FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Process philosophy

Process philosophy identifies metaphysical reality with change and dynamism. The majority of metaphysics since the time of Plato, on the other hand, usually posits a "timeless" metaphysical reality of substances, objects, or things, while processes are denied or subordinated to timeless objects. Process philosophy reverses this trend, favoring "Becoming" over "Being" and "Non-being" which logically follows from Being, that is to say, it does not characterize change as illusory but as the cornerstone of metaphysical reality, or ontology. Modern process philosophers include Henri Bergson, Charles Peirce, John Dewey, Alfred North Whitehead, Charles Hartshorne, Nicholas Rescher, and Gilles Deleuze, a list to which some add Arthur Schopenhauer and even Friedrich Nietzsche. Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Look up Change in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dynamism is a term coined by libertarian pundit Virginia Postrel to describe her social philosophy that embraces cultural change, individual choice, and the open society. ... Plato (ancient Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Look up substance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Charles Sanders Peirce (pronounced purse), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was a prominent philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics. ... Nicholas Rescher (born July 15, 1928 in Hagen, Germany) is an American philosopher, affiliated for many years with the University of Pittsburgh, where he is currently University Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the Center for Philosophy of Science. ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860, [1] IPA: ) was a German philosopher, often considered a pessimist. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philologist and philosopher. ...

Contents

History

The formal development of this theory begins with Heraclitus's fragments in which he posits the noumenon (not to be confused with Kant's "Ding an sich"), the ground of Becoming, as agon or "strife of opposites" as the underlying basis of all reality defined by change. Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Much later, Aristotle's concept of moderation, which parallels the concept in Buddhism (the two are almost contemporaries) establishes goodness or value as a function of a process in which extremes are avoided. The process, not the outcomes or ideals balanced to achieve the process, is the ultimate good. The Noble Eightfold Path may be the clearest expression of this principle in any religion before modern times, although the more legalistic process of ijtihad in Islam is likewise an assignment of trust in a process of interpretation, the result of which (Islamic law) is held to be wholly trustworthy to make life-critical decisions. More monastic traditions in both East and West tended to emphasize the process of enlightenment, often interpreted quite literally as leaving the (heavy) body behind, especially among Roman Catholic monks. As a rule, however, the Eastern traditions were more forgiving of temporary failures of will as long as they were in fact temporary. Many Buddhist and Taoist stories emphasize the value of quickly returning to one's disciplined state after a breach, and even forgetting it had occurred. Yoga-related disciplines also avoid any explicit goal-setting or measures of success. Eastern traditions almost universally invoke the concept of balance which implies multiple and contradictory pressures in, as Heraclitus suggested, ongoing "strife". Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a philosophy, and a life-enhancing system of psychology. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: अरियो अट्ठङ्गीको मग्गो, Ariyo aá¹­á¹­haá¹…giko maggo; Sanskrit: आर्याष्टाङ्गो मार्गो, Ä€rya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō) is, in the Buddhist tradition as taught by the Buddha Śākyamuni, considered to be the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... . It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Spiritual enlightenment. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... A woman practising hatha yoga Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a family of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ...


Process philosophy was not neglected during The Enlightenment but was often ignored as an attribute or element of more explicit ontology. Rene Descartes, for instance, proposed that the mind and body were actually connected and unified by a single process, the imagination. This was often discarded or devalued by Descartes' followers and critics who attributed to him (incorrectly) advocating a mind-body dualism. Very similarly, the law of the excluded middle was raised to ontological status by those of Aristotle's followers, notably those practicing medieval scholasticism, who wished to ignore some of his telling observations about moderation (the very ones that Francis Bacon celebrated) and rhetoric (which Aristotle praised, seemingly foreshadowing Descartes' imagination). ... In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Imagination is, in general, the power or process of producing mental images and ideas. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The law of excluded middle (tertium non datur in Latin) states that for any proposition P, it is true that (P or ~P). ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman and essayist but is best known for leading the scientific revolution with his new observation and experimentation theory which is the way science has been conducted ever since. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. ...


