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Encyclopedia > Product placement
Marketing
Key concepts

Product / Price / Promotion
Placement / Service / Retail
Marketing research
Marketing strategy
Marketing management
For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Scale model of a Wheaties cereal box at a pep rally Promotion is one of the four key aspects of the marketing mix. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing “Consumer research” redirects here. ... A marketing strategy[1] [2] is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its (always limited) resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Marketing management is a business discipline focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firms marketing resources and activities. ...

Promotional content

Advertising / Branding
Direct marketing / Personal Sales
Product placement / Public relations
Publicity / Sales promotion
Underwriting Advert redirects here. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Direct marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. ... Sales are the activities involved in providing products or services in return for money or other compensation. ... // Publicity according to etymonline. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up publicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Sales promotion is one of the four aspects of promotional mix. ... An underwriting spot is an announcement made on public broadcasting outlets, especially in the United States, in exchange for funding. ...

Promotional media

Printing / Publication / Broadcasting
Out-of-home / Internet marketing
Point of sale / Novelty items
Digital marketing / In-game
Word of mouth
For other uses, see Print. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Out-of-home advertising (also referred to as OOH) is essentially all type of advertising that reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Internet marketing, also referred to as online marketing or Emarketing, is marketing that uses the Internet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Advertising Specialties be merged into this article or section. ... Digital Marketing refers to the practice of marketing services, products and other items using digital tools and techniques that have appeared relatively recently since the rise of the Internet as a mainstream communications platform. ... In-game advertising (IGA) refers to the use of computer and video games as a medium in which to deliver advertising. ... Word-of-mouth marketing is a term used in the marketing and advertising industry to describe activities that companies undertake to generate personal recommendations as well as referrals for brand names, products and services. ...

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Marketing

Product placement advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers using real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of an economic exchange. When featuring a product is not part of an economic exchange, it is called a product plug. Product placement appears in plays, film, television series, music videos, video games and books. It became more common starting in the 1980s, but can be traced back to at least 1949. Product placement occurs with the inclusion of a brand's logo in shot, or a favorable mention or appearance of a product in shot. This is done without disclosure, and under the premise that it is a natural part of the work. Most major movie releases today contain product placements.[1] The most common form is movie and television placements and more recently computer and video games. Recently, websites have experimented with in-site product placement as a revenue model. Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Scale model of a Wheaties cereal box at a pep rally Promotion is one of the four key aspects of the marketing mix. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... This article is about computer and video games. ... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ... In-game advertising (IGA) refers to the use of computer and video games as a medium in which to deliver advertising. ...

Contents

Early examples

A Coca Cola product placement on the space shuttle is a form of space advertising.

One of the best-known instances of product placement appeared in 1982 movie E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, which increased sales of Reese's Pieces 80 percent.[2] Image File history File links NASA_shuttle_astronaut_drinks_from_a_specially_designed_Coke_beverage_can. ... Image File history File links NASA_shuttle_astronaut_drinks_from_a_specially_designed_Coke_beverage_can. ... This article is about the beverage. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... A NASA astronaut jokingly advertises a recovered defective satellite for sale during a space walk Space advertising can include product placement in missions with resulting television exposure. ... For the Atari 2600 video game based on the movie, see E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (Atari 2600). ... Bag of Reeses Pieces, current design Reeses Pieces are a peanut butter-flavored candy manufactured by The Hershey Company. ...


