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Encyclopedia > Process
Illustration of a physical process: a geyser in "action".

Process (lat. processus - movement) is a naturally occurring or designed sequence of changes of properties or attributes of an object or system[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. More precisely, and from the most general systemic perspective, every process is representable as a particular trajectory (or part thereof) in a system's phase space. Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Look up Change in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An attribute is the following: Generally, an attribute is an abstraction characteristic of an entity In database management, an attribute is a property inherent in an entity or associated with that entity for database purposes. ... WordNet gives four main senses for the English noun object: a physical entity; something that is within the grasp of the senses; an aim, target or objective — see Object (task); a grammatical Object — either a direct object or an indirect object the focus of cognitions or feelings. ... System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma) is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective. ... Systems theory or general systems theory or systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. ... For other senses of this term, see phase space (disambiguation). ...


Every measurement is a process. The process of measurement is the fundamental concept in physics, and, in practice, in every field of science and engineering. Various meters Measurement is the estimation of a physical quantity such as length, temperature, or time. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ...


For the above goal-oriented reason, from the industrial managerial point of view, the following inputs can be initially applied in an engineering process specification: people, machines and tools, materials, energy, information, professional knowledge, capital, time and space [8].


Examples

  • From an engineering perspective, industrial and environmental processes relate to the sequence of operations and involved events, taking up time, space, expertise or other resources, which lead/(should lead) to the production of some outcome. The changes they may create in the properties of one or more objects under their influence are especially important for their identification and design. Compare: project
  • From mathematical and physical perspectives processes are categorized, for example, as continuous, discrete, convergent, asymptotic, incremental, singular[disambiguation needed], recurrent and periodic.

A singular process would be one which has a singular property or occurs rarely. The word operation can mean any of several things: The method, act, process, or effect of using a device or system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... Expertise is the property of a person (that is, expert) or of a system which delivers a desired result such as pertinent information or skill. ... In economics, factors of production are resources used in the production of goods and services. ... A property is an intrinsic or extrinsic quality of an object—where an object may be of any differing nature, depending on the context and field — be it computing, philosophy, etc. ... Influence Science and Practice (ISBN 0321188950) is a Psychology book examining the key ways people can be influenced by Compliance Professionals. The books authors is Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. ... A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service[1]. // The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, to throw something forwards which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word... The word singular may refer to one of several concepts. ... Recurrent redirects here; for the meaning of recurrent in CHR airplay, see Recurrent rotation. ... Periodicity is the quality of occurring at regular intervals (e. ...


Few processes in nature can be considered singular. Most processes found in nature are recurrent, or repeat more than once. Recurring processes which repeat at a constant rate are considered periodic. The more periodic a process is the more useful it is as the basis of a clock. Various specific processes: The massive clock on the Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, London (commonly known as Big Ben, although Big Ben is the bell inside - the picture is St Stephens Tower). ...

Bessemer converter, schematic diagram The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. ... Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Binomial name Raphus cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Former range (in red) Synonyms Struthio cucullatus Linnaeus, 1758 Didus ineptus Linnaeus 1766 Probably the earliest accurate drawings of a dodo (1601–1603). ... “Learned” redirects here. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills obtained thru time. ... Process music or systems music is music which arises from a process, and more specifically, music which makes that process audible. ... Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts—the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... Conflict resolution or conflictology is the process of attempting to resolve a dispute or a conflict. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Forward error correction. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... An overview of protein synthesis. ...

Notes and References

  1. ^ Francis Rawle's (1914) revision of John Bouvier (1839), Law Dictionary p.2731: Process
  2. ^ "Process" Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
  3. ^ Wilbur B. Davenport, Jr. and William L. Root (1958) An introduction to the theory of Random Signals and Noise LCC 57-10020. p.39: Random Processes
  4. ^ Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands (1963) The Feynman Lectures on Physics ISBN 0-201-02010-6 p.1-5: Atomic processes
  5. ^ F. Reif (1965) Statistical Physics volume 5 of the Berkeley Physics Course ISBN 0700486229 pp.49-50, 127-135
  6. ^ S. Giedion (1948) Mechanization takes Command: a contribution to anonymous history Processed food: pp. 42, 78, 186, 224-5
  7. ^ Ovid Eshbach and Mott Souders (eds.) (1936, 1952, 1975) Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals ISBN 0-471-24553-4 pp.875-880: processes and state changes for fluids
  8. ^ Elihu M. Goldratt (1992) The Goal: a process of ongoing improvement ISBN 0-88427-061-0 as cited in Robert K. Wysocki et.al. Effective Project Management ISBN 0-471-43221-0
  • Nelson Wax (ed.) (1954) Selected papers on Noise and Stochastic Processes: J. L. Doob, L. S. Ornstein, Ming Chen Wang, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Kac, G. E. Uhlenbeck, S. O. Rice ISBN 0-486-60262-1, which drew upon a symposium on stochastic processes, with applications to physics, documented in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Volume II, No.2, 1949 pp. 150-282

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
process.tigris.org (116 words)
The software process improvment movement really took hold in the 1990's.
It focused the attention of software engineering on development process rather than on specific tools or technologies.
This category holds projects that define or support software development processes and links to supporting background information.
Jumsoft | Process (1228 words)
The Process window not only gives you full control over your projects, it efficiently links you to all the resources you need to complete them—including real-time connections with any networked colleagues, students or business associates who might be working on projects with you.
Some might categorize Process as a flexible outlining and project management application, but we like to think of it as the interface between mind and matter—your mind and everything that matters to you.
Our aim was to incorporate into Process not only the powerful, catlike reflexes of a tiger, but also the big cat’s furtiveness in order to make your interface experience as instinctive and unconscious as possible.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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