A number of other key Enlightenment figures, including those instrumental in the scientific method (especially Isaac Newton, obsessed with dreams and famously inspired by daily events, and Galileo Galilei, pioneer of diagnostic dialogue) made note of their working processes in terms that suggest change is what they seek to quantify because it is the most fundamental basis on which perception and thus reality proceeds. George Berkeley actually criticized Newton specifically for straying from this view and holding forth that certain objects existed, as opposed to perception suggesting they did. hahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahaha ... Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Bishop George Berkeley George Berkeley (British English://; Irish English: //) (12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an influential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of what has come to be called subjective idealism, summed up in his dictum, Esse est percipi (To...


By the 19th century, these views were coalescing and combining with newer sciences, most notably electromagnetism in physics and theories of harmony in music. John Keely held, in an early version of the Wave-particle duality, that all particles were outcomes of a change, one often analogized to the whitecaps upon a wave on the rolling sea: they are not themselves reasonably characterized as objects, only consequences of a change. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Electromagnetism is the force observed as static electricity, and causes the flow of electric charge (electric current) in electrical conductors. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... Harmony, Greek ἁρμονία harmonía meaning a fastening or join. The concept of harmony dates as far back as Pythagoras. ... Music is a form of art that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ...


Of other philosophers, more dominant at that time, Immanuel Kant noted that either experience made objects possible, or objects made experience possible. He seemed to have missed that processes might make both possible. Gottfried Leibniz's monads were not related to all other occasions of experience that preceded them. Reductionism was in vogue - to reduce processes (say into tasks or events) was more difficult than reducing objects. In the management science of Frederick Taylor however there was emerging a view of infinitely reducible work processes and an ontology limited to "practical" tasks - later to come into bloom with total quality management and the "six sigma" goal. Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... This article is 82 kilobytes or more in size. ... Look up Monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Descartes held that, unlike humans, animals could be reductively explained as automata – De homines 1622) Reductionism in philosophy is a theory that asserts that the nature of complex things can always be reduced to (explained by) simpler or more fundamental things. ... Management science, or MS, is the discipline of using mathematics, and other analytical methods, to help make better business decisions. ... Frederick Taylor can refer to: Frederick Winslow Taylor, an American engineer Frederick Taylor, an early hockey player Frederick Taylor, a British historian, author of This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


In 1905, the theory of general relativity curtailed exploration of pure process views and made the case for a specific and expanding universe that did exist as an objective object of our human perception and cognition. This was attractive if only for simplicity. The curiously fixed speed of light provided the basis on which a number or limit, rather than a process, could be said to be defining reality itself, at least as perceivable by beings similar to ourselves. At the same time, a philosophy of mathematics was developing that favoured some specific foundations of mathematics that could be specified as a set of axioms, again, a fixed not process-oriented description. General relativity (GR) is the geometrical theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness. It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum, not just visible light. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Foundations of mathematics is a term sometimes used for certain fields of mathematics itself, namely for mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, proof theory, model theory, and recursion theory. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


These hopes proved vain, although it remained for Russell and Whitehead to prove that so in 1913 - after which Whitehead elaborated what had been learned from attempts to escape process as the basis of ontology. This resulted in the most famous work of process philosophy—Alfred North Whitehead's Process and Reality. - a work which can be seen as a lighter and more accessible form of describing the basic Hegelian truth, namely that absolute, or "philosophical", truth can only be a logical and /or worldly "movement" in and through determinates, not these deteminates as fixed concepts or "things". Hegel is the real (modern) rootsource of what (clumsily) can be termed dialectical-dynamical-ontology, and of which process philosophy is a branch. Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... Process and Reality (1929) is Alfred North Whiteheads opus explicating the Philosophy of Organism, a philosophy of subjectivity as process itself. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


Whitehead's Process and Reality

Whitehead's background was a very unusual one for a speculative metaphysician. Educated as a mathematician, he became, through his coauthorship and 1913 publication of Principia Mathematica' with Bertrand Russell, a major logician. Later he wrote extensively on physics and its philosophy, proposing a theory of relativity rivaling Einstein's - see relativity. He was conversant with the quantum mechanics that emerged in the 1920s. Whitehead did not begin teaching and writing on process and metaphysics until he joined Harvard at 63 years of age. The Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910-1913. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... Einstein redirects here. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time distortion described in General Relativity. ... Fig. ...


