by his ring name Hulk Hogan. ... Paul Randall Wight, Jr. ... For the Combichrist song, see Everybody Hates You Mark Calaway (born March 24, 1965[2][3]) is an American professional wrestler, better known by the ring name The Undertaker. ... Rodney Anoai (October 2, 1966 – October 23, 2000) was a Samoan-American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Yokozuna. ... Jorge Gonzales Jorge Gonzales (born January 30, 1966 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) was a professional wrestler who competed in the World Wrestling Federation in the early 1990s under his best known name, Giant Gonzales. ... Dalip Singh Rana[2] (born August 27, 1972) better known by his ring name The Great Khali, is an Indian professional wrestler and actor. ... Umaga may refer to either of the following individuals: Tana Umaga, New Zealand, former captain of the countrys national Rugby team, the All Blacks Eddie Fatu,extremely talented professional wrestler better known by his unique stage name Umaga Category: ... Glen Thomas Jacobs (born April 26, 1967) better known by his ring name Kane, is an American professional wrestler. ...


Women's wrestling

See also: WWE Diva and TNA Knockout

The women’s division of professional wrestling has maintained a recognized world champion since the mid-1950s, when the first NWA World Women's Championship was crowned (later the WWE Women's Championship). Traditionally, women’s matches were lower on the card and rarely considered main event material in the United States. Through the 1980s, women’s wrestling in the US was presented as a serious sport on the same level as men’s wrestling. It was not until the late 1990s that World Wrestling Entertainment began to present their women’s division with a focus on the women as "Divas" and eye-candy rather than athletes. Many of the women acted as managers and valets and had little training in wrestling[citation needed], although there was a brief period in the early-2000's where the women's championship division on WWE's flagship show RAW was once again promoted as a serious sport. Victoria, who has been in WWE since 2000 but made her debut on the main roster in 2002, is a two time Women’s Champion Diva is a term used by the professional wrestling promotion World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) to refer to its female talent. ... Knockout is a term used by Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) to refer to its female talent. ... The NWA World Womens Championship is the National Wrestling Alliances womens singles professional wrestling title. ... The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) Womens Championship is a professional wrestling championship in World Wrestling Entertainment. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... Management (from Old French ménagement the art of conducting, directing, from Latin manu agere to lead by the hand) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). ... In professional wrestling, a manager is a non-wrestler character who is paired with a wrestler. ... WWE Raw is the Monday night professional wrestling television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and is the primary broadcast of the RAW brand. ...


There are several other promotions where women’s wrestling is still presented and promoted as a serious sport. In the US, SHIMMER Women Athletes is an all-female pro-wrestling promotion considered on par with male wrestling. In the UK ChickFight are the leading company in women's professional wrestling again considered on par if not superior to male wrestling. In Japan, women’s wrestling has a long established history, with an all female promotion founded as early as 1955 (the predecessor to All Japan Women's Pro-Wrestling), and has always been presented as a serious, highly athletic sport on the same level as their male counterparts. In some promotions, like Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, where the focus was on "Hardcore" matches, female performers like Ashley Courtnage, Shark Tsuchiya, ”Combat” Toyota and Megumi Kudo also participated. The latter two headlined one of FMW’s largest cards in an "Exploding No Rope Barbed Wire Deathmatch." In the late 1990s, the two largest Japanese female federations closed, but females still compete in various other federations. SHIMMER – Women Athletes (SHIMMER) is a Chicago based female independent professional wrestling promotion which held its first event on November 6, 2005[1][2]. Established by Dave Prazak and run by both him and Allison Danger, the promotion was created with a mission to give North American as well as... All Japan Womens Pro-Wrestling (全日本女子プロレス, Zennihon Joshi Puroresu), nicknamed Zenjo (全女: å…¨ meaning All, 女 meaning Woman) is a joshi puroresu (womens professional wrestling) promotion established in 1968 by Takashi Matsunaga and his brothers. ... Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, better known by its initials FMW, was a revolutionary Japanese professional wrestling promotion founded in 1989 by Atsushi ÅŒnita (often spelled Ohnita). ... Megumi Takayama, better known under her stage name, which is also her maiden name, Megumi Kudo ), and by her nickname Kudome, is an entertainment personality, and was a professional wrestler who worked most of her career for Frontier Martial Arts Wrestling. ...


Midget wrestling

Further information: Midget wrestling

Midget wrestling can be traced to professional wrestling's carnival and vaudeville origins. In recent years, the popularity and prevalence of midgets in wrestling has greatly decreased due to wrestling companies depriving midget divisions of storyline and/or feud. However, WWE's SmackDown did feature a "Junior's division", for little people from 2005 to 2006. It is still a popular form of entertainment in Mexican wrestling, mostly as a "sideshow." A midget wrestler is a midget or person of short stature who competes in professional wrestling. ... For the video game series based on the show, see WWE SmackDown! (video game series). ...


Some wrestlers may have their own specific "mini me", like Mascarada Sagrada and his midget counterpart Mascarita Sagrada, Alebrije has Quije, etc. There are also cases in which midgets can become valets for a wrestler, and even get physically involved in matches, like Alushe, who often accompanies Tinieblas, or Kemonito, who is portrayed as Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre's mascot and is also a valet for Mistico. World Wrestling Entertainment's Dave Finlay is often aided in his matches by a midget known mainly as Hornswoggle, who hides under the ring and gives a shillelagh to Finlay to use on his opponent. Finlay also occasionally throws him at his opponent(s). Hornswoggle has also been given a run with the Cruiserweight Championship, and it has since been revealed that he is the (kayfabe) son of Dave Finlay. David Edward Dave Finlay (born October 20, 1958) is a British/Northern Irish professional wrestler and road agent. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A selection of shillelaghs A shillelagh (commonly pronounced shi-LAY-la or shi-LAY-lee (IPA: , in Irish Gaelic, (IPA: É•ale:lÉ™)) is a wooden club or cudgel, typically made from a stout knotty stick with a large knob on the end, that is associated with Ireland in folklore. ... The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) Cruiserweight Championship is a professional wrestling championship in World Wrestling Entertainment. ... In professional wrestling, kayfabe (pronounced KAY-fayb) refers to the portrayal of events within the industry as real, that is, the portrayal of professional wrestling as unstaged or not worked. ... David Edward Dave Finlay (born October 20, 1958) is a British/Northern Irish professional wrestler and road agent. ...


Intergender wrestling

For most of its history, women and men would never compete against each other in professional wrestling, as it was deemed to be unfair and unchivalrous. Andy Kaufman used this to gain notoriety when he created an Intergender Championship and declared it open to any female challenger. This led to a long feud with Jerry Lawler. Andrew Geoffrey Kaufman (January 17, 1949 – May 16, 1984) was an American entertainer, actor, and performance artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the 1980s, intergender tag team matches began to take place, with a male and female on each team and a rule that stated only the males and females could attack each other. If a tag was made, the other team had to automatically switch their legal wrestler too.


Intergender singles bouts were first fought on a national level in the 1990s. This began with Luna Vachon, who faced men (and usually defeated them) in both ECW and WWF. Later, Chyna became the first female to hold a heavyweight belt that was not exclusive to women when she won the WWF Intercontinental Championship . Luna Vachon Gertrude Vachon is a professional wrestler better known as Luna Vachon. ... Chyna[1] (born Joanie Marie Laurer (born December 27, 1969) is an American actress and retired professional wrestler. ... The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) Intercontinental Championship is a professional wrestling championship in World Wrestling Entertainment. ...

Independent Wrestlers

Unlike most other sports, the essence of Pro Wrestling's roots can still be seen all over the country. Independent Wrestling Circuits (or Leagues, Federations, or Promotions) can be found in almost any community in the United States, with some cities having numerous leagues using many of the same wrestlers as other nearby leagues. Many promotions have events at National Guard Armories, Recreation Centers, secondary schools, flea markets, churches, bars, and shopping center parking lots. Production values are almost always low, promotion is done by word of mouth, flyers, cable access television, and the internet, and many of the "workers" aren't as chiseled as the ones on television broadcasts. Still, many local wrestlers are extremely talented, with some grapplers' techniques and charisma surpassing some of those on broadcasts of the WWE or TNA. Independent wrestlers normally have "shoot jobs" and usually wrestle for the love of the business only, since most paydays are pretty low ($10-$20 for most wrestlers... and up to $100 or so for bigger draws). Sometimes workers from television broadcasts work Independent shows, generally resulting in a good payday for the league.


Select active wrestling federations and promotions

Major American Organizations

Independent Promotions Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) is an American professional wrestling promotion founded by Jeff Jarrett and his father Jerry Jarrett in May 2002. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ...

Puroresu CHIKARA (sometimes referred to as Chikara Pro) is an American professional wrestling promotion based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Combat Zone Wrestling (CZW) is an American based promotion, based around the ultraviolent style of professional wrestling. ... Full Impact Pro is a Professional Wrestling Promotion Based in Florida. ... Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South (also known as IWA Mid-South, IWA-MS, and IWA Mid South Wrestling) is an independent professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. ... // Jersey All Pro Wrestling is an independent wrestling promotion that was founded by Fat Frank Iadeavia on April 19, 1997 in Lake Hiawatha, New Jersey. ... Juggalo Championshit Wrestling (JCW) is an independent professional wrestling promotion run by the rap duo, Insane Clown Posse (Shaggy 2 Dope and Violent J). ... The National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) is the largest governing body for a group of independent professional wrestling promotions and sanctions various NWA championships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ring of Honor (disambiguation). ...

Lucha Libre All Japan Pro Wrestling ) (AJPW) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion established in 1972. ... Big Japan Pro Wrestling (BJW) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion established in 1995. ... New Japan Pro Wrestling (新日本プロレス, shin nihon puroresu) is a major professional wrestling federation in Japan, founded by Antonio Inoki in 1972. ... Pro Wrestling NOAH is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion, founded in 2000. ... Pro Wrestling ZERO1-MAX, formerly known as Pro Wrestling ZERO-ONE, is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion founded in 2001. ...

Asistencia Asesoría y Administración (AAA) is a Lucha Libre Professional wrestling promotion based in Mexico. ... Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre (CMLL) (Spanish for Worldwide Wrestling Council) is a Lucha Libre promotion based in Mexico City while running cards in Guadalajara, Puebla and elsewhere in central and southern Mexico. ...

Culture

Professional wrestling has developed its own cultures, both internal and external.


Those involved in producing professional wrestling have developed a kind of global fraternity, with familial bonds, shared language and passed-down traditions. New performers are expected to "pay their dues" for a few years by working in lower-profile promotions before working their way upward.[5][6] The permanent rosters of most promotions develop a backstage pecking order, with veterans mediating conflicts and mentoring younger wrestlers.[7] For many decades (and still to a lesser extent today) performers were expected to keep the illusions of wrestling's legitimacy alive even while not performing, essentially acting in character any time they were in public.[8] Some veterans speak of a "sickness" among wrestling performers, an inexplicable pull to remain active in the wrestling world despite the devastating effects the job can have on one's life and health.[9] For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ... Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable amount of slang, in-references and jargon. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... In Character (IC) is a roleplaying term, referring to the world of the characters, rather than the world of the players. ...


Fans of professional wrestling have their own subculture, comparable to those of anime, science fiction, video games or comic books. Those who are interested in the backstage occurences, future storylines and reasonings behind company decisions read newsletters written by journalists with inside ties to the wrestling industry.[2][8] These "rags" or "dirt sheets" have expanded into the internet, where their information can be dispensed on an up-to-the-minute basis. Some have expanded into radio shows. In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... Fandom (from the noun fan and the affix -dom, as in kingdom, dukedom, etc. ... Animé redirects here. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...


Some fans enjoy a pastime of collecting tapes of wrestling shows from specific companies, of certain wrestlers, or of specific genres. The internet has given fans exposure to worldwide variations of wrestling they would be unable to see otherwise.[10] Since the 1990s, many companies have been founded which deal primarily in wrestling footage.


Like other mainstream sports, fantasy leagues have developed around professional wrestling. Some take this concept further by creating E-feds (electronic federations), where a user can create their own fictional wrestling character, and roleplay storylines with other users, leading to scheduled "shows" where match results are determined by the organizers, usually based on a combination of the characters' statistics and the players' roleplaying aptitude, sometimes with audience voting. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In role-playing, participants adopt characters, or parts, that have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. ...


Every year, there are growing numbers of regional, national and international wrestling fan conventions, where fans can meet and converse with wrestlers and each other. These often coincide with a wrestling show featuring an all-star card filled with legends. A fan convention, or con, is an event in which the fans of a particular TV show, comic book, or actor, or an entire style of entertainment such as science fiction or anime, gather together to meet famous personalities (and each other) face-to-face. ... All-star (also, Allstar or All Star) is a term with meanings in both the worlds of sports and entertainment. ...


Professional wrestling in mainstream culture

From the first established world championship, the top professional wrestlers have garnered fame within mainstream society. Each successive generation has produced a number of wrestlers who extend their careers into the realms of music, acting, writing, business, politics or public speaking, and are known to those who are unfamiliar with wrestling in general. For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... Write redirects here. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... A modern day speaker addressing an audience through microphones Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. ...


Conversely, celebrities from other sports or general pop culture also become involved with wrestling for brief periods of time. A prime example of this is The Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection of the 1980s, which combined wrestling with MTV. For the 1998 movie, see Celebrity (1998 movie). ... The 1980s wrestling boom (sometimes referred to as the 2nd Golden Age of Wrestling) was a surge in the popularity of professional wrestling in the United States of America throughout the 1980s. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ...


Professional wrestling is often portrayed within other works using parody, and its general elements have become familiar tropes and memes in American culture. In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... In literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature. ... For other uses, see Meme (disambiguation). ...


Some terminology originating in professional wrestling has found its way into the common vernacular. Concepts such as "cage match", "body slam", "sleeper hold" and "tag team" are used even by those who do not watch professional wrestling. The term "smackdown", which originated in the late 90s in the World Wrestling Federation, is now listed in Webster's Dictionary as of 2007. 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is the common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, derived from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ...


Many television shows and films have been produced which portray in-character professional wrestlers as protagonists, such as Mucha Lucha, Nacho Libre, and the Santo film series. ¡Mucha Lucha! is packed with a menagerie of colorful characters. ... Nacho Libre is an American comedy film that was released on June 16, 2006, by Paramount Pictures, though it was released in select theaters earlier. ...


At least two stage plays set in the world of pro wrestling have been produced: The Baron is a comedy that retells the life of an actual performer known as Baron von Raschke. From Parts Unknown... is an award-nominated Canadian drama about the rise and fall of a fictional wrestler. Baron Von Raschke James Donald Raschke (born 1940- in Omaha, Nebraska) was a professional wrestler best known as Baron Von Raschke. ...


Critical study and analysis of professional wrestling

With its growing ubiquity, professional wrestling has attracted attention as a subject of serious academic study and journalistic criticism. Many courses, theses, essays and dissertations have analyzed wrestling's conventions, content, and its role in modern society. It is often included as part of studies on theatre, sociology, performance, and media.[11][12] Ubiquity is the ability to be present everywhere or at several places at once. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


But this was not always the case; in the early 20th century, once it became apparent that the "sport" was worked, pro wrestling was looked down on as a cheap entertainment for the uneducated working class[8] -- an attitude that still exists to varying degrees today.[2] The French theorist Roland Barthes was among the first to propose that wrestling was worthy of deeper analysis, in his essay "The World of Wrestling" from his book Mythologies, first published in 1957.[13][8] Barthes argued that it should be looked at not as a scamming of the ignorant, but as spectacle; a mode of theatric performance for a willing, if bloodthirsty, audience. This work is considered a foundation of all later study.[14] Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) (pronounced ) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... // Mythologies is the title of a book by Roland Barthes, published in 1957. ... In general spectacle refers to an event that is memorable for the appearance it creates. ...


While pro wrestling is often described simplistically as a "soap opera for males", it has also been cited as filling the role of past forms of literature and theatre; a synthesis of classical heroics[15], commedia dell'arte[16], revenge tragedies[17], morality plays[17] and burlesque[18]. The characters and storylines portrayed by a successful promotion are seen to reflect the current mood, attitudes, and concerns of that promotion's society[2][10] (and can, in turn, influence those same things[19]). Wrestling's high levels of violence and masculinity make it a vicarious outlet for aggression during peacetime.[20] The first TIME cover devoted to soap operas: Dated January 12, 1976, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of our Lives are featured with the headline Soap Operas: Sex and suffering in the afternoon. A soap opera is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction, usually broadcast on television... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Commedia redirects here. ... The revenge play or revenge tragedy is a specific form of tragedy, extremely popular in the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. ... Morality plays are a type of theatrical allegory in which the protagonist is met by personifications of various moral attributes who try to prompt him to choose a godly life over one of evil. ... For other uses, see Burlesque (disambiguation). ... A mood is a relatively lasting affective state. ... Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals like or dislike for an item. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Manliness redirects here. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Peacetime is the eighth studio album by Eddi Reader released in the UK on January 29, 2007. ...


Documentary filmmakers have studied the lives of wrestlers and the effects the profession has on themselves and their families. The 1999 theatrical documentary Beyond The Mat focused on Terry Funk, a wrestler nearing retirement; Mick Foley, a wrestler within his prime; Jake Roberts, a former star fallen from grace; and a school of wrestling students trying to break into the business. The 2005 release Lipstick and Dynamite chronicled the development of women's wrestling throughout the twentieth century. Pro wrestling has been featured several times on HBO's Real Sports. MTV's documentary series True Life featured two episodes titled "I'm a Professional Wrestler" and "I Want to Be a Professional Wrestler". Other documentaries have been produced by The Learning Channel (The Secret World of Professional Wrestling) and A&E Network (Hitman Hart: Wrestling with Shadows). Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Beyond the Mat is a 1999 professional wrestling documentary, directed by Barry Blaustein. ... Terrance (Terry) Funk (born June 30, 1944) is an American professional wrestler, known chiefly for the hardcore wrestling style he adopted in the later part of his career that inspired many later wrestlers, most notably Mick Foley. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ... Michael Francis Mick Foley, Sr. ... Aurelian Jake Smith, Jr. ... A professional wrestling school is a school or gym that teaches students the necessary skills to become pro wrestlers. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Real Sports with Bryant Gumble is a monthly magazine on HBO that started on April 2, 1995. ... True Life is a documentary series running on MTV from 1998 to the present. ... TLC Network is a cable TV network in the US that carries a variety of informational and reality-based programming. ... Biography is one of A&Es longest-running and most popular programs. ...


See also

Professional wrestling is a popular form of entertainment in North America, Japan, and Europe. ...

Terminology

// Foreign object is a professional wrestling term for an object introduced into the match. ... A folding chair is a light portable chair that can be stored in a stack or row, be thrown or be swung. ... Aerial techniques are used in professional wrestling to show off the speed and agility of a wrestler. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Shawn Michaels performing a Moonsault on Chris Jericho. ... Attacking maneuvers in the kayfabe of professional wrestling are mainly used to wear down an opponent for a submission hold or as a set up for a throw. ... Hulk Hogan performing the Atomic Leg Drop on Mr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Double-team maneuvers in professional wrestling are when two wrestlers work together to attack an opponent, these moves are mainly used by tag teams in tag matches. ... This article is about the theoretical world-ending destruction. ... Professional wrestling holds include a number of set moves and pins used by competitors to immobilize their opponents or lead to a submission. ... Boston crab The Boston crab is a professional wrestling hold that typically starts with the opponent laying back-first on the mat, with the wrestler standing and facing them. ... The Mandible Claw is a professional wrestling maneuver which, when applied correctly, causes intense and legitimate pain. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bret Hart applying the Sharpshooter on Shawn Michaels. ... Many types of matches can be found in professional wrestling. ... Much like singles matches, tag team professional wrestling matches can and have taken many forms. ... On various occasions in professional wrestling a single-elimination tournament of varying match types are held, often to determine a championship or number-one contendership therein. ... Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable amount of slang, in-references and jargon. ... Body Slam redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Brainbuster, also known as an Avalanche Suplex, is a professional wrestling throw in which a wrestler puts his/her opponent in a front facelock, hooks his/her tights, and lifts him/her up as if he/she was executing a vertical suplex. ... Big Show prepairing to give JBL a Chokeslam A chokeslam (Japanese: nodowa otoshi) refers to a type of body slam in professional wrestling in which the wrestler grasps their opponents neck, lifts them up, and slams them to the mat. ... Randy Orton performing his RKO finisher (One-handed jumping cutter) on Shawn Michaels In professional wrestling, a cutter is a common term which refers to the three-quarter facelock bulldog maneuver. ... In professional wrestling a DDT is any move in which the wrestler falls down or backwards to drive a held opponents head into the mat. ... A facebuster, also known as a face plant, is generally a takedown move in professional wrestling in which an attacking wrestler forces his/her opponent down to the mat face-first without involving a headlock or facelock. ... In professional wrestling a neckbreaker is any throw or slam that focuses its attack on the opponent’s neck. ... A piledriver is a professional wrestling driver move in which the wrestler grabs his opponent, turns him upside-down, and drops into a sitting or kneeling position, driving the opponents head into the mat. ... A Powerbomb is a professional wrestling move in which an opponent is lifted up (usually so that they are sitting on the wrestlers shoulders) and then slammed back-first down to the mat. ... A Powerslam is a professional wrestling body slam move in which the wrestler performing the slam falls face-down on top of his/her opponent. ... A stunner is a common term in professional wrestling referring to the sitout three-quarter facelock jawbreaker maneuver. ... The Big Show performs a Vertical suplex on JBL during a house show. ...

Professional wrestling worldwide

Professional wrestling in Australia makes up a small but growing part of Australian culture. ... New Japan Pro Wrestling is one of the most popular professional wrestling promotions in the World. ... One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers (luchadores), Rey Mysterio. ... British Wrestling or UK Wrestling is Professional wrestling performed within the boundaries of the United Kingdom. ... André the Giant after winning the WWF World Championship. ...

Lists of wrestlers

This is a incomplete list of professional wrestlers, commentators, managers, road agents and other workers associated in professional wrestling categorised up into promotion of which the wrestlers are mainly associated: Major Promotions All Japan Pro Wrestling roster Combat Zone Wrestling roster Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre roster Dragon Gate roster...

Types of professional wrestling

Puroresu is Japanese professional wrestling, as seen in FMW, New Japan Pro Wrestling, and All Japan Pro Wrestling. ... One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers (luchadores), Rey Mysterio. ...

Fantasy professional wrestling

Fantasy wrestling (also referred to as e-wrestling) is an umbrella term representing the genre of role-playing and statistics-based games which are set in professional wrestling companies. ...

Radio programs

David Allen Meltzer (born October 24, 1961) is the editor of the Wrestling Observer Newsletter (WON), a newsletter for the world of professional wrestling and mixed martial arts. ... talkSPORT is one of the United Kingdoms three terrestrial analogue Independent National Radio broadcasters, offering a commercial sports and talk radio service from London to the United Kingdom. ...

In fiction

This article is about the comic book company. ... It has been suggested that Unlimited Class Wrestling Foundation be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  1. ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Comparative Media Studies course on Professional Wrestling -- Official Course weblog
  2. ^ a b c d Lipscomb, William (May 2005). The Operational Aesthetic in the Performance of Professional Wrestling (pdf). Department of Communications Studies, Louisiana State University.
  3. ^ Powell, John (1998). Wrestling Expose Insults Fans. SLAM! Wrestling. SLAM! Sports.
  4. ^ Rules of professional wrestling
  5. ^ Grabianowski, Ed. Wrestling School. How Professional Wrestling Works. HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  6. ^ Ryan, Derek (2007-08-11). Discovery: Accidental Perfection. The Wrestling Oratory. “"Dragon Gate is a unique promotion as they still follow many of wrestling’s biggest traditions, one being that veterans get theirs first because rookies need to “pay their dues” like they did."”
  7. ^ Gadd, Mitchell (2006-07-13). Unions. Reading Between the Ropes. WrestleZone.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  8. ^ a b c d Kreit, Alex (1998). Professional Wrestling and Its Fans: A Sociological Study of the Sport of Pro-Wrestling. Solie's Vintage Wrestling. Jump City Productions. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  9. ^ Kamchen, Richard (2008-02-05). Retro review: Piper's tale scrappy as he is. SLAM! Wrestling. SLAM! Sports. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  10. ^ a b Bollom, Brandon W. (May 7, 2004). Professional Wrestling Migration: Puroresu in America (pdf). Retrieved on 2008-03-20.
  11. ^ Ernesto Cruz, Caceres (2005). "Monday Night Identity Wars: The Evolution of Performance Conventions in Professional Wrestling".. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. 
  12. ^ Ledford, Brian. "Grappling with Masculinity: Representation and Reception of Televised Professional Wrestling Imagery"., 2005 Spring Colloquium: Thinking About Masculinity: SIUE College of Arts and Sciences. 
  13. ^ Barthes, Roland (1957). The World Of Wrestling. Mythologies. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  14. ^ Lagorio, Christine (2005-01-04). Wrestling With The Margins. Education Supplement 2005. The Village Voice. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  15. ^ Plank, Dr. William. The Athlete as Buffoon: Cultural and Philosophical Considerations on Professional Wrestling. Montana State University-Billings.
  16. ^ Adams, Jonathan (2006-11-09). Foreign Objects Included. The Scope magazine. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. “There is a sense in which wrestling resembles nothing if not a kind of postmodern commedia dell’arte”
  17. ^ a b Mazer, Sharon (1998). Professional Wrestling: Sport and Spectacle. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. 
  18. ^ Garvin, Diana (2005). Et tu, Steve Austin?. The Harvard Crimson. Harvard University. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  19. ^ "Merchants of Cool". Frontline. 2001-02-27.
  20. ^ Farley, Frank. CZW: Blood, Philadelphia and Fun. Rat Blood Soup magazine.

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External links

Professional wrestling
Portal
Image File history File links Portal. ... Earl Caddock (February 27, 1888 - August 25, 1950) is a professional wrestler who was active in the early portion of the twentieth century. ... Joe Stecher, (April 4, 1893 - March 29, 1974), sometimes spelled Joe Stetcher, was a professional wrestler and multiple time World Heavyweight Champion. ... Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) (pronounced ) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Prime Time Wrestling redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stampede Wrestling is a Canadian professional wrestling promotion based in Calgary, Alberta and was once one of the main promotions in western Canada and the Canadian Prairies for almost a half century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In 1996 former American Wrestling Association employees Dale Gagner and Jonnie Stewart relicensed the American Wrestling Association name in the state of Minnesota and the promotion opened up as an independent promotion called AWA Superstars of Wrestling. ... The National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) is the largest governing body for a group of independent professional wrestling promotions and sanctions various NWA championships. ... NWA All Star Wrestling is a former Canadian professional wrestling promotion, based in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Maple Leaf Wrestling was a celebrated NWA territory promoted out of Toronto’s Maple Leaf Gardens for nearly 50 years and run by Frank Tunney, who incorporated Tunney Sports out of the Queensbury Athletic Club before serving as NWA President from 1960-61. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... New Japan Pro Wrestling is one of the most popular professional wrestling promotions in the World. ... New Japan Pro Wrestling (新日本プロレス, shin nihon puroresu) is a major professional wrestling federation in Japan, founded by Antonio Inoki in 1972. ... All Japan Pro Wrestling ) (AJPW) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion established in 1972. ... Pro Wrestling NOAH is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion, founded in 2000. ... The original Japanese-based Universal Wrestling Federation (UWF) was a Japanese professional wrestling promotion from 1984 to 1986, formed by wrestlers who had left New Japan Pro Wrestling. ... Nihon Puroresu Kyōkai (日本プロレス協会, Japan Pro Wrestling Alliance or Japan[ese] Wrestling Association) was the first professional wrestling promotion to be based in Japan. ... International Pro-Wrestling (国際プロレス興行;, Kokusai Puroresu Kogyo, International Wrestling Enterprise) was a professional wrestling promotion in Japan from 1967 to 1981. ... Super World of Sports, more commonly known as SWS, was a Japanese professional wrestling promotion from 1990 to 1992. ... Union of Wrestling Forces International, better known as UWF International or simply UWFi, was a stiff-style|shoot-style professional wrestling promotion in Japan from 1991 to 1996. ... All Japan Womens Pro-Wrestling (全日本女子プロレス, Zennihon Joshi Puroresu), nicknamed Zenjo (全女: 全 meaning All, 女 meaning Woman) is a joshi puroresu (womens professional wrestling) promotion established in 1968 by Takashi Matsunaga and his brothers. ... GAEA Japan is a Japenese Professional Wrestling Promotion for women. ... The original Tokyo Pro Wrestling was a professional wrestling promotion in Japan from 1966 to 1967. ... Pioneer Senshi was the first-ever independent promotion in Japanese wrestling history. ... Pro Wrestling Fujiwara Group (Purofesshonaru-resuringu Fujiwara-Gumi, プロフェッショナルレスリング藤原組) was a shoot style professional wrestling promotion based in Japan, operating from 1991 to 1995. ... RINGS was a Japanese professional wrestling promotion from 1991 to 2002. ... Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, better known by its initials FMW, was a revolutionary Japanese professional wrestling promotion founded in 1989 by Atsushi Ōnita (often spelled Ohnita). ... Wrestling And Romance, and later Wrestle Association R, was a professional wrestling promotion founded and run by Genichiro Tenryu as the successor to Super World of Sports, and which lasted from 1992 to 2000. ... Big Japan Pro Wrestling (BJW) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion established in 1995. ... Universal Lucha Libre (Universal Pro-Wrestling until 1991; Federación Universal de Lucha Libre afterwards) was a professional wrestling promotion in Japan from 1990 to 1995. ... Michinoku Pro Wrestling (also known as North Eastern Wrestling) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion, founded by The Great Sasuke in 1993. ... HUSTLE is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion managed by Nobuhiko Takada. ... Osaka Pro Wrestling is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion, founded in 1998 by Super Delfin. ... International Wrestling Association of Japan, more commonly known as IWA Japan, is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion operating since 1994. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Pro Wrestling ZERO1-MAX, formerly known as Pro Wrestling ZERO-ONE, is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion founded in 2001. ... Fighting World of Japan Pro-Wrestling, frequently shortened to World Japan or WJ, and also known as Riki Pro, is a professional wrestling promotion formed in Japan in 2003. ... Dragon Gate is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion formerly known as Toryumon Japan. ... Dramatic Dream Team, better known by its initials DDT or its logo reading D2T, is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion founded in 1997 by Sanshiro Takagi. ... Kaientai Dojo (or K-DOJO for short) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion and training facility owned and promoted by Taka Michinoku. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Inoki Genome Federation (IGF) is a professional wrestling promotion in Japan founded by Antonio Inoki in 2007. ... BattlARTS (格闘探偵団バトラーツ, Kakutō Tentei-dan Batorātsu, Fighting Investigation Team Battlarts) is a professional wrestling promotion based in Koshigaya, Saitama, Japan. ... JDStar, or Jd, is a womens wrestling promotion based in Tokyo, Japan. ... SENDAI Girls Pro Wrestling (SGPW), often called Senjo, is a Japanese womens professional wrestling promotion. ... The logo of the Global Professional Wrestling Alliance The Global Professional Wrestling Alliance (GPWA) are a group of professional wrestling promotions and wrestlers from around the world who have come together to cooperate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Lucha libre, a Spanish phrase loosely translated into English as free fight, is a genre of professional wrestling developed in Mexico. ... Asistencia Asesoría y Administración (AAA) is a Lucha Libre Professional wrestling promotion based in Mexico. ... Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre (CMLL) (Spanish for Worldwide Wrestling Council) is a Lucha Libre promotion based in Mexico City while running cards in Guadalajara, Puebla and elsewhere in central and southern Mexico. ... Grupo Internacional Revolucion (IWRG) is a Lucha Libre Professional wrestling promotion based in Naucalpan, Mexico. ... WWA (world wrestling assocition) is a promotion that ran in Mexico probaly in Tijauna that featured the Mexicos best luchadors at the time such as Rey Mysterio, La Parka,Juventud ,etc ... Incorporated as Lucha Libre Internacional, S.C. in January 1975 after Ray Mendoza split from the EMLL to form a new organization with Fancisco Flores and Benjamin Mora Jr. ... Universal Lucha Libre (Universal Pro-Wrestling until 1991; Federación Universal de Lucha Libre afterwards) was a professional wrestling promotion in Japan from 1990 to 1995. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... André the Giant after winning the WWF World Championship. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) is an American professional wrestling promotion founded by Jeff Jarrett and his father Jerry Jarrett in May 2002. ... For other uses, see Ring of Honor (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW) is an American independent professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. ... The East Coast Wrestling Association (ECWA) is an American professional wrestling promotion which began its life on August 27, 1967 (making the promotion 38 years old). ... !BANG! is a professional wrestling promotion owned by Dory Funk, Jr. ... Memphis Wrestling is an American professional wrestling promotion based in Memphis, Tennessee. ... Full Impact Pro is a professional wrestling promotion based out of Florida. ... Dave Hebner (born May 17, 1949 in Richmond, Virginia) is an American professional wrestling authority figure, promoter, road agent and referee. ... CHIKARA (sometimes referred to as Chikara Pro) is an American professional wrestling promotion based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... This page has been deleted, and should not be re-created without a good reason. ... Pro Wrestling Alliance Logo Pro Wrestling Alliance (PWA) is an independent professional wrestling promotion based in Houston, Texas. ... The Heartland Wrestling Association is a Midwestern independent professional wrestling promotion based in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Ultimate Pro Wrestling (UPW) is a Professional wrestling promotion owned and operated by Rick Bassman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tod A. Gordon was the founder of Eastern Championship Wrestling, later Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW). ... Deep South Wrestling, or DSW for short, is a professional wrestling promotion located in the south U.S. and features some wrestlers from the 1980s, 1990s and present time wrestlers. ... The Empire Wrestling Federation (EWF) is an independent wrestling promotion based in San Bernardino, California. ... Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South (also known as IWA Mid-South, IWA-MS, and IWA Mid South Wrestling) is an independent professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Maryland Championship Wrestling is a regional independent wrestling federation that bases most of its cards in Maryland, but has held cards in all neighboring states as well. ... Combat Zone Wrestling (CZW) is an American based promotion, based around the ultraviolent style of professional wrestling. ... Juggalo Championshit Wrestling (JCW) is an independent professional wrestling promotion run by the rap duo, Insane Clown Posse (Shaggy 2 Dope and Violent J). ... // History Jersey All Pro Wrestling was started by Fat Frank Iadeavia on April 19, 1997 in Lake Hiawatha, New Jersey. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SHIMMER – Women Athletes (SHIMMER) is a Chicago based female independent professional wrestling promotion which held its first event on November 6, 2005[1][2]. Established by Dave Prazak and run by both him and Allison Danger, the promotion was created with a mission to give North American as well as... Womens Extreme Wrestling (WEW), also known as Womens Erotic Wrestling, is an all woman professional wrestling promotion based in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with offices in New York City, New York. ... The National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) is the largest governing body for a group of independent professional wrestling promotions and sanctions various NWA championships. ... In 1996 former American Wrestling Association employees Dale Gagner and Jonnie Stewart relicensed the American Wrestling Association name in the state of Minnesota and the promotion opened up as an independent promotion called AWA Superstars of Wrestling. ... The logo of the Global Professional Wrestling Alliance The Global Professional Wrestling Alliance (GPWA) are a group of professional wrestling promotions and wrestlers from around the world who have come together to cooperate. ... For the Australian professional wrestling promotion, see World Championship Wrestling (Australia). ... This article is about the independent promotion from 1992-2001. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jim Crockett Promotions was the name of a professional wrestling promotion owned by Jim Crockett, Jr. ... Not to be confused with World Championship Wrestling. ... The Universal Wrestling Federation was a regional professional wrestling federation founded by Leroy McGuirk, and later owned by Bill Watts. ... The United States Wrestling Association or USWA was a professional wrestling promotional organization based in Memphis, Tennessee. ... Smoky Mountain Wrestling Logo Smoky Mountain Wrestling was an organization staging professional wrestling in the Appalachian area of the United States from October 1991 to December 1995, when it was run by Jim Cornette. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Non notable wrestling promotion, no third party sources, fails WP:CORP If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... Georgia Championship Wrestling was a professional wrestling promotion whose self-titled TV program aired in the 1970s and 1980s on U.S. cable channel TBS (Turner Broadcasting System). ... The following article refers to the commonly misnamed Championship Wrestling from Florida (CWF). ... Continental Championship Wrestling was a professional wrestling promotion based out of Knoxville, Tennessee and Dothan, Alabama, managed by Ron Fuller between 1985 until 1988 where Fuller sold the promotion and it changed name to the Continental Wrestling Federation. ... Heart of America Sports Attractions (also known as Central States Wrestling) is an American professional wrestling promotion. ... Pacific Northwest Wresting (PNW) was a Portland, Oregon based professional wrestling company. ... The St. ... WWA (world wrestling assocition) is a promotion that ran in Mexico probaly in Tijauna that featured the Mexicos best luchadors at the time such as Rey Mysterio, La Parka,Juventud ,etc ... For the regional professional wrestling territory promoted by Angelo Poffo from 1978-84, see International Championship Wrestling. ... Global Wrestling Federation was a professional wrestling promotion based in Dallas, Texas. ... The Universal Wrestling Federation, or UWF, was a national professional wrestling federation founded by Herb Abrams. ... Wrestling Society X (WSX) was a short lived professional wrestling-based television series produced in 2006 by Big Vision Entertainment. ... Memphis Championship Wrestling (MCW) was a professional wrestling promotion ran by Terry Golden, based in Memphis, Tennesse. ... X Wrestling Federation - commonly known as XWF - was a short lived professional wrestling promotion from late 2001 to early 2002. ... Hardcore Homecoming was a professional wrestling promotion that was booked by Shane Douglas, a former ECW World Heavyweight Champion. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pro-Pain-Pro-Wrestling, or 3PW, was wrestling promotion which was based around Philadelphia, PA. They were an ECW-style promotion, running many of their shows from the former ECW Arena. ... Major League Wrestling (MLW) was a professional wrestling promotion that based its presentation around hybrid wrestling, which encompasses and showcases many different forms of wrestling. ... The American Wrestling Federation, or AWF, was a national professional wrestling federation founded by Paul Alperstein. ... The Organization Of Modern Extreme Grappling Arts, also known as OMEGA, was an independent wrestling promotion in Cameron, North Carolina and other parts of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... The Ladies Professional Wrestling Association (LPWA) was an all-female wrestling promotion which operated in the early 1990s (c. ... Gorgeous Ladies of Wrestling, also known as GLOW or G.L.O.W., was a professional wrestling promotion for women, begun in 1986 (the pilot was filmed in December of 1985) and continued in various forms after it left television. ... Women of Wrestling, aka WOW, is a defunct pro wrestling promotion founded in 2000 by David McLane, previously the founder of Gorgeous Ladies Of Wrestling and Powerful Women of Wrestling. ... Pro Wrestling USA was a Professional wrestling promotion in the United States of America in the mid 1980s. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Crowbar Press - Professional Wrestling's Legends in Print and Video (1293 words)
For decades, professional wrestling fans have asked the question – "Is that wrestling fake?" However, they wouldn't have dared ask that question directly to Ivan Koloff, whose work in the ring made believers out of the most cynical viewers.
Discover the drama of the fascinating world of professional wrestling — the inside stories, ribs, tales of the road — all written by those who were inside the wrestling business.
The Infernos are a legend in wrestling circles and considered by many as the most famous masked tag team in the history of professional wrestling.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Professional wrestling in Japan (457 words)
New Japan Pro Wrestling is one of the most popular professional wrestling promotions in the World.
Rikidōzan (Kanji: 力道山) was a professional wrestler, known as the Father of Puroresu and one of the most influential men in wrestling history.
Professional Sumo is practiced exclusively in Japan, where it originated, but wrestlers of other nationalities participate.
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