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Encyclopedia > Procession

A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner.

Funeral Procession, illustrated in a manuscript of the Hours of the Virgin. Fifteenth Century. British Museum, 27697.
Funeral Procession, illustrated in a manuscript of the Hours of the Virgin. Fifteenth Century. British Museum, 27697.

Contents

Image File history File links Funeral_Procession_-_15th_Century_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_16531. ... Image File history File links Funeral_Procession_-_15th_Century_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_16531. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...

Procession elements

Many elements may be used to make a procession more significant than just "people walking in the same direction":

  • A special mode of transport, such as a ceremonial barge, elephant howdah, horse drawn carriage, or a palanquin carried on the shoulders of others. Cleopatra's arrival to seduce Mark Antony on a perfumed barge has taken on legendary proportion. African kings sometimes ride in palanquins carved to look like luxury cars or other status symbols, while Muslim brides travel in camel howdahs as shown in Bride Arriving in a Village, Biskra, Algeria by Philippe Pavy. The Pope has traditionally been carried in a special sedan chair known as the sedia gestatoria. In humbler terms, a mayor, grand marshal, or fair "queen" of a local parade will often ride in the town's fanciest automobile.
  • Music, including everything from the choir of a church procession to the marching band of a military procession. Criers may march before the procession, yelling to clear the way for it. Some high school homecoming parades include trucks filled with people who do nothing but make as much noise as possible.
  • Order of precedence- even without showy display, a group of people walking forward may be said to form a procession if their order and placement clearly visualize a hierarchy or symbiotic relationship. For instance, one's nearness to the king or others of high rank had important political connotations when the royal family walked to or from chapel services at the palace of Versailles. Similarly, precedence came into play when the grandest Edwardian parties progressed from the sitting room to the dining room, and the stylized movement and hierarchy of marching military units clearly sets up a formal procession.
  • Bearers of banners, fans, icons, treasure, or other eye-catching items, or leading exotic animals. This was a very important part of Roman triumphs, as booty gave the Roman populace visual proof of the warrior's success. The most elaborate evolution of this is the spectacular floats of Carnival parades. A simpler example is the ring bearer at a wedding.
  • Scent, provided by flower bearers or censers of incense
Procession in Poznań, Poland, Corpus Christi 2004. Little girls carrying an Infant Jesus of Prague statue, followed by altar servers clothed in surplice and cassock.
Procession in Poznań, Poland, Corpus Christi 2004. Little girls carrying an Infant Jesus of Prague statue, followed by altar servers clothed in surplice and cassock.
  • Skilled performers, such as acrobats or dancers
  • Special costume. Traditionally, the costumes of acolytes, footmen, ceremonial guards, or slaves help show off the wealth of the person staging a procession. An ornate example was the embroidered train of George IV of the United Kingdom, carried at his coronation by nine lords in waiting with their own matching silken clothes, capes, ruffs, and plumed hats. Other examples include the Swiss Guard and high vestments of the Pope. The formal, matching clothes of bridesmaids and groomsmen are in the same tradition, although sometimes purchased at the attendant's expense rather than by the people honored in the ceremony. In egalitarian times and places, whoever has taken the time and money to put together something impressive may appear in a parade; such costumes are of course the focal point of Halloween parades such as that staged in Greenwich Village, New York. Finally, processions may be staged simply to show off the costumes as one part of a larger event, such as at fashion pageants, military reenactments, pop concerts, or Renaissance Festivals.
  • Special lighting. Candlelight vigils for the deceased or to show political solidarity often include a candlelit procession. Fireworks illuminate such diverse events as coronations, parades, and Thai royal barge processions.
  • Spectacle, such as an aircraft flyover, or the confetti of New York ticker tape parades
  • The dispensing of gifts, at one time often food or money. Today, most people are familiar with the dispensing of beads at Mardi Gras and the throwing of candy at local fair parades.

Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... A Howdah is an ornate carriage which is positioned on the back of Elephants or occasionally other animals, used most often in the past for rich people who travelled in India via Elephant. ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... Japanese Palanquin Indian Palanquin A palanquin aka palkhi is a covered sedan chair (or litter) carried on four poles. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... A Sedan chair, revived at the Turkish Village of the Worlds Columbian Exposition, 1893 A Sedan chair is an enclosed windowed chair with an upholstered interior suitable for a single occupant, which was carried by two porters, one in front, one behind, using wooden rails that passed through metal... Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/2/26/A022ht_5_SedeGest. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Grand Marshal is a ceremonial, military, or political office of very high rank. ... Karl Benzs Velo model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race An automobile or motor car (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An American college marching band on the field (University of Texas) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching â€“ with their musical performance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ... There are several meanings of float: an air-filled vessel that floats on water, such as some types of lifeboats buoyancy float (project management) floating currency floating exchange rate floating point, a datatype in computer science free float of company stock insurance (investable policyholder funds) root beer float: ice cream... Carnival or Carnivale is a festival season. ... United States Marines on parade. ... In The Lord of the Rings, by J. R. R. Tolkien, Frodo Baggins is appointed to be the Ring-bearer by the Council of Elrond in Rivendell. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Polish: StoÅ‚eczne Miasto PoznaÅ„ (Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Corpus Christi Procession in Germany This article is about the Catholic feast of Corpus Christi. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Infant Jesus of Prague Infant Jesus of Prague (Pražské jezulátko in Czech) is a famous statue of infant Jesus located in the Church of Our Lady Victorious in Malá Strana, Prague. ... An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a religious service. ... An Anglican priest wearing a surplice as part of his choir dress. ... A Roman Catholic priest from Belgian Congo wearing the Roman cassock. ... This article is about religious acolytes. ... A footman is a male household servant who serves at meals. ... It has been suggested that Local trains be merged into this article or section. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ... Halloween, or Halloween, is a tradition celebrated on the night of October 31, most notably by children dressing in costumes and going door-to-door collecting sweets, fruit, and other gifts, called most commonly trick-or-treating. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... A candlelight vigil is an event used to remember the victims in a tragedy, such as the Virginia Tech massacre and the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... Fireworks over Miami, Florida, USA on American Independence Day Fireworks at Epcot, Florida, USA The Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House illuminated under New Years Eve Fireworks 2005 A Fireworks event (also called a fireworks show) or Pyrotechnics is a spectacular display of the effects produced by... Overpass in East Potomac Park, Washington, D.C. Flyover in Miami Beach, Florida An overpass (In UK, India, Hong Kong flyover) is a bridge, road or similar structure that crosses over another road. ... Ticker-tape parade in New York City in honor of the Apollo 11 astronauts, August 1969 A ticker-tape parade is a parade event, held in a downtown urban setting, allowing the jettison of large amounts of shredded paper products from nearby office buildings onto the parade route, creating a... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Functions

  • Advertisement- Edo Period documenters enjoyed drawing the processions of pleasure district beauties, such as Courtesan Parading With Attendants by Suzuki Harunobu. Similar parading courtesans feature in Cherry Blossom in the Evening on the Nakanomachi in Yoshiwara by Utagawa Hiroshige and True Scenery of the Gay Quarter of Minatozakimachi Shinminato by Utagawa Sadahide. The Lord Mayor's Show in London has long featured displays by the city's official trade guilds. Parades were at one time important advertisement when a traveling circus arrived in a new town. Today, many parades in the United States are sponsored by department stores, such as Macy's, which expect the public spectacle to lure shoppers to the store.
  • Change in government- the Reception of the Ambassadors From Siam at the Château de Fontainebleau was one such example, documented by Jean Leon Gerome in 1864. The signing of surrender by Japanese diplomats and soldiers aboard an American battle ship at the end of World War II involved a strictly codified procession on and off the ship. Processions play an important role in coronations, such as that of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom in 1953, the Shah of Iran in 1967, Otumfuo Osei Tutu II of the Ashanti in 1999, and Norodom Sihamoni of Cambodia in 2004.
  • Display of power such as ancient Roman triumphs, the durbar processions of India, and modern reviewing of the troops by generals and heads of state. Return From Vienna, a painting by Jozef Brandt, shows war booty taken from the Turks being escorted into eastern Europe by soldiers.
  • Parades arranged purely for fun, such as those of community organizations and friendly societies, so popular in Great Britain and the United States of America
  • Political solidarity. Religious ceremonies have since prehistory employed the procession of holy objects to inspire solidarity of belief. The doges of Venice once staged elaborate barge processions to bless the waters on which Venice's tightly controlled maritime economy existed. Symbolic processions were an important tool in the non-violent protest of Gandhi. Marches on Washington include formal processions. Gay Pride parades also started with this basis in New York City.
  • Processions used to mark the beginning or end of an event, such as parades at the beginning of county fairs or at the Olympic Games, or the processions which begin and end funerals, graduations, and weddings.
  • Religion. See Holy Week processions.