A very early example of product placement in film occurs in the 1946 film It's a Wonderful Life by Frank Capra where a young boy with aspirations to be an explorer displays a prominent copy of National Geographic. Another is in the 1949 film Love Happy, in which Harpo Marx cavorts on a rooftop among various billboards and at one point escapes from the villains on the old Mobil logo, the "Flying Red Horse". In addition, the first film to win the Oscar for Best Picture, "Wings" (released in 1927), contained a plug for Hershey's. See also: 1945 in film 1946 1947 in film 1940s in film years in film film // Events Top grossing films North America The Bells of St. ... For other uses, see Its a Wonderful Life (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film director. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... See also: 1948 in film 1949 1950 in film 1940s in film 1950s in film years in film film Events Top grossing films North America Adams Rib Jolson Sings Again Pinky I Was a Male War Bride, The Snake Pit, Joan of Arc Academy Awards Best Picture: All the... Love Happy (1949) was the 13th, and virtually the last Marx Brothers film (they would return to the big screen in 1957 for short appearances in The Story of Mankind). ... This article is about Harpo Marx, brother of Groucho et al. ... Mobil gas station in the Loisaida section of the East Village of New York City Mobil was a major American oil company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. ... The word wing or wings has more than one use: In aeronautics a wing is an apparatus used to create lift. ... The Hershey Foods Corporation ( NYSE: HSY) is the worlds largest chocolate company. ...


Another very early example potentially occurs in Jules Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days in which transport and shipping companies lobbied to be mentioned as it was initially published in serial form. Around the World in Eighty Days (French: ) is a classic adventure novel by the French writer Jules Verne, first published in 1873. ...


Still another example is the conspicuous display of Studebaker motor vehicles in the television show Mr. Ed, which was sponsored by the Studebaker Corporation from 1961 to 1963. Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. ... Mister Ed was a popular US television comedy show that aired on CBS from 1961-1966. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The earliest example of product placement in a computer or video game occurs in the 1984 game Action Biker for KP's Skips crisps. 1984 1984 in games 1983 in video gaming 1985 in video gaming Notable events of 1984 in video gaming. ... Action Biker (also known as KP Skips Action Biker with Clumsy Colin in the UK) is a 1985 game for 8-bit home computers released by Mastertronic. ... KP Snacks is a British manufacturer of packet nuts and other snacks. ... Skips are a snack from the UK; they were first launched in 1974, as Prawn Cocktail flavour. ... For the other potato product referred to as chips see French fried potatoes. ...


The earliest example of product placement in a cartoon occurs in the Comedy Central show: Shorties Watchin' Shorties.[1] For the band, see Cartoons (band). ... Comedy Central is an American cable television and satellite television channel in the United States. ... Shorties Watchin Shorties is a television show broadcast on the Comedy Central. ...


Modern Strategies and Examples

As of 2007, product placement in online-video is becoming more and more common. Online agencies are specializing in connecting online-video producers, which are usually individuals, with brands and advertisers. The year 2008 should show an increase in this practice.


Sometimes, product usage is negotiated rather than paid for. Some placements provide productions with below-the-line savings, with products such as props, clothes and cars being loaned for the production's use, thereby saving them purchase or rental fees. Barter systems (the director/actor/producer wants one for himself) and service deals (cellular phones provided for crew use, for instance) are also common practices. Producers may also seek out companies for product placements as another savings or revenue stream for the movie, with, for example, products used in exchange for help funding advertisements tied-in with a film's release, a show's new season or other event.


The most common products to be promoted in this way are automobiles. Frequently, all the important vehicles in a movie or television serial will be supplied by one manufacturer. For example, The X-Files used Fords, as do leading characters on 24. The James Bond films pioneered such placement.[3] The 1974 film The Man with the Golden Gun featured extensive use of AMC cars, even in scenes in Thailand, where AMC cars were not sold, and had the steering wheel on the wrong side of the vehicle for the country's roads. Other times, vehicles or other products take on such key roles in the film it is as if they are another character. Examples of this practice include Bad Boys 2, in which almost every car was made by General Motors (besides the Ferrari driven during the chase scene). In Desperate Housewives three of the characters drive Nissans, and the camera view often focuses on the Nissan symbol on someone's car, also the character Gabrielle Solis can also be seen driving an Aston Martin DB9 Volante prominently. In The Matrix Reloaded, a key chase scene is conducted between a brand new Cadillac CTS and a Cadillac Escalade EXT. The chase scene also features a Ducati motorcycle in the getaway. The X-Files is an American Peabody and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... 24 (twenty four) is a current U.S. television action/drama series, produced by the Fox Network and syndicated worldwide. ... 007 redirects here. ... The Man with the Golden Gun is the ninth film in the James Bond series and the second to star Roger Moore as MI6 agent James Bond. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bad Boys is a 1995 film that stars Martin Lawrence, Will Smith and Téa Leoni. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Desperate Housewives is an American television comedy-drama series, created by Marc Cherry, who also serves as show runner, and produced by ABC Studios - The Walt Disney Companys main television studio - and Cherry Productions. ... Nissan Motor Co. ... Gabrielle Lang (née Marquez; previously Solis) (born February 11, 1976) is a fictional character on the ABC television series Desperate Housewives. ... The DB9 Volante is the convertible version of the Aston Martin DB9. ... The Matrix Reloaded is the second installment of The Matrix series, written and directed by the Wachowski Brothers. ... The CTS (Catera Touring Sedan) [1] is a mid size entry level Luxury car made by General Motors for the Cadillac brand. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Ducati Motor Holding is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer. ...


