FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Prochlorperazine
Prochlorperazine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-chloro-10-[3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-
10H-phenothiazine(Z)-2-butenedioate
Identifiers
CAS number 58-38-8
ATC code N05AB04
PubChem 4917
DrugBank APRD00624
Chemical data
Formula C20H24ClN3S 
Mol. mass 373.943 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability not exactly known, but substantial
Protein binding 91-99%
Metabolism Mainly hepatic (CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A4)
Half life 4-8 hours, differs with the mode of application
Excretion Biliary, (colored) inactive metabolites in urine
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C (Au, U.S.) Image File history File links Prochlorperazine. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Many drugs are bound to Blood plasma proteins. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (abbreviated CYP2D6, EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... Anthem: Advance Australia Fair Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Canberra Largest city Sydney Official languages English (de facto 1) Government Constitutional monarchy (federal)  - Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Michael Jeffery  - Prime Minister John Howard Independence from the UK   - Constitution 1 January 1901   - Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Legal status

OTC/POM (UK) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... A prescription drug (or POM Prescription Only Medicine, in UK) is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ...

Routes Oral, buccal, rectal, IM

Prochlorperazine is a highly potent neuroleptic, which is 10 to 20-times more potent than chlorpromazine. It is a typical antipsychotic drug of the phenothiazine class sold under the names Compazine®, Buccastem® and Stemetil®. It is now more frequently used for the treatment of nausea and vertigo. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Four 500mg acetaminophen/paracetamol suppositories A suppository is a medicine that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository) or into the vagina (vaginal suppository) where it melts. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vertigo, sometimes called a headrush, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. ...

Contents

Indications

It is now relatively seldom used for the treatment of psychosis and the manic phase of bipolar disorder. It has a prominent antiemetic/antivertignoic activity and is more often used for the (short-time) treatment of nauses/emesis and vertigo as follows: Psychosis (not to be confused with psychopathy) is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state in which thought and perception are severely impaired. ... For the classical mythological figures named Mania, see Mania (mythology). ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Vertigo, sometimes called a headrush, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. ...

  1. To alleviate the symptoms of vertigo
  2. As an antiemetic, particularly for nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment and in the pre- and postoperative setting
  3. Quite recently, in the UK prochlorperazine maleate has been made available as Buccastem M® in buccal form as an OTC-treatment for migraine. In this indication it blocks the CTZ (Chemical Trigger Zone) in the brain, which is responsible for causing severe nausea and emesis. Its OTC use is strictly restricted to a maximum of 2 days, because of the potentially severe side effects of prochlorperazine, which mandate supervision by a health care provider.

An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ...

Formulations and pharmacokinetics

Prochlorperazine is available as an oral liquid, tablets, and suppositories, as well as in an injectable form.


Following intramuscular injection the antiemetic action is evident within 5 to 10 minutes and lasts for 3 to 4 hours. Rapid action is also noted after buccal treatment. With oral dosing the start of action is delayed but the duration somewhat longer (approximately 6 hours).


There is an inhaled form of prochlorperazine under development by Alexza Pharmaceuticals, currently in Phase II clinical trials.


Side effects

Due to the short duration of treatment it is usually well tolerated. It shares in general all side effects of chlorpromazine, but these are seen less frequently so and are less disturbing to the patient, particularly as most patients with the aforementioned conditions are hospitalized. In the treatment of nauses/emesis it might be given together with an antiparkinsonian drug to prevent extrapyramidal side effects of prochlorperazine. Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ...


Some individuals are inherently allergic to this medicine. This medicine is known to produce seizures and seizure-like symptoms in individuals who might not have had prior seizures. In such cases, contact health-care facilities for immediate attention. Long-term delays might lead to long-term effects. In extreme cases, it has been known to produce permanent damage to the lower jaw and the jaw joint due to extended seizure symptoms. This article is about the medical condition. ...


If treating psychotic conditions on a long-term basis, the high incidence of early and late (tardive dyskinesia) extrapyramidal side effects should be considered carefully. Prochlorperazine has in the long-term treatment approximately the same incidence and severity of extrapyramidal side effects as haloperidol. Tardive dyskinesia is a serious neurological disorder caused by the long-term and/or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics and among them especially the typical antipsychotics. ... Haloperidol (sold as Aloperidin®, Bioperidolo®, Brotopon®, Dozic®, Einalon S®, Eukystol®, Haldol®, Halosten®, Keselan®, Linton®, Peluces®, Serenace®, Serenase®, Sigaperidol®) is a conventional butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ...


External links

  • Prochlorperazine medlineplus.org article
  • AZ-001 (Staccato(TM) prochlorperazine) Press release pertaining to phase IIb clinical trial of inhaled prochlorperazine for migraine headache
  • The dark side of psychiatric drugs Press release pertaining to criminal use
  • Promethazine is an antihistamine...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Prochlorperazine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (534 words)
Prochlorperazine is a highly potent neuroleptic, which is 10 to 20-times more potent than chlorpromazine.
Prochlorperazine is available as an oral liquid, tablets, and suppositories, as well as in an injectable form.
Prochlorperazine has in the long-term treatment approximately the same incidence and severity of extrapyramidal side effects as haloperidol.
Antinausea Drugs: Encyclopedia of Surgery (786 words)
Prochlorperazine is also sometimes prescribed for symptoms of mental disorders, such as schizophrenia.
Prochlorperazine may be used to control the nausea and vomiting that occur during recovery from the general anesthetics used in surgery.
Among the drugs that may interact with prochlorperazine are antiseizure drugs such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and carbamazepine (Tegretol), anticoagulants such as warfarin (Coumadin), and drugs that slow the central nervous system such as alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), and secobarbital (Seconal).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m