The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Suzuki Harunobu (鈴木春信) (1724 – 1770) was a Japanese artist. ... View of Mount Fuji from Satta Point in the Suruga Bay, woodcut by Hiroshige, published posthumously 1859. ... In 1747, the Lord Mayor went to the City of Westminster on a barge via the River Thames. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ... Macys is a chain of moderate to upscale American department stores with its flagship store in Herald Square, New York City, which has been billed as the worlds largest store since completion of the Seventh Avenue addition in 1924. ... Jean-Léon Gérôme (May 11, 1824 - January 10, 1904) was a French painter and sculptor who produced many works in a historical, Orientalist style. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about a battleship as a type of warship. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ashanti (disambiguation). ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Norodom Sihamoni, King of Cambodia (born 14 May 1953) the elder and only surviving son of King Norodom Sihanouk and Queen Mother Norodom Monineath Sihanouk. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Durbar is a term in India for a court or levee, from the Persian darbar. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | 1841 births | 1915 deaths | Polish painters ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... Gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Roundabouts (or carousels) are traditional attractions, often seen at fairs. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomada Sancta) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ...

History

Processions have in all peoples and at all times been a natural form of public celebration, as forming an orderly and impressive ceremony. Religious and triumphal processions are abundantly illustrated by ancient monuments, e.g. the religious processions of Egypt, those illustrated by the rock-carvings of Boghaz-Keui, the many representations of processions in Greek art, culminating in the great Panathenaic procession of the Parthenon Frieze, and Roman triumphal reliefs, such as those of the arch of Titus. Cavalry from the Parthenon Frieze, West II, British Museum. ... The Arch of Titus This article deals with the main arch of Titus on the Via Sacra. ...


Processions played a prominent part in the great festivals of Greece, where they were always religious in character. The games were either opened or accompanied by more or less elaborate processions and sacrifices, while processions from the earliest times formed part of the worship of the old nature gods (e.g. those connected with the cult of Dionysus, &c.), and later formed an essential part of the celebration of the great religious festivals (e.g. the processions of the Thesmophoria, and that of the Great Dionysia), and of the mysteries (e.g. the great procession from Athens to Eleusis, in connection with the Eleusinia). Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (from the Ancient Greek Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος, associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences. ... Thesmophoria was a festival held in Greek cities in honor of Demeter. ... The Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honour of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies and comedies. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries were annual initiation ceremonies for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...


Of the Roman processions, the most prominent was that of the Triumph, which had its origin in the return of the victorious army headed by the general, who proceeded in great pomp from the Campus to the Capitol to offer sacrifice, accompanied by the army, captives, spoils, the chief magistrate, priests bearing the images of the gods, amidst strewing of flowers, burning of incense and the like (Ovid, Trist. iv. 2, 3 and 6). Connected with the triumph was the pompa circensis, or solemn procession which preceded the games in the circus; it first came into use at the ludi romani, when the games were preceded by a great procession from the Capitol to the Circus. The praetor or consul who appeared in the ponipa circensis wore the robes of a triumphing general (see Mommsen, Staatsrec/zt I. 397 for the connection of the triumph with the ludi). Thus, when it became customary for the consul to celebrate games at the opening of the consular year, he came, under the empire, to appear in triumphal robes in the processus consularis, or procession of the consul to the Capitol to sacrifice to Jupiter. A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Consul (abbrev. ...