More recently, Apple frequently places its products in films and on television, where they therefore seem much more common than in most real-world offices and homes. Apple has stated that it does not pay for product placement, though executives will not say how their products get into movies and onto TV. The most plausible argument may be that Apple computers appear to be more visually appealing than ordinary PCs. (Notably, recognizable Apple products have appeared in newspaper comic strips, including Opus, Baby Blues, Non Sequitur, and FoxTrot, even though paid placement in comics is all but unknown.) In a twist on traditional product placement, Hewlett-Packard computers now appear exclusively as part of photo layouts in the IKEA catalog in addition to placing plastic models of its computers in IKEA stores, having taken over Apple's position in the Swedish furniture retailer's promotional materials several years ago. Hewlett-Packard also put their computers in the US production of The Office, though it is likely that this was a purposeful choice, since offices rarely have Macintosh computers. Apple Inc. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Look up Opus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Baby Blues (disambiguation). ... Non Sequitur is a comic strip created by Wiley Miller in 1991 and syndicated by Universal Press Syndicate to over 700 newspapers. ... This article is about the comic strip; for other uses, see Foxtrot (disambiguation). ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Map of countries with IKEA stores. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... This article is about the USA version of The Office. ...


A variant of product placement is advertisement placement. In this case an advertisement for the product (rather than the product itself) is seen in the movie or television series. Examples include a Lucky Strike cigarette advertisement on a billboard or a truck with a milk advertisement on its trailer. Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Lucky Strike (CSI episode). ... Billboard redirects here. ...


Product placement is also used in books (particularly novels) and video games, such as Crazy Taxi, which featured numerous real retail stores as game destinations. However, sometimes the economics are reversed, and video game makers pay for the rights to use real sports teams and players. This article is about computer and video games. ... Crazy Taxi is a video game developed by Hitmaker and published by Sega. ...


Quantification methods track brand integrations, with both basic quantitative and more demonstrative qualitative systems used to determine the cost and effective media value of a placement. Rating systems measure the type of placement and on-screen exposure is gauged by audience recall rates. Products might be featured but hardly identifiable, clearly identifiable, long or recurrent in exposure, associated with a main character, verbally mentioned and/or they may play a key role in the storyline. Media values are also weighed over time, depending on a specific product's degree of presence in the market.


Product placement can be seen as a modern version of the exhibit displays seen at world's fairs, concerts, sporting events, or anywhere that large numbers of potential customers gathered.


Virtual product placement uses computer graphics to insert the product into the program after the program is complete.[2][3]


The pilot episode of the NBC sitcom 30 Rock prominently featured General Electric's Trivection oven, which many people believed was an example of product placement.[4] However, Tina Fey, the show's creator, stated in an interview that the oven was included purely as a joke,[5] although this didn't stop GE from running ads for the oven during the commercial break. Allison Eckelkamp, a spokesperson for GE, said that GE chose to do this to make sure viewers knew it was a real product.[6] Pilot is the pilot episode of the situation comedy series 30 Rock which aired on October 11, 2006. ... This article is about the television network. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... This article is about the TV series. ... “GE” redirects here. ... The Trivection oven is an home appliance created by General Electric, which combines heat, convection and microwaves for customized cooking. ... Elizabeth Stamatina Tina Fey (born May 18, 1970) is an Emmy-winning American writer, comedian and actress. ...


