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Encyclopedia > Probus
Probus
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Bust of Probus
Reign 276 - September/October, 282
Full name Marcus Aurelius Probus
Born c. August 19, 232
Birthplace Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)
Died September/October, 282
Place of death Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)
Predecessor Florianus
Successor Carus
This antoninianus minted under Probus (c. 280) shows the solar divinity Sol Invictus riding a quadriga. Probus issued many different coins during his six years of rule.

Marcus Aurelius Probus (c. August 19, 232–September/October, 282) was a Roman Emperor (276–282). Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (602x800, 65 KB)Bust of the Emperor Probus, in the Capitoline Museum in Rome. ... Events Sassanid Shah Bahram II succeeded Bahram I. Probus became Roman Emperor. ... Events Carus becomes Roman emperor A new city was constructed in Fuzhou slightly south of the original city Ye. ... Ruins of Sirmium Julian solidus, ca. ... Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia at 44. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Events Carus becomes Roman emperor A new city was constructed in Fuzhou slightly south of the original city Ye. ... Ruins of Sirmium Julian solidus, ca. ... Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia at 44. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Hercules crowning Florianus. ... Marcus Aurelius Carus (c. ... Image File history File links Coin of Roman emperor Probus. ... Image File history File links Coin of Roman emperor Probus. ... Row 1: Elagabalus (silver 218-222AD), Trajan Decius (silver 249-251AD), Gallienus (billon 253-268AD Asian mint) Row 2: Gallienus (copper 253-268AD), Aurelian (silvered 270-275AD), barbarous radiate (copper), barbarous radiate (copper) The antoninianus was a coin used during the Roman Empire that was valued at 2 denarii. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... A quadriga (from the Latin language quadri-, four, and jungere, to yoke) is a four-horse chariot, raced in the Olympic Games and other sacred games, and represented in profile as the usual chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and bas-reliefs. ... Events Carus becomes Roman emperor A new city was constructed in Fuzhou slightly south of the original city Ye. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Events Sassanid Shah Bahram II succeeded Bahram I. Probus became Roman Emperor. ...


A native of Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia), in Pannonia, at an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the Emperors Valerian, Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers (276). Ruins of Sirmium Julian solidus, ca. ... Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia at 44. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Publius Licinius Valerianus[1] (c. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Emperor Tacitus on a coin. ...


Florianus, who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops after an indecisive campaign. Probus moved to the West, defeated the Goths acquiring the title of Gothicus (280), and saw his position ratified by the Senate. Hercules crowning Florianus. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers. The most important of these operations were directed to clearing Gaul of German invaders (Franks, Longiones, Alamanni and Burgundians), allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


In 279-280, Probus was, according to Zosimus, in Raetia, Illyricum and Lycia, where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus' generals defeated the Blemmyes in Aegyptus Province; Probus ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. Events Births Deaths Categories: 279 ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... One of the Blemmyes, from a 1544 woodcut illustrating the Cosmographia by Sebastian Münster. ... The Roman Empire ca. ...


In 280-281, Probus had also put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems[1]. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Events Births Deaths Categories: 281 ... Roman emperor Iulius Saturninus (died 280) was a Gaul by birth (others have him as a Moor) and was a friend of the emperor Probus. ... Proculus derived his origin from the Franks. ... Gallus Quintus Bonosus was a Roman usurper. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ...


Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, moving first towards Sirmium, his birth city, when the news that Marcus Aurelius Carus, commander of the Praetorian Guard, had been proclaimed emperor reached him. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus's soldiers then assassinated him (September/October 282). Marcus Aurelius Carus (c. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ...

Contents

Notes

  1. ^ An inscription with the name of Probus erased has been found as far as Spain[1]

References

Primary Sources

Sextus Aurelius Victor (ca. ... Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... Joannes (John) Zonaras, Byzantine chronicler and theologian, flourished at Constantinople in the 12th century. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ...

Secondary Sources

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Preceded by
Florianus
Roman Emperor
276–282
Succeeded by
Carus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Emperors - DIR probus (2898 words)
Aurelius Probus was most likely born in Sirmium in 232 A.D. It is difficult to reconstruct Probus' career before he became emperor because of the unreliable nature of the account in the Historia Augusta, but it is certainly possible that he was a tribune under Valerian.
Probus was too anxious to push ahead with his plans for an invasion of Persia, which had been postponed due to the revolts and unrest in the West, and, to this end, he left Rome in 282 and proceeded first to his native town of Sirmium when news came that M.
Westermann, W.L. "The Papyri and the Chronology of the Reign of the Emperor Probus." Aegyptus 1 (1920): 297-301.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Marcus Aurelius Probus (384 words)
Probus settled foreign colonists in all the boundary provinces.
Probus roused them to revolt; in Rhaetia the prefect of the guard, Marcus Aurelius Carus, was proclaimed emperor.
Probus joined the rebels, and the emperor himself was killed near his birthplace.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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