After the establishment of Christianity, the consular processions in Constantinople retained their religious character, now proceeding to Hagia Sophia, where prayers and offerings were made; but in Rome, where Christianity was not so widely spread among the upper classes, the tendency was to convert the procession into a purely civil function, omitting the pagan rites and prayers, without substituting Christian ones[1]. Besides these public processions, there were others connected with the primitive worship of the country people, which remained unchanged, and were later to influence the worship of the Christian Church. Such were those of the Ambarvalia, Robigalia, which were essentially rustic festivals, lustrations of the fields, consisting in a procession round the spot to be purified leading the sacrificial victims with prayers, hymns and cere monies, in order to protect the young crops from evil influences[2]. Map of Constantinople. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... Ambarvalia was a Roman agricultural fertility rite held at the end of May in honour of Ceres. ... In Roman mythology, Robiga (meaning green or life) along with her brother, Robigus, were the fertility gods of the Romans. ... Lustration is, literally, a sacrifice, or ceremony, by which cities, fields, armies, or people, defiled by crimes, pestilence, or other cause of uncleanness, were purified. During the period after the fall of the various European Communist states in 1989–1991, the term came to refer to the policy of...


Tertullian (2nd century) uses processio and procedere in the sense of to go out, appear in public, and, as applied to a church function, processio was first used in the same way as collecta, i.e. for the assembly of the people in the church[3]. In this sense it appears to be used by Pope Leo I[4], while in the version by Dionysius Exiguus of the 17th canon of the Council of Laodicaea ouv&~eoi, is translated by processionibus[5]. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Pope Leo I was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ...


For the processions that formed part of the ritual of the eucharist, those of the introit, the gospel and the oblation, the earliest records date from the 6th century and even later[6], but they evidently were established at a much earlier date. As to public processions, these seem to have come into rapid vogue after the recognition of Christianity as the religion of the empire. Those at Jerusalem would seem to have been long established when described by the authoress of the Peregrinatio Silviae towards the end of the 4th century. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Very early were the processions accompanied by hymns and prayers, known as litaniae, rogationes or supplicationes. It is to such a procession that reference appears to be made in a letter of St Basil [7], which would thus be the first recorded mention of a public Christian procession. The first mention for the Western Church occurs in St Ambrose [8]. In both these cases the litanies are stated to have been long in use. There is also mention of a procession accompanied by hymns, organized at Constantinople by St John Chrysostom (c. 390-400) in opposition to a procession of Arians, in Sozomen[9]. In times of calamity litanies were held, in which the people walked in robes of penitence, fasting, barefooted, and, in later times, frequently dressed in black (litaniae nigrae). The cross was carried at the head of the procession and often the gospel and the relics of the saint were carried. Gregory of Tours gives numerous instances of such litanies in time of calamity; thus he describes[10] a procession of the clergy and people round the city, in which relics of St Remigius were carried and litanies chanted in order to avert the plague. So, too, Gregory the Great[11] writes to the Sicilian bishops to hold processions in order to prevent a threatened invasion of Sicily. A famous instance of these penitential litanies is the lania septiformis ordered by Gregory the Great in the year 590, when Rome had been inundated and pestilence had followed. A litany, in Christian worship, is a form of prayer used in church services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions. ... Basil (ca. ... Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340 - April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ... John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Salminius Hermias Sozomen (c. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... St Remigius (c. ... Saint Gregory I, or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (circa 540 - March 12, 604) was pope of the Catholic Church from September 3, 590 until his death. ... Events September 3 - St. ...


In this litany seven processions, of clergy, laymen, monks, nuns, matrons, the poor, and children respectively, starting from seven different churches, proceeding to hear mass at Sta Maria Maggiore[12]. This litany has often been confused with the litania major, introduced at Rome in 598 (vide supra) , but is quite distinct from it. Funeral processions, accompanied with singing and the carrying of lighted tapers, were very early customary (see ceremonial use of lights), and akin to these, also very early, were the processions connected with the translation of the relics of martyrs from their original burying place to the church where they were to be enshrined[13]. From the time of the emperor Constantine I these processions were of great magnificence. Hindus putting lit candles on the river Ganges. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on...