The series ER also frequently has product placement. Some product placement tactics include: A bag of chips sitting in the desk counter, a soft drink from the machine in the hospital waiting room, a credit card logo seen at the register of Doc Magoo's, and so forth. ER is an Emmy-winning American serial medical drama created by novelist Michael Crichton and set primarily in the emergency room of fictional County General Hospital in Cook County, Chicago, Illinois. ...


Bill Cosby's flop film Leonard VI was widely criticized for its soda product placements.


The film Superstar, starting Will Ferrell and Molly Shannon, shows every resident in their town driving VW New Beetles. However, it is possible that this was done to add to the comic effect of the film, and could therefore be discounted as an entirely blatant example of product placement. Superstar is a 1999 comedy movie and Saturday Night Live spin-off about a quirky, socially inept girl named Mary Katherine Gallagher. ... John William Will Ferrell (born July 16, 1967[1]) is an Emmy- and Golden Globe-nominated American comedian, impressionist, writer and actor who first established himself as a cast member of Saturday Night Live, and has since gone on to a successful film career. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The film Minority Report, loosely based on the Philip K. Dick short story of the same name, makes heavy use of product placement, including Coca-Cola, Gap, and Lexus. Director Steven Spielberg also uses one scene to criticize advertising: the main character (Tom Cruise) is harassed by personalised advertisements calling out his own name. The film Fight Club, directed by David Fincher, bit the hand that fed it by depicting acts of violence against most of the products that paid to be placed in the film. Examples include the scene where the Apple Store is broken into, and the scene in which Brad Pitt and Edward Norton smash the headlights of a new Volkswagen Beetle. The comedy film Kung Pow! Enter the Fist also attempted to spoof its product placements, clearly pointing out the anachronistic inclusion of a Taco Bell in the film. In a similar vein, in Looney Tunes: Back In Action the main characters stumble across a Wal-Mart while stranded in the middle of Death Valley and get all necessary supplies for their endorsement of the company. Minority Report is a 2002 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K. Dick short story of the same name. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... The Minority Report (The) Minority Report is a science fiction short story by Philip K. Dick first published in 1956. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Gap, Incorporated (NYSE: GPS) is an American clothing and accessories retailer based in San Francisco, California and founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris Fisher. ... Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corporation. ... Steven Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... Fight Club is a 1999 feature film adaptation of the 1996 novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk, adapted by Jim Uhls and directed by David Fincher. ... David Leo Fincher (born August 28, 1962) is an American music video and film director known for his dark and stylish portraits of the human experience, particularly Fight Club and Se7en. ... Interior of the Apple Store in Chicago. ... William Bradley Brad Pitt(born December 18, 1963) is an American actor and film producer. ... Edward Harrison Norton[1] (born August 18, 1969) is a two-time Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American film actor and director. ... The Volkswagen New Beetle is a compact car introduced by Volkswagen in 1998, drawing heavily on the design cues of the original Beetle. ... Kung Pow! Enter the Fist is a comedy film that parodies Hong Kong action cinema. ... Taco Bell Corp. ... Looney Tunes: Back in Action was a 2003 Warner Bros. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... For other uses, see Death Valley (disambiguation). ...


2004's Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle was one of the first films to be completely centered around a product or product retail store. The White Castle fast food chain, though very regional, enjoyed a high rise in exposure when the film was released.[citation needed] Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle (released in some countries as Harold and Kumar get the Munchies or American High, due to few international White Castle locations) is a comedy movie released in 2004. ... White Castle can refer to different things: White Castle, a chain of US hamburger restaurants White Castle, an 11th-century castle in Wales White Castle, a town in Louisiana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ...