The process metaphysics elaborated in Process and Reality proposes that the fundamental elements of the universe are occasions of experience. According to this notion, what people commonly think of as concrete objects are actually successions of occasions of experience. Occasions of experience can be collected into groupings; something complex such as a human being is thus a grouping of many smaller occasions of experience. According to Whitehead, everything in the universe is characterized by experience (which is not to be confused with consciousness); there is no mind-body duality under this system, because "mind" is simply seen as a very developed kind of experiencing. However, Whitehead is not an idealist in the strict sense. Whitehead's ideas were a significant development of the idea of panpsychism (also known as panexperientialism, because of Whitehead’s emphasis on experience). In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry that asserts that everything we experience is of a mental nature. ... Panpsychism, in philosophy, is either the view that all parts of matter involve mind, or the more holistic view that the whole universe is an organism that possesses a mind. ...


Whitehead's philosophy resembles in some respects the monads of Leibniz. However, unlike Leibniz's monads, Whitehead's occasions of experience are interrelated with every other occasion of experience that precedes it in time. Inherent to Whitehead's conception is the notion of time; all experiences are influenced by prior experiences, and will influence all future experiences. This process of influencing is never deterministic; an occasion of experience consists of a process of prehending other experiences, and then a reaction to it. This is the process in process philosophy. Because no process is ever deterministic, free will is essential and inherent to the universe. This article is 82 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Process philosophy, for some, gives God a special place in the universe of occasions of experience. God encompasses all the other occasions of experience but also transcends them; thus Whitehead embraces panentheism. Since, it is argued, free will is inherent to the nature of the universe, God is not omnipotent in Whitehead's metaphysics. God's role is to offer enhanced occasions of experience. God participates in the evolution of the universe by offering possibilities, which may be accepted or rejected. Whitehead's thinking here has given rise to process theology, whose prominent advocates include Charles Hartshorne, John B. Cobb, Jr., and Hans Jonas, who was also influenced by the non-theological philosopher Martin Heidegger. However, other process philosophers have questioned Whitehead's theology, seeing it as a regressive Platonism. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Panentheism (from Greek: πάν (‘pan’ ) = all, en = in, and theos = God; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Process theology (also known as neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947). ... Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was a prominent philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics. ... John Cobb John B. Cobb, Jr. ... German-born philosopher Hans Jonas (May 10, 1903 - February 5, 1993) studied under Martin Heidegger and Rudolf Bultmann in the 1920s. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was an influential German philosopher, best known as the author of Being and Time (1927). ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ...


Whitehead enumerated three essential natures of God. The primordial nature of God consists of all potentialities of existence for actual occasions, which Whitehead dubbed eternal objects. God can offer possibilities by ordering the relevance of eternal objects. The consequent nature of God prehends everything that happens in reality. As such, God experiences all of reality in a sentient manner. The last nature is the superjective. This is the way in which God’s synthesis becomes a sense-datum for other actual entities. In some sense, God is prehended by existing actual entities.


Whitehead's influences were not restricted to philosophers or physicists or mathematicians. He was influenced by the French philosopher Henri-Louis Bergson (1859-1941), who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. Process philosophy is also believed to have influenced some 20th century modernists, such as D.H. Lawrence, William Faulkner and Charles Olson.[citation needed] Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, certainly one of the most controversial, English writers of the 20th century, who wrote novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was a Nobel Prize winning novelist from Mississippi. ... Charles Olson (27 December 1910 – 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet who was a crucial link between earlier figures like Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams and the New American poets, a rubric which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat...


Process philosophy since Whitehead

Several fields of science and especially medicine seem to make liberal use of ideas in process philosophy, notably the theory of pain and healing of the late 20th century. The philosophy of medicine began to deviate somewhat from scientific method and an emphasis on repeatable results very late 20th century by embracing population thinking, and a more pragmatic approach to issues in public health, environmental health and especially mental health. In this latter field, R. D. Laing, Thomas Szasz and Michel Foucault were instrumental in moving medicine away from emphasis on "cures" and towards concepts of individuals in balance with their society, both of which are changing, and against which no benchmarks or finished "cures" were very likely to be measureable. This article is about the field and science of medical practice and health care. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Healing is the process whereby the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. ... hahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahaha ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Environmental health is defined by the World Health Organization as: Those aspects of human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment. ... Mental health is a concept that refers to a human individuals emotional and psychological well-being. ... R.D.Laing; photo credit Robert E. Haraldsen Ronald David Laing (October 7, 1927–August 23, 1989), was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness and particularly the experience of psychosis. ... Thomas Szasz. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ; English-speakers pronunciation varies) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher. ...