Some liturgists maintain that the early Church in its processions followed Old Testament precedents, quoting such cases as the procession of the ark round the walls of Christian Jericho[14], the procession of David with the ark[15], the processions of thanksgiving on the return from captivity, &c. The liturgy of the early Church as Duchesne shows[16] was influenced by that of the Jewish synagogue, but the theory that the Church adopted the Old Testament ritual is of quite late growth.


Festivals involving processions were adopted by the Christian Church from the pagan calendar of Rome. The litaniae majores et minores, which are stated by Hermann Usener[17] to have been first instituted by Pope Liberius (352-366). It is generally acknowledged that they are the equivalent of the Christian Church of the Roman lustrations of the crops in spring, the Ambarvalia, &c. The litania major, or great procession on St Mark's day (April 25) is shown to coincide both in date and ritual with the Roman Robigalia, which took place ad. vii. Kal. Mai., and consisted in a procession leaving Rome by the Flaminian gate, and proceeding by way of the Milvian bridge to a sanctuary at the 5th milestone of the Via Claudia, where the flamen quirinalis sacrificed a dog and a sheep to avert blight (robigo) from the crops[18]. The litania major followed the same route as far as the Milvian bridge, when it turned off and returned to St Peter's, where mass was celebrated. This was already established as an annual festival by 598, as is shown by a document of Gregory the Great[19] which inculcates the duty of celebrating litaniam, quae major ab omnibus appellatur. The litaniae minores or rogations, held on the three days preceding Ascension Day, were first introduced into Gaul by Bishop Mamertus of Vienne (c. 470), and made binding for all Gaul by the First Council of Orleans (511). The litaniae minores were also adopted for these three days in Rome by Pope Leo III (c. 800). Hermann Karl Usener (October 23, 1834 - October 21, 1905) was a German scholar in the fields of philology and comparative religion. ... Liberius, pope from May 17, 352 to September 24, 366, was the earliest pope who did not become a saint. ... Ambarvalia was a Roman agricultural fertility rite held at the end of May in honour of Ceres. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Roman mythology, Robiga (meaning green or life) along with her brother, Robigus, were the fertility gods of the Romans. ... Modern signage of the revitalized track near Unterdiessen, Bavaria. ... Saint Gregory I, or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (circa 540 - March 12, 604) was pope of the Catholic Church from September 3, 590 until his death. ... Rogation days are the three days (Rogation Monday, Rogation Tuesday and Rogation Wednesday) immediately before Ascension Thursday in the Christian liturgical calendar. ... For other meanings see Ascension (disambiguation) The Ascension is one of the great feasts in the Christian liturgical calendar, and commemorates the bodily Ascension of Jesus into Heaven forty days after his resurrection from the dead. ... Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ...


A description of the institution and character of the Ascensiontide rogations is given by Sidonius Apollinaris[20]. The solemnity of these, he says, was first established by Mamertus. Hitherto they had been erratic, lukewarm and poorly attended (vagae, tepentes, infrequentesque); those which he instituted were characterized by fasting, prayers, psalms and tears. In the Ambrosian rite the rogations take place after Ascension, and in the Spanish on the Thursday to Saturday after Whitsuntide, and in November (Synod of Girona, 517). Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris (c. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... Note: This article is mostly about the Christian holiday of Pentecost. ...

The Anglican National Procession to Walsingham proceeds through the ruined abbey, May 2003.
The Anglican National Procession to Walsingham proceeds through the ruined abbey, May 2003.

It is impossible to describe in detail the vast development of processions during the Middle Ages. The most important and characteristic of these still have a place in the ritual of the Church of England and Roman Catholic Church. For Roman Catholics, the rules governing them are laid down in the Rituale Romanum (Tit. ix.), and they are classified in the following way: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x594, 426 KB) Procession with the statue of the Blessed Virgin, Anglican National Pilgrimage at Walsingham, 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x594, 426 KB) Procession with the statue of the Blessed Virgin, Anglican National Pilgrimage at Walsingham, 2003. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... The Rituale Romanum is one of the official books of the Roman Rite. ...

