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Encyclopedia > Procedural knowledge

Procedural knowledge or know-how is the knowledge of how to perform some task. See below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and intellectual property law. A how-to is an informal, often short, description of how to accomplish some specific task. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... In law, intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain types of information, ideas, or other intangibles in their expressed form. ...


Know-how is different from other kinds of knowledge such as propositional knowledge in that it can be directly applied to a task. Procedural knowledge about solving problems differs from propositional knowledge about problem solving. For example, in some legal systems, this knowledge or know-how has been considered the intellectual property of a company, and can be transferred when that company is purchased. Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Propositional knowledge or declarative knowledge is knowledge that some proposition is either true or false. ... In common language, a task is part of a set of actions which accomplish a job; the sense is that useful work is getting done. Task analysis is the analysis or a breakdown of exactly how a task is accomplished, such as what sub-tasks are required. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... In law, intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain types of information, ideas, or other intangibles in their expressed form. ...


One limitation of procedural knowledge is its job-dependence; thus it tends to be less general than propositional knowledge. For example, a computer expert might have knowledge about a computer algorithm in multiple languages, or in pseudo-code, whereas a Visual Basic programmer might only know about a specific implementation of that algorithm, written in Visual Basic. Thus the 'hands-on' expertise and experience of the Visual Basic programmer might be of commercial value only to Microsoft job-shops, for example. Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ...


One advantage of procedural knowledge is that it can involve more senses, such as hands-on experience, practice at solving problems, understanding of the limitations of a specific solution, etc. Thus know-how can frequently eclipse theory. Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ...

Contents

Procedural knowledge in artificial intelligence

In artificial intelligence, procedural knowledge is one type of knowledge that can be possessed by an intelligent agent. Such knowledge is often represented as a partial or complete finite-state machine or computer program. A well-known example is the Procedural Reasoning System, which might, in the case of a mobile robot that navigates in a building, contain procedures such as "navigate to a room" or "plan a path". In contrast, an AI system based on declarative knowledge might just contain a map of the building, together with information about the basic actions that can be done by the robot (like moving forward, turning, and stopping), and leave it to a domain-independent planning algorithm to discover how to use those actions to achieve the agent's goals. Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... Simple reflex agent Learning agent In computer science, an intelligent agent (IA) is a software agent that exhibits some form of artificial intelligence. ... In the theory of computation, a finite state machine (FSM) or finite state automaton (FSA) is an abstract machine that has only a finite, constant amount of memory. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... The Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is a popular agent architecture in artificial intelligence systems. ... Propositional knowledge or declarative knowledge is knowledge that some proposition is either true or false. ... Automated planning and scheduling is a branch of artificial intelligence that concerns the realisation of strategies or action sequences, typically for execution by intelligent agents, autonomous robots and unmanned vehicles. ...


Procedural knowledge in cognitive psychology

In cognitive psychology, the term procedural knowledge denotes knowledge of how to accomplish a task, and often pertains to knowledge which unlike declarative knowledge cannot be easily articulated by the individual, or knowledge that is nonconscious. For example, most individuals can easily recognize a specific face as "attractive" or a specific joke as "funny," but they cannot explain how exactly they arrived at that conclusion or they cannot provide a working definition of "attractiveness" or being "funny." Research by a cogntive psychologist Pawel Lewicki has deomstrated that procedural knowledge can be acquired by nonconscious processing of information about covariations. Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Propositional knowledge or declarative knowledge is knowledge that some proposition is either true or false. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ...


Procedural knowledge in intellectual property law

In intellectual property law, the know-how is a parcel of closely-held information relating to industrial technology, sometimes also referred to as a trade secret which enables its user to derive commercial benefit from it. It is a component of the intellectual property rights on its own merits in most legislations but most often accompanies the license to the right-of-use of patents or trademarks owned by the party releasing it for circumscribed use. Knowhow does not however solely comprise of secret information that is not in the public domain; it is a "bundled" parcel of secret and related non-secret information which would be novel to an expert in the field of its usage. In law, intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain types of information, ideas, or other intangibles in their expressed form. ... In law, intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain types of information, ideas, or other intangibles in their expressed form. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information used by a business to obtain an advantage over competitors within the same industry or profession. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee (the inventor or assignee) for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which... A trademark, trade mark, ™ or ®[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an organization to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the organization and its products or services from those of other organizations. ...


See also

In mathematics, computing, linguistics and related disciplines, an algorithm is a procedure (a finite set of well-defined instructions) for accomplishing some task which, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the species of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions. ... A descriptive science, also called a special science, is a form of inquiry, typically involving a community of inquiry and its accumulated body of provisional knowledge, that seeks to discover what is true about a recognized domain of phenomena. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... Heuristic is the art and science of discovery and invention. ... A how-to is an informal, often short, description of how to accomplish some specific task. ... An idea (Greek: ιδέα) is a specific thought which arises in the mind. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration, to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... This article or section should include material from Episteme Epistemology (from the Greek words episteme=science and logos=word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... hahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahaha ... The three normative sciences, according to traditional conceptions in philosophy, are aesthetics, ethics, and logic. ... Procedural memory, also known as implicit memory, is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or how to knowledge. ... Trial and error is a method for obtaining knowledge, both propositional knowledge and know-how. ...

External links

  • Wikihowto - a proposed Wikimedia project
  • FAQ of the Know-how Wiki for How to Solve It
  • Google Video - Will Wright's Games Developers Conference senimar/lecture in March 2006 about procedure vs. data, featuring his upcoming game Spore

  Results from FactBites:
 
Procedural knowledge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (233 words)
Procedural knowledge or know-how is the knowledge of how to perform some task.
One limitation of procedural knowledge is its job-dependence; thus it tends to be less general than propositional knowledge.
One advantage of procedural knowledge is that it can involve more senses, such as hands-on experience, practice at solving problems, understanding of the limitations of a specific solution, etc. Thus know-how can frequently eclipse theory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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