In psychology the subject of imagination was again explored more extensively since Whitehead, and the question of feasibility or "eternal objects" of thought became central to the impaired theory of mind explorations that framed postmodern cognitive science. A biological understanding of the most eternal object, that being the emerging of similar but independent cognitive apparatus, led to an obsession with the process "embodiment", that being, the emergence of these cognitions. Like Whitehead's God, especially as elaborated in J. J. Gibson's perceptual psychology emphasizing affordances, by ordering the relevance of eternal objects (especially the cognitions of other such actors), the world becomes. Or, it becomes simple enough for human beings to begin to make choices, and to prehend what happens as a result. These experiences may be summed in some sense but can only approximately be shared, even among very similar cognitions with identical DNA. An early explorer of this view was Alan Turing who sought to prove the limits of expressive complexity of human genes in the late 1940s, to put bounds on the complexity of human intelligence and so assess the feasibility of artificial intelligence emerging. Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Perceptual psychology - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... An affordance is a property of an object, or a feature of the immediate environment, that indicates how to interface with that object or feature. ... Alan Turing is often considered the father of modern computer science. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ...


In the philosophy of mathematics, some of Whitehead's ideas re-emerged in combination with cognitivism as the cognitive science of mathematics and embodied mind theses. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ... The cognitive science of mathematics is the study of mathematical ideas using the techniques of cognitive science. ...


Somewhat earlier, exploration of mathematical practice and quasi-empiricism in mathematics from the 1950s to 1980s had sought alternatives to metamathematics in social behaviours around mathematics itself: for instance, Paul Erdos' simultaneous belief in Platonism and a single "big book" in which all proofs existed, combined with his personal obsessive need or decision to collaborate with the widest possible number of other mathematicians. The process, rather than the outcomes, seemed to drive his explicit behaviour and odd use of language, e.g. he called God the "Supreme Fascist", echoing the role Whitehead assigned, as if the synthesis of Erdos and collaborators in seeking proofs, creating sense-datum for other mathematicians, was itself the expression of a divine will. Certainly, Erdos behaved as if nothing else in the world mattered, including money or love, as emphasized in his biography The Man Who Loved Only Numbers. In the philosophy of mathematics, mathematical practice is used to distinguish the working practices of professional mathematicians (eg. ... Quasi-empiricism in mathematics is the movement in the philosophy of mathematics to direct philosophers attention to mathematical practice, in particular, relations with physics and social sciences, rather than the foundations problem in mathematics. ... In general, metamathematics or meta-mathematics is reflection about mathematics seen as an entity/object in human consciousness and culture. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Paul Erdos Paul Erdős (March 26, 1913 – September 20, 1996) was an immensely prolific and famously eccentric mathematician who, with hundreds of collaborators, worked on problems in combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, classical analysis, approximation theory, set theory and probability theory. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Process Philosophy (7704 words)
Like American philosophy in general, process philosophy is too complex and diversified an enterprise to be captured or even dominated by any one school of thought; it is a highly diversified manifold that encompasses tendencies of thought representing a wide variety of sources.
Process metaphysics envisions a limit to determinism that makes room for creative spontaneity and novelty in the world (be it by way of random mutations with naturalistic processists or purposeful innovation with those who incline to a theologically teleological position).
Process theology accordingly contemplates a wider realm of processes that embrace both the natural and the spiritual realms and interconnect God with the vast community of worshippers in one communal state of macroprocess that encompasses and gives embodiment to such a comprehensive whole.
Process Philosophy and the New Thought Movement (1956 words)
Process philosophy, or process theology, or simply process thought, is an outlook with roots that go as far back as the thought of Heraclitus in the West and Buddhism in the East, but the most prominent philosopher in developing its present form was Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947).
The terms panexperientialism, process philosophy, process theology, process thought, and the name used by Alfred North Whitehead for his philosophy, the philosophy of organism, all are used more or less synonymously for the essence of the outlook largely shared by Whitehead, Hartshorne, and many thinkers who follow their lead.
Process New Thought is New Thought minus any instances of the fallacy of misplaced concreteness such as notions of changeless (non-growing) impersonal God, enduring substance, changeless and/or active law, and with the addition of insights from such thinkers as Whitehead and Hartshorne.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m