  1. Proceisiones generates, in which the whole body of the clergy takes part.
  2. Processiones ordinariae, on yearly festivals, such as the feast of the Purification of the Virgin (Candlemas), the procession on Palm Sunday or Holy Week, the Litaniae Majores and Minores, the feast of Corpus Christi, and on other days, according to the custom of the churches.
  3. Processiones extraordinariae, or processions ordered on special occasions, eg. to pray for rain or fine weather, in time of storm, famine, plague, war, or, in quacunque tribulatione, processions of thanksgiving, translation of relics, the dedication of a church or cemetery.

There are also processions of honor, for instance to meet a royal personage, or the bishop on his first entry into his diocese (Pontif. Tom. iii.). Those taking part in processions are to walk bare-headed (weather permitting), two and two, in decent costume, and with reverent mien; clergy and laity, men and women, are to walk separately. The cross is carried at the head of the procession, and banners embroidered with sacred pictures in places where this is customary; these banners must not be of military or triangular shape. Violet is the color prescribed for processions, except on the Feast of Corpus Christi, or on a day when some other color is prescribed. The officiating priest wears a cope, or at least a surplice with a violet stole, the other priests and clergy wear surplices. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. ... Candlemas (Russian: Sretenie, Spanish: Candelaria) is a Christian feast commemorating the purification of the Virgin Mary and the presentation of the infant Jesus in the Temple. ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomada Sancta) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ... A litany, in Christian worship, is a form of prayer used in church services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions. ... Corpus Christi Procession in Germany This article is about the Catholic feast of Corpus Christi. ... Violet (named after the flower violet) is used in two senses: first, referring to the color of light at the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum, approximately 380–420 nanometres (this is a spectral color). ... a priest wearing a cope The cope is a liturgical vestment, which may be of any liturgical colour, and is like a very long mantle or cloak, fastened at the breast by a clasp. ... An Anglican priest wearing a surplice as part of his choir dress. ...


Where the host is carried in procession it is covered always by a canopy, and accompanied by lights. At the litaniae majores and ininores and other penitential processions, joyful hymns are not allowed, but the litanies are sung, and, if the length of the procession requires, the penitential and gradual psalms. As to the discipline regarding processions the bishop, according to the Council of Trent (Sess. 25 de reg. cap. 6), appoints and regulates processions and public prayers outside the churches. The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


The observance or variation of the discipline belongs to the Congregation of Rites; in pontifical processions, which are regulated by the masters of the ceremonies (magistri ceremoniarum pontificalium), these points are decided by the chief cardinal deacon. As to processions within the churches, some difference of opinion having arisen as to the regulating authority, the Congregation of Rites has decided that the bishop must ask, though not necessarily follow, the advice of the chapter in their regulation. ...

The famous "Sanch Procession" celebrating the passion of the Christ (since 1461), once forbidden, is still celebrated in the French southern cities and towns of Perpignan, Arles-sur-Tech and Collioure.
The famous "Sanch Procession" celebrating the passion of the Christ (since 1461), once forbidden, is still celebrated in the French southern cities and towns of Perpignan, Arles-sur-Tech and Collioure.

Reformed Churches. The Reformation abolished in all Protestant countries those processions associated with the doctrine of transubstantiation (Corpus Christi); the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the 28th Article of Religion of the Church of England was not by Christs ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshipped. It also abolished those associated with the cult of the Blessed Virgin and the saints. The stern simplicity of Calvinism, indeed, would not tolerate religious processions of any kind, and from the Reformed Churches they vanished altogether. The more conservative temper of the Anglican and Lutheran communions, however, suffered the retention of such processions as did not conflict with the reformed doctrines, though even in these Churches they met with opposition and tended after a while to fall into disuse. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 630 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 630 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Perpignan (French: Perpignan, pronounced ; Catalan Perpinyà, pronounced ) is a commune and the préfecture (administrative capital city) of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southern France. ... Collioure (French: Collioure, pronounced ; Catalan: Cotlliure) is a seaside Mediterranean town and commune a few kilometers north of the Spanish border in the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales, a part of the ancient Roussillon province and the present-day Languedoc-Roussillon région. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological...