The film I, Robot, loosely based on the story collection by Isaac Asimov, makes heavy use of product placements for sports shoes, automobile, and hi-fi companies among others. One particularly infamous scene borderlines into actual advertisement territory in which a character compliments Will Smith's character's shoes to which he replies "Converse. Vintage 2004" (the year of the movie's release). The film was subject to negative criticism[7] and as a result is being ranked as the worst film for product placement on one site.[8] I, Robot is a science fiction film filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, but produced in the United States released on July 16, 2004, attributed to Isaac Asimovs Robot Series, especially a short-story collection of the same name. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... For other uses, see Converse (disambiguation). ...


The film The Island, directed by Michael Bay, features at least 21 individual products or brands, including cars, bottled water, shoes, credit cards, beer, ice cream, and even a search engine.[4] The film was highly criticized for this.[5] In movie's DVD Commentary track, Michael Bay claims he added the advertisements for realism purposes. [6] The Island is a 2005 science fiction film directed by Michael Bay and starring Ewan McGregor and Scarlett Johansson. ... Michael Benjamin Bay (born February 17, 1965) is an American film director and producer. ... A 1. ... This article is about search engines. ...


The film Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, directed by Adam McKay, also contained a high amount of product placement. Characters repeatedly mention brands under the disguise of NASCAR sponsorship. The movie contains possibly the first instance of an actual television commercial in a movie.[7] Adam McKay is an Emmy-nominated American writer and film director. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ...


The 2001 film Josie and the Pussycats featured a large amount of blatant product placement for brands such as Puma, Target, McDonalds and TJ Maxx. This appears to be done ironically, as the plot of the film revolves around advertising in subliminal messages. The film's general message can also be construed as an anti-consumerist one. This article is about Universals 2001 Josie and the Pussycats movie. ... A single blue Puma shoe. ... This article is about the United States retail company. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants [1]. Although McDonalds did not invent the hamburger or fast food, its name has become nearly synonymous with both. ... TJ Maxx is a specialty store that sells off-price apparel, giftware, and fine jewelry. ...


The 1998 film The Truman Show utilized the concept of product placement, although in a manner different than other films. The film's focus, a 24-hour television broadcast called "The Truman Show" that focuses on the life of Truman Burbank uses product placement. His wife places products in front of the hidden cameras, even naming certain products in dialogue with her husband, all of which increases Truman's suspicion as he comes to realize his surroundings are intentionally fabricated. The Truman Show is a 1998 film directed by Peter Weir, written by Andrew Niccol, and starring Jim Carrey and Ed Harris. ...


Controversy

The James Bond film Licence to Kill featured use of the Lark brand of cigarette, and the producers accepted payment for that product placement. The studio's executives apparently believed that the placement triggered the American warning notice requirement for cigarette advertisements and thus the picture carried the Surgeon General's Warning at the end credits of the film. This brought forth calls for banning such cigarette advertisements in future films. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Two unlit filtered cigarettes. ... A UK Warning message Cigarette packet warning signs are health warning messages that appear on the packaging of cigarettes and other tobacco products. ...


Some consumer groups such as Commercial Alert object to product placement as "an affront to basic honesty",[9] which they claim is too common in today's society. Commercial Alert asks for full disclosure of all product placement arrangements, arguing that most product placements are deceptive and not clearly disclosed. They advocate notification before and during television programs with embedded advertisements. One justification for this is to allow greater parental control for children, whom they claim are easily influenced by product placement. Commercial alert is an organisation co-founded by Ralph Nader. ...


Size of product placement market

According to PQMedia, a consulting firm that tracks the product placement market, 2006 product placement was estimated at $3.07B rising to $5.6B in 2010. However, these figures are somewhat misleading in PQMedia's view in that today, many product placement and brand integration deals are a combination of advertising and product placement. In these deals, the product placement is often contingent upon the purchase of advertising revenues. When the product placement that is bundled with advertising is allocated to part of the spending, PDMedia estimates that product placement is closer to $7B in value, rising to $10B by 2010.


A major driver of growth for the use of product placement is the increasing use of digital video recorders (DVR) such as TiVO which enable viewers to skip advertisements. This ad skipping behavior increases in frequency the longer a household has owned a DVR. TiVo (pronounced tee-voh, IPA: ) is a popular brand of digital video recorder (DVR) in the United States. ...


Definitions

Because products play a broad role in society and in media, it's sometimes useful to distinguish between different types of product appearances in video material. Key categories are sponsorship, brand integration, cost reduction oriented product placement and fee based product placement.


In early media, e.g. radio in the 1930s and 1940s and early TV in the 1950s , programs were often underwritten by companies. "Soap operas" are called such because they were initially underwritten by consumer packaged goods companies such as P&G or Unilever. Sponsorship still exists today with programs being sponsored by major vendors such as Hallmark. Incorporation of products into the actual plot of a TV show is generally called "brand integration". A recent example is HBO's Sex In The City, where the plot revolved around an attractive male model dated by one of the protagonists, Absolut Vodka, a campaign upon which she was working, and a billboard in Time Square where the bottle prevented an image of the model from being X-rated. Knight Rider, a TV series featuring a talking Pontiac Trans Am is another example of brand integration. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pontiac Firebird. ...


Actual product placement, according to ERMA.org, a Hollywood product placement association falls into two categories: products or locations that are obtained from manufacturers or owners to reduce the cost of production, and products that deliberately placed into productions in exchange for fees.


Faux product placement

Some filmmakers have responded to product placement by creating fictional products that frequently appear in the movies they make. Some examples:

This practice is also fairly common in certain comics, such as Svetlana Chmakova's Dramacon, which makes several product-placement-esque usages of "Pawky", (a modification of the name of the Japanese snack "Pocky", popular among the anime and manga fan community in which the story is set) or Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon, which includes numerous references to the series Codename: Sailor V which Sailor Moon was spun off of; the anime makes further use of this meta-referential gag, going so far as having an animator on a Codename: Sailor V feature film be a victim in one episode. For other persons named Kevin Smith, see Kevin Smith (disambiguation). ... The Mooby the Golden Calf logo Mooby the Golden Calf is a fictional childrens television character featured in Kevin Smiths View Askewniverse, most notably in the film Dogma. ... Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, actor, and Oscar winning screenwriter. ... Robert Anthony Rodriguez (born June 20, 1968) is an American writer and film director who is known for making profitable, crowd-pleasing independent and studio films with fairly low budgets and fast schedules by Hollywood standards. ... Pixars logo and mascot Luxo, Jr. ... Warner Bros. ... The Acme Corporation (sometimes made a backronym to: A Company (that) Makes Everything - though this is in dispute) is a fictional corporation that exists in the Looney Tunes universe. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... Svetlana Chmakova (Russian: ) (born 1981 in Russia) is a comic creator. ... Dramacon is an OEL (Original English Language) Manga written and illustrated by Svetlana Chmakova, and published by TokyoPop. ... Pocky logo American Pocky Pocky ) (Japanese pronunciation IPA: /pokːiː/)   is a Japanese snack food produced by the Ezaki Glico Company of Japan. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... Naoko Takeuchi (武内直子 Takeuchi Naoko), born March 15, 1967, is a manga artist who lives in Tokyo, Japan. ... For the title character, see Sailor Moon (character) and for the first story arc, see Sailor Moon (arc). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


This practice is also common in certain "reality-based" video games such as the Grand Theft Auto series which feature fictitious stores such as Ammu-Nation, Vinyl Countdown, Gash (spoofing Gap. Another spoof was made in GTA:San Andreas with Zip), Pizza Boy, etc. Grand Theft Auto (GTA) is a video game series created and primarily developed by Scottish developer Rockstar North (formerly DMA Design), published by Rockstar Games and debuted in 1998. ... Gap, Incorporated (NYSE: GPS) is an American clothing and accessories retailer based in San Francisco, California and founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris Fisher. ...


In the 1984 cult film Repo Man, a reverse form of product placement is used, with an exaggerated form of 1980's era generic packaging used on products prominently shown on-screen (these include "Beer", "Drink", "Dry Gin" and "Food - Meat Flavored"). Reportedly, this was done out of necessity after an intended advertiser, who was to have used product placement, backed out in mid-production. This article is about the year. ... A cult film is a film that has acquired a highly devoted but relatively small group of fans. ... For other uses, see Repo Man (disambiguation). ... A generic brand product is one made by a manufacturer the customer doesnt know much about who may or may not put thier name on the product. ...


Emerging technologies

As of 2007, a new trend is emerging in product placement, the development of capabilities that permit dynamic or switchable product placement. Previously post production tools have permitted one time insertion of new product placement images and billboard advertising, e.g. at baseball or hockey games. As of 2007, new startups are offering or developing the ability to switch product placement. First generation virtual product placement has tended to be based upon sports arenas where the geometrical relationships of camera and the surface of the flat area onto which the billboard is projected, can be easily calculated. Second generation product placement or dynamic product placement is more focused upon commercial products. Third generation virtual or dynamic product placement allows targeting of customers with different products that can be dynamically switched based upon e.g. demographics, pyschographics or behavioral information about the consumer.


Reverse product placement

So-called "reverse product placement" takes "faux product placement" a step further, by creating products in real life to match those seen in a fictional setting.[8] For example, in 2007, 7-Eleven rebranded 11 of its American stores as "Kwik-E-Marts", selling some real-life versions of products seen in episodes of the Simpsons such as Buzz Cola and Krusty-O's cereal. For other uses, see 7-Eleven (disambiguation). ... Simpsons redirects here. ...


References

  1. Pascal Schumacher: Effektivität von Ausgestaltungsformen des Product Placement, Fribourg 2007
  2. Russell, Cristel A. and Barbara Stern (2006) “Consumers, Characters, and Products: A Balance Model of Sitcom Product Placement Effects,” Journal of Advertising, 35 (1), 7-18.
  3. Russell, Cristel A. and Michael Belch (2005) “A Managerial Investigation into the Product Placement Industry,” Journal of Advertising Research, 45 (1), 73-92.
  4. Russell, Cristel A. (2002) “Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude,” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (3), 306-318.
  1. ^ Solomon. Zaichkowsky, Polegato.Consumer Behaviour Pearson, Toronto. 2005
  2. ^ http://www.itvx.com/SpecialReport.asp
  3. ^ Nadja Tata: "Product Placement in James-Bond-Filmen". Saarbrücken 2006 - ISBN 3-86550-440-X
  4. ^ Numsum.com Partial list of product placements in The Island. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  5. ^ Advertisingindustrynewswire.com Criticism of product placements in The Island. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  6. ^ Agony Booth Discussion of The Island DVD Commentary Track. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
  7. ^ Themoviespoiler.com Plot, product placements. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
  8. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070701/ap_on_bi_ge/7_eleven_kwik_e_mart_1

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Product placement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1779 words)
Product placement(PPL) is a promotional tactic used by marketers in which a real commercial product is used in fictional media, and the presence of the product is a result of an economic exchange.
Product placement appears in plays, film, television series, music videos, video-games and books, and is a relatively new idea (first appearing in the 1980's).
Product placement occurs with the inclusion of a brand's logo, or a favorable mention or appearance of a product.
PSU's Media Lab Product Placement Study (883 words)
Although advertisers seem to have intuitively expressed concerns that their product placements appear in positive contexts, there does seem to be some theoretical rationale for assuming that product placement would result in more positive brand attitudes when the programming and the characters in the program are perceived positively by the viewers.
It was expected that, consistent with prior research, advertising and product placement would result in higher levels of recall and recognition, but that the combination of advertising and product placement would result in the highest recall and recognition scores.
For brand attitudes, applied to context of product placement, reasoning along the lines of social learning theory and heuristic models of persuasion would suggest that product placement would be particularly effective when the surrounding programming and characters using the product are perceived as enjoyable and attractive.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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