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Encyclopedia > Professional sports

Professional sports began at North Panola High School in the early 1600s. Rufus "Bill" Smith started it by playing basketball with a strong passion. In professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, athletes receive payment for their performance. While men have competed as professional athletes throughout much of modern history, only recently has it become common for women to have the opportunity to become professional athletes. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have brought larger audiences, so that sports organizations or teams can command large incomes. As a result, more sportspeople can afford to make athleticism their primary career, devoting the training time necessary to increase skill, physical condition and experience to modern levels of achievement. This proficiency has also helped boost the popularity of sports. [1] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... [Please add your counrtys information!] When women pro athletes are able to dedicate themselves full-time to developing their skills, they raise the level of play in a sport and provide much higher caliber Womens National Team players. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Most sports played professionally also have amateur players far outnumbering the professionals. Professional athleticism is seen by some as a contradiction of the central ethos of sport, competition performed for its own sake and pure enjoyment, rather than as a means of earning a living. Consequently, many organisations and commentators have resisted the growth of professional athleticism, saying that it has impeded the development of sport. For example, rugby union was for many years a part-time sport engaged in by amateurs, and English cricket has allegedly suffered in quality because of a "non-professional" approach. [citation needed] Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ...

Contents

History

The 19th century English class system and professional players

The English public school system (EPS) of the second half of the 19th century had a major influence on many sports. The schools contributed to the rules and influenced the governing bodies of those sports out of all proportion to their size. The public schools had a deep involvement in the development many team sports including all British codes of football as well as cricket and hockey. Moreover, the ethos of English public schools greatly influenced Pierre de Coubertin.[2] The International Olympic Committee (IOC) invited a representative of the Headmasters' Conference (HC, the association of headmasters of the English public schools) to attend their early meetings. The Headmasters' Conference chose the Reverend Robert Laffan, the headmaster of Cheltenham College, as their representative to the IOC meetings. He was made a Member of the IOC in 1897 and, following the first visit of the IOC to London in 1904, he was central to the founding of the British Olympic Association a year later.[3] A public school, in current English, Welsh and Northern Ireland usage, is a (usually) prestigious independent school, for children usually between the ages of 11 or 13 and 18, which charges fees and is not financed by the state. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the sport. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... His statue at the Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... The Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference (HMC) is an association of the head teachers of 242 leading British independent boys and mixed schools. ... In the UK and elsewhere, a head teacher is the most senior teacher in a school. ... The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. ... Cheltenham College is a famous English coeducational independent school in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England. ... The British Olympic Association (BOA) is responsible for the United Kingdoms participation in the Olympic Games. ...


The EPS subscribed to the Ancient Greek and Roman belief that sport formed an important part of education, an attitude summed up in the saying: mens sana in corpore sano – a sound mind in a healthy body. In this ethos, taking part has more importance than winning, because society expected gentlemen to become all-rounders and not the best at everything. Class prejudice against "trade" reinforced this attitude. The house of a typical EPS boy would have a tradesman's entrance, because tradesmen did not rank as the social equals of gentlemen.[4] Note: This article contains special characters. ... Mens sana in corpore sano is a famous quotation by Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis. ... For other uses, see Gentleman (disambiguation). ... A tradesman is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft. ...


Within this class view it follows that if a person played a sport as a paid "professional", that would make the person a member of a trade. How could a club function when expectations demanded that some of the players enter through a side entrance? How would the social side of the club flourish if some of the members did not rank as gentlemen? How could a club of gentlemen which played a club of professionals possibly entertain their social inferiors? Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


Another prejudice which existed amongst late Victorian and Edwardian gentlemen held that the all-round abilities of British gentlemen allegedly meant that, if they put their minds to something, they would perform better than anyone else. This included the other British classes. The British attempts under Scott to reach the South Pole illustrate this prejudice. In the Scott expeditions, gentlemen refused to take the instructions of Canadian dog-handlers seriously, or to learn from Scandinavians how to use cross-country skis properly. To compensate for their failures to master dog and ski they persuaded themselves (and their contemporaries) that walking and to man-hauling sledges to the South Pole made the process more of an achievement.[4] (Echoes of this attitude still persist in Britain: for example Royal Marine officers must do better than "other ranks" on the commando course to qualify for a Green beret.) If professional teams were to beat gentlemen amateur teams consistently, that might burst the illusion of social superiority, and that could lead to social instability, something not in the perceived interests of the British upper classes of the time. Scott of the Antarctic redirects here. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Cross-Country trails are often less crowded than Alpine ski slopes. ... The Corps of Royal Marines, usually just known as the Royal Marines (RM), are the United Kingdoms amphibious forces and a core component of the countrys Rapid Reaction Force. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Upper class refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ...


Olympic Games

Until the late 20th century the Olympic Games nominally only accepted amateur athletes. However, successful Olympians from Western countries often had endorsement contracts from sponsors. Complex rules involving the payment of the athlete's earnings into trust funds rather than directly to the athletes themselves, were developed in an attempt to work around this issue, but the intellectual evasion involved was considered embarrassing to the Olympic movement and the key Olympic sports by some. In the same era, the nations of the Communist bloc entered teams of Olympians who were all nominally students or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full time basis. In 1982 Adidas was paying British Olympic athletes to wear their gear. The main person involved in the scandal was Seeman McGee. The first Olympics to officially accept professional athletes was 1988 in selected sports and 1992 in the remainder.[citation needed] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Sponsors in the 12 step tradition help the addict to recover by bringing a personal experience of recovery on a one to one basis. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... This article is about the company. ...


Lists of professional sports

See also: List of professional sports leagues and List of North American cities by number of pro-sports franchises

A list of professional sports leagues: // A1 Grand Prix (Official Page) British Touring Car Championship (Official Site) CASCAR (Canada) (Official Page) Champ Car World Series, formerly CART (Official Page) DTM - German Touring Car Masters (Official Page) Formula One, Grand Prix racing (Official Site) FIA GT Championship (Official Site) IRL (Indy... This is a list of North American cities by the number of major league professional sports franchises in their metropolitan areas. ...

Australian rules football

See also: Australian rules football and Football

Unlike other sports, Australian Rules football has not resisted becoming a professional sport. High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although the sport began as amateur competition, the Australian Football League is an elite professional league and has been for nearly 80 years since its initial formation as the Victorian Football Association and then the Victorian Football League in 1897. The league changed its name to the Australian Football League (AFL) in 1990 amid the increasing professionalism and national expansion of the game. The increasing popularity and membership of clubs saw players being paid large sums until a salary cap and national draft system was put in place by the league during the 1980s to keep clubs competitive in a national competition. Some Australian state leagues, particularly South Australia (SANFL), Victoria (VFL) and Western Australia (WAFL) pay players professional wages. Leagues in other states are often only semi-professional. This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ... This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the annual Australian rules football draft. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... The South Australian National Football League, or SANFL as it is usually referred to, is the premier league for Australian Rules football in the state of South Australia. ... Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ... This article is about the present day Victorian state football league. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... The West Australian Football League (WAFL) (pronounced waffle) is the premier state based Australian rules football league in Western Australia. ... The Australian States and Territories comprise the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... A semi-professional athlete is one who is paid money to play and thus is not an amateur, but for whom sport is not a full-time occupation, generally because the level of pay is too low to make a reasonable living based solely upon that source, thus making the...


Auto racing

Main article: Auto racing

A Peugeot 206 World Rally Car Motor racing and Motorsports redirect here. ...

Baseball

Main article: Baseball
See also: Major League Baseball
See also: Minor League Baseball

This article is about the sport. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ...

Basketball

Main article: Basketball
See also: National Basketball Association

Invented in the 1890s in Springfield, Massachusetts, the first professional basketball leagues emerged in the 1920s in the United States. Prominent among these were the American Basketball League, which formed in 1925, and the National Basketball League, which was launched in 1937 by General Electric, Firestone and Goodyear as a way to improve their national profile.[5] In 1946 the Basketball Association of America was founded by the owners of major sports arenas, particularly the Madison Square Garden. The BAA later merged with the NBL in 1949 to become the National Basketball Association, the preeminent league in the world with 29 teams in the United States and one in Canada. This article is about the sport. ... NBA redirects here. ... // Look up Springfield in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The American Basketball League was the first true professional basketball league. ... The National Basketball League was a professional basketball league in the United States from 1937 to 1949. ... NBA official website NBA News from Pro Sports Daily Dougs NBA Statistics NBA Statistics from 82games. ... Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City, United States. ... NBA redirects here. ...


Leagues outside of the United States

In the last several decades, professional basketball has become truly international. There are now leagues in a large number of countries, among them:

FIBA Europe is a zone within the FIBA association which contains all 50 national European FIBA federations. ... The A1 Ethniki is the highest professional basketball competition among clubs in Greece. ... The A1 Liga is the highest level basketball league in Croatia. ... The ACB (Asociación de Clubs de Baloncesto) is the premier professional basketball league in Spain. ... In German Basketball, the Basketball Bundesliga (BBL) is the highest level club competition where play determines the national champion. ... Lega A Basket logo In Italian Basketball, the Serie A is the highest level club competition where play determines the national champion. ... Ligat Haal (Hebrew: ליגת העל) (often referred to as the Israeli Premier League or Ligat Winner) is a league competition for Israeli basketball, making it Israels primary football competition. ... The LNB (Ligue Nationale de Basketball) is the French professional basketball league. ... LKL logo LKL redirects here. ... Naša Sinalko Liga (English: Our Sinalco League) is a domestic basketball league in Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Dominet Bank Ekstraliga logo (2006-present) Dominet Basket Liga logo (2005-2006) Dominet Bank Ekstraliga (DBE) or Polish Basketball League (=Polska Liga Koszykówki, PLK) is the highest level league of basketball in Poland. ... The Russian Basketball Super League (Russian: ) is the top league of Russian basketball. ... The Turkish Basketball League (TBL) is the top men’s professional basketball league in Turkey, which is also called Turkish Premier Basketball League (Turkish: Türkiye 1. ... The UPC Telemach League (Slovenian: ), also known by the abbreviation 1. ... The Euroleague (EL) is the highest caliber professional basketball league in Europe, with teams from thirteen different European countries. ... FIBA Asia subzones FIBA Asia is a zone within the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) which contains all 44 Asian FIBA federations. ... The Chinese Basketball Association (CBA; Chinese 中国男子篮球职业联赛) is the premier professional basketball league in the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of PBA, see PBA. The Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) is a professional basketball league in the Philippines founded in 1975. ... The Campeonato Brasileiro de Basquete (Brazilian Basketball League) is the main basketball league in Brazil. ... The Liga Nacional de Básquetbol (LNB) is the Argentine National Basketball League, and controlled by the Asociación de Clubes de Básquetbol (Association of Basketball Clubs). ... The National Basketball League is Australias top-level professional basketball competition. ... National Superior Basketball —or Baloncesto Superior Nacional (BSN) in Spanish— is a basketball league in Puerto Rico which was established in 1932 and has produced a handful of NBA players and a lot of classic games and emotive moments to its fans. ...

Billiards

Main article: Cue sport

Illustration of a three ball pocket billiards game in early 19th century Tübingen, Germany, using a table much longer than the modern type. ...

Bowling

Main article: Bowling
See also: Professional Bowlers Association

A bowler releases the ball. ... Professional Bowlers Association is the major sanctioning body for the sport of professional ten-pin bowling in the United States and worldwide. ...

Cricket

See also: World Series Cricket

Since the early Nineteenth century, cricket has gradually developed from an amateur recreational sport in England into a fully professional international sport from which leading players can earn a large income. ... The WSC logo. ...

Cycling

Main article: Cycling

Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation, and a sport. ...

Football (soccer)

[citation needed]


The governing body of English Football is The Football Association (FA), founded for men in 1863 and including women beginning in 1969 (See history of Football). In its early years football was mainly played on amateur basis. This was to change with the inauguration of the FA Cup competition in 1871. To do well in the competition clubs started to compete with each other to attract the best players. The players would be offered financial inducements to play. For example "boot money" was a term where cash (typically a half crown (12-and-a-half pence)) was placed in players boots after a game. The payment of inducements was possible because a successful team could be expected to generate considerable income for a club from tickets sold to supporters to watch matches. Although inducements were paid they were not direct payments because initially the FA was completely opposed to professionalism, as personified by Corinthians F.C. By the mid 1880s this position was no longer tenable and professionalism was legalised in 1885. In 1888 thanks to the introduction of professionalism a new format for competition between the clubs was possible and The Football League was introduced to help further the commercialisation of football. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the English FA Cup. ... Corinthians Football Club were a football team based in London playing at various venues including Crystal Palace and Queens Club. ... The Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales, and is the oldest such competition in world football. ...


In 1904 the FA introduced maximum wage in 1904 to try to reduce competition between clubs. Maximum wages would last until the 1960s with players negotiating collectively through the Player's Union. There was also a complicated transfer system for players in England, which was challenged by George Eastham who won a ruling in the English High Court (Eastham 1963: 146) which ruled that the transfer system was "an unreasonable restraint of trade". In the 1977/1978 season 'freedom of contract' between players and clubs was introduced. This allowed players playing for English teams to negotiate wages close to their real market values. It also introduced the players agent as an important figure into English football to represent the interests of players. George Edward Eastham OBE (born September 23, 1936) is an English former footballer. ...


In December 1995 the European Court of Justice upheld a ruling in favour of Jean-Marc Bosman. The court ruled that the football transfer rules overseen by UEFA were in breach of the European Union law on the free movement of workers between member states. As a result of this: "the European Union demanded that regulations concerning players' transfers and limitations on foreign players be amended almost immediately". (www.fifa.com). This forced UEFA to scrap the remaining restrictions on the ability of players and clubs to negotiate contracts with the each other. However UEFA is working with FIFA to try to find ways to re-introduce restrictions to help clubs and the sport of football in third world countries. On Thursday 21 April 2005 UEFA's 52 member federations unanimously approved a rule designed to increase the number of locally trained players. UEFA's chief executive Lars-Christer Olsson was reported by CNN to have said that some of the major clubs in Europe like Chelsea F.C. and FC Barcelona were not happy with this rule and he didn't rule out the possibility of a court challenge. Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... In football (soccer), the Bosman ruling is a 1995 European Court of Justice decision that allows professional football players in the European Union (EU) to move freely to another club at the end of their term of contract with their present team. ... Jean-Marc Bosman (born October 30, 1964) is a former Belgian football (soccer) player, whose judicial challenge of the football transfer rules led to the Bosman ruling. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... This article is about an international football organization. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Chelsea Football Club (also known as The Blues or previously The Pensioners) are an English professional football club based in west London. ... Futbol Club Barcelona, known familiarly as Barça (IPA: baɾ.sə), is a sports club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ...

  • References
    • MS Word Format: The Financial Crisis in English football
    • Fact Sheet 16: The Bosman Ruling, Football Transfers and Foreign Footballers
    • UEFA adopts homegrown player rule

Football (American/Canadian)

Rugby football in Canada had its origins in the early 1860s, and over time, a unique code of football known as Canadian football developed. Both the Canadian Football League (CFL), the sport's top professional league, and Football Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1882 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football Union (later reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union). In 1909, the Grey Cup was donated by the then Governor General of Canada Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, to recognize the top amateur rugby football team in Canada. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the two senior leagues of the CRU (the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the Western Interprovincial Football Union) gradually evolved from amateur to professional leagues, and found they had less and less in common with the amateur leagues, and consequently in 1956 formed a new umbrella organization, the Canadian Football Council. In 1958, the CFC left the CRU altogether and was renamed the Canadian Football League. By this time, teams from the amateur Ontario Rugby Football Union had stopped challenging for the Grey Cup, and ever since, it has been exclusively awarded to CFL teams. Since 1965, university teams have competed for the Vanier Cup.[6] For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Diagram of a Canadian football field. ... “CFL” redirects here. ... Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. ... Then Prime Minister Joe Clark presents the 1979 Grey Cup to victorious Edmonton Eskimos Danny Kepley and Tom Wilkinson. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... Albert Grey Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey (November 28, 1851 – August 29, 1917) was the ninth Governor General of Canada from 1904 to 1911. ... CFL East Division Logo The East Division is one of the two regional divisions of the Canadian Football League. ... The West Division is one of the two regional divisions of the Canadian Football League. ... The Ontario Rugby Football Union or ORFU was an early Canadian football competition with teams in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The Vanier Cup (French: Coupe Vanier) is the championship trophy of Canadian Interuniversity Sport mens football. ...


Golf

Main article: golf
See also: Professional golf tours

This article is about the sport. ... // Top level professional golf consists of a year round schedule of weekly tournaments played all around the world. ...

Ice hockey

 many other countries around the world to a greater or lesser extent. It is played with two teams, while 5 skaters and 1 goalie are allowed on the ice at a time. In NHL rules, the periods are 20 minutes long.There are three periods. 

The 64-member governing body is the International Ice Hockey Federation, (IIHF). Ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since 1924, and was in the 1920 Summer Olympics. North America's National Hockey League is the strongest professional ice hockey league, drawing top ice hockey players from around the globe. The NHL rules are slightly different from those used in olympic hockey. NHL redirects here. ...


Ice hockey sticks are long L-shaped sticks made of wood, graphite, or composites with a blade at the bottom that can lie flat on the playing surface when the stick is held upright and can curve either way as to help a left- or right-handed player gain an advantage.


There are early representations and reports of hockey-type games being played on ice in the Netherlands, and reports from Canada from the beginning of the nineteenth century, but the modern game was initially organized by students at McGill University, Montreal in 1875 and, by two years later, codified the first set of ice hockey rules and organized the first teams.


Rugby football

See also: History of rugby league, History of rugby union, and Football

In 1893, Yorkshire rugby football clubs complained that southern (gentlemen) clubs enjoyed over-representation on the RFU Committee and that committee meetings took place in London at times which made it difficult for northern members The history of rugby league began with the schism of 1895 in the sport of Rugby football. ... The history of rugby union follows from various football games played long before the 19th century, but it was not until the middle of that century that rules were formulated and codified. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Tennis

Main article: Tennis
See also: Association of Tennis Professionals and Women's Tennis Association

For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... The Womens Tennis Association, formed in 1973, is the principal organizing body of womens professional tennis. ...

Video games

Main article: Electronic sports
See also: Championship Gaming Series

Electronic sports, abbreviated e-sports or eSports, is used as a general term to describe the play of video games as a professional sport. ... The Championship Gaming Series is an international electronic sports league based in the United States of America, though they have expanded to every continent except Antarctica for Season Two. ...

References

  1. ^ Andy Miah Sport & the Extreme Spectacle: Technological Dependence and Human Limits (PDF) Unpublished manuscript, 1998
  2. ^ Steve Baily A Noble Ally and Olympic Disciple: The Reverend Robert S. de Courcy Laffan, Coubertin's 'man' in England (PDF) Steve Bailey is Director of Sports, Winchester College, Winchester, England
  3. ^ Steve Baily The Reverend Robert S. de Courcy Laffan: Baron Pierre de Coubertin and the Olympic Movement
  4. ^ a b Victorian and Edwardian Sporting Values Produced in Poland by British Council © 2003.
  5. ^ "Steve Dimitry's Extinct Sports Leagues."
  6. ^ Canadian Football Timelines (1860 – present). Football Canada. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.

Winchester College is a well-known boys independent school, and an example of an English public school, in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... Logo of the British Council British Council building in London British Council, Hong Kong The British Council is one of the UKs cultural relations organisations and which specialises in educational opportunities. ... Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Amateur. ...

External links


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