The Lutheran practice has varied at different times and in different countries. Thus, according to the Württemberg Kirchenordnung of 1553, a funeral procession was prescribed, the bier being followed by the congregation singing hymns; the Brandenburg Kirchenordnung (1540) directed a cross-bearer to precede the procession and lighted candles to be carried, and this was prescribed also by the Waldeck Kirchenordnung of 1556. At present funeral processions survive in general only in the country districts; the processional cross or crucifix is still carried. In some provinces also the Lutheran Church has retained the ancient rogation processions in the week before Whitsuntide and, in some cases, in the month of May or on special occasions (e.g. days of humiliation, Busstage), processions about the fields to ask a blessing on the crops. On these occasions the ancient litanies are still used. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ...


In a narrower sense of going forth, proceeding, the term is used in the technical language of theology in the phrase Procession of the Holy Ghost, expressing the relation of the Third Person in the Triune Godhead to the Father and the Son. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ...


Processions in Art

The wealth of display associated with processions makes them a rich subject for literary and visual art. Some examples include: The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844–1926). ...

  • a spectacular procession introduces Prince Akeem's appointed bride in the film Coming to America
  • a utopian parade is depicted by James Gurney in his Dinosaur Parade
  • elaborate Chinese wedding processions feature in the films Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and The Last Emperor
  • in the film Pillow Book, the heroine compares her wedding procession with the procession of a Heian Period empress. In another film by the same director, Peter Greenaway, the act of Prospero simply walking through his house becomes a lush, visual procession due to the wealth of literary and visual symbolism which fills it
  • Processions appear in several Star Wars films, including award ceremonies at the end of Phantom Menace and New Hope, a funeral procession at the end of Revenge of the Sith, and a military procession during Return of the Jedi
  • Processions were popular subjects for the Romantic painters of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fantastical Ludwig II of Bavaria was the subject of Sleigh Ride by Wenig. Spring, a painting by Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema, displays a romanticized Roman procession, while his Finding of Moses shows an heiress of the Pharaoh proceeding to the palace with her entourage. The exotic Queen of Sheba's Visit to King Solomon by Edward Poynter touches on a longstanding convention of elaborate processions from "the East". Walter Crane depicted Beauty being escorted by wigged monkeys in his 1874 Beauty and the Beast.
  • the Buddha discovers death, old age, and poverty while lording over an elaborate procession in the film Little Buddha
  • the film Jefferson in Paris includes a scene during which Thomas Jefferson and his daughter watch one of the daily processions which make up the royal ritual at Versailles
  • the formal procession of British soldiers is contrasted to native stealth in the film Last of the Mohicans
  • the funeral procession of Elizabeth I of England is portrayed in the film Orlando
  • the god Ra appears in a formal procession shortly before being overthrown in the film Stargate
  • the opera Aida is known for its triumphal procession. The first staging included a live elephant on stage.
  • the procession of Audrey Hepburn as an Italian princess set up the dilemma of her character at the beginning of the film Roman Holiday
  • the procession of Prince Ali in the Disney film Aladdin allows the hero to show off his newfound prestige
  • the processions of Tarkhaans and Tarkheenas are emblematic of Tashbaan's wealth and glamour in the book The Horse and His Boy by C. S. Lewis
  • the procession of the wicked Skeksis into their regeneration chamber, and the following procession of their spiritual counterparts, the Mystics, marks the climax of the film Dark Crystal
  • the triumphal procession of Helen and Paris into Troy begins the 2004 film of the same name

For the reality television series starring Victoria Beckham, see Victoria Beckham: Coming to America. ... James Gurney (born 1958) is an artist, best known as the creator and illustrator of the Dinotopia books. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a Chinese-language wuxia (chivalric and martial arts) 2000 Academy Award winning film. ... The Last Emperor is a 1987 biopic about the life of PÇ”yí, the last Emperor of China. ... The Pillow Book (枕草子, makura no sōshi) was a book of observations and musings recorded by Sei Shōnagon during her time as court lady to Empress Sadako during the 990s in Heian Japan. ... This article is about the type of character. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Peter Greenaway Peter Greenaway (b. ... Prospero and Miranda by William Maw Egley Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Prospero Prospero is the protagonist in The Tempest, a play by William Shakespeare. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace is a 1999 film by George Lucas starring Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, and Jake Lloyd. ... New Hope is the name of some places in the United States of America: New Hope, Minnesota New Hope, Pennsylvania A New Hope is also the subtitle of the first Star Wars film. ... Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith is the third episode of the Star Wars film series (but the sixth film to be produced), to be released on Thursday, May 19, 2005. ... Movie poster Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, is a science fiction film that debuted in 1983, and re-released with changes in 1997 and 2004. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm (August 25, 1845 – June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. ... Categories: Artist stubs | 1836 births | 1912 deaths | British painters | Dutch painters ... Edward Poynter: Cave of the Storm Nymphs Sir Edward John Poynter (March 20, 1836 - July 26, 1919) was a British painter. ... Walter Crane (August 15, 1845 - March 14, 1915) was a significant English artist. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Little Buddha is a 1993 movie by director Bernardo Bertolucci and starring Bridget Fonda and Keanu Reeves. ... Jefferson in Paris is a 1995 movie about the US historical figure Thomas Jefferson before he becomes US President. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Last of the Mohicans is an epic novel by James Fenimore Cooper, first published in January 1826. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Orlando is a 1992 movie, based on Virginia Woolfs novel Orlando: A Biography, starring Tilda Swinton as Orlando, and Quentin Crisp as Queen Elizabeth. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An activated Stargate, the central object of the fictional Stargate universe, here depicted in the SG-1 television series. ... AIDA is an acronym used in marketing that describes a common list of events that are very often undergone when a person is selling a product or service: A - Attention (Awareness): attract the attention of the customer. ... Audrey Hepburn (May 4, 1929 – January 20, 1993) was an Academy Award-winning Anglo-Dutch actress of film and theatre, Broadway stage performer, ballerina, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... Princess is the feminine form of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen). ... Roman Holiday is a 1953 romantic comedy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aladdin in the Magic Garden, an illustration by Max Liebert from Ludwig Fuldas Aladin und die Wunderlampe Aladdin (an adaptation of the Arabic name , Arabic: علاء الدين literally nobility of faith) is one of the tales with an Ancient Arabian origin[1] in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights... Tarkhan or Tarkhaan is an ancient Turkic rank, apparently a compound with the ambivalent title khan. ... Cover of a recent edition of The Horse and His Boy The Horse and His Boy is a novel by C.S. Lewis. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Skeksis (specifically skekUng the General) on permanent display at The Center for Puppetry Arts in Atlanta, GA The Skeksis are the corrupt rulers of the planet Thra in the film The Dark Crystal. ... Cover art from the 2004 Region 2 DVD The Dark Crystal is a 1982 fantasy film by Jim Henson. ... Helen, detail from an Attic red-figure krater, ca. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dahremberg and Saglio, s.v. Consul.
  2. ^ See Preller, Rm. Mythologie, pp. 370-372.
  3. ^ Du Cange, s.v.
  4. ^ Ep. IX. ad Diosc. episc. c. 445: qui nostris processionibus et ordinationibus frequenter interfuit.
  5. ^ Smith, Dic. of Class. Antiq. s.v. Procession.
  6. ^ See Louis Duchesne, Origines, 2nd ed., pp. 77, 154, 181; 78, 194.
  7. ^ c. 375.
  8. ^ c. 388, Ep. 40 16, Ad Theodos. monachos ... qui psalmos canentes ex consuetudine usuque veteri pergebant ad celebritatem Machabaeorum martyrum.
  9. ^ Hist. eccl. viii. 8.
  10. ^ Vita S. Remig. I.
  11. ^ Ep. xi. 57.
  12. ^ See Gregory of Tours, Hist. Fr. x. i, and Johann. Diac. Vita Greg. Magn. i. 42.
  13. ^ See e.g. St Ambrose, Ep. 29 and St Augustine, De civitate Dei, xxii. 8 and Conf. viii. 7, for the finding and translation of the relics of Saints Gervasius and Protasius.
  14. ^ Josh. vi.
  15. ^ 2 Sam. vi.
  16. ^ Origines, ch. i.
  17. ^ Alte Bittgange, in Zeller, Philosophische Aufsatze, p. 278 seq.
  18. ^ Fasti praenestini, C.T.L.T., p. 317.
  19. ^ Regist. ii.
  20. ^ Ep. v